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Subject[RFC v2] printk: allow increasing the ring buffer depending on the number of CPUs
Date
From: "Luis R. Rodriguez" <mcgrof@suse.com>

The default size of the ring buffer is too small for machines
with a large amount of CPUs under heavy load. What ends up
happening when debugging is the ring buffer overlaps and chews
up old messages making debugging impossible unless the size is
passed as a kernel parameter. An idle system upon boot up will
on average spew out only about one or two extra lines but where
this really matters is on heavy load and that will vary widely
depending on the system and environment.

There are mechanisms to help increase the kernel ring buffer
for tracing through debugfs, and those interfaces even allow growing
the kernel ring buffer per CPU. We also have a static value which
can be passed upon boot. Relying on debugfs however is not ideal
for production, and relying on the value passed upon bootup is
can only used *after* an issue has creeped up. Instead of being
reactive this adds a proactive measure which lets you scale the
amount of contributions you'd expect to the kernel ring buffer
under load by each CPU in the worst case scenerio.

We use num_possible_cpus() to avoid complexities which could be
introduced by dynamically changing the ring buffer size at run
time, num_possible_cpus() lets us use the upper limit on possible
number of CPUs therefore avoiding having to deal with hotplugging
CPUs on and off. This introduces the kernel configuration option
LOG_CPU_MIN_BUF_SHIFT which is used to specify the maximum amount
of contributions to the kernel ring buffer in the worst case before
the kernel ring buffer flips over, the size is specified as a power
of 2. The total amount of contributions made by each CPU must be
greater than half of the default kernel ring buffer size
(1 << LOG_BUF_SHIFT bytes) in order to trigger an increase upon
bootup. For example if LOG_BUF_SHIFT is 18 (256 KB) you'd require at
least 128 KB contributions by other CPUs in order to trigger an
increase. With a LOG_CPU_BUF_SHIFT of 12 (4 KB) you'd require at
least anything over > 64 possible CPUs to trigger an increase. If
you had 128 possible CPUs your kernel buffer size would be:

((1 << 18) + ((128 - 1) * (1 << 12))) / 1024 = 764 KB

This value is ignored when "log_buf_len" kernel parameter is used
as it forces the exact size of the ring buffer to an expected value.

Cc: Michal Hocko <mhocko@suse.cz>
Cc: Petr Mladek <pmladek@suse.cz>
Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Joe Perches <joe@perches.com>
Cc: Arun KS <arunks.linux@gmail.com>
Cc: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr@hp.com>
Cc: Chris Metcalf <cmetcalf@tilera.com>
Cc: linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org
Signed-off-by: Luis R. Rodriguez <mcgrof@suse.com>
---
Documentation/kernel-parameters.txt | 16 +++++++++++++++-
init/Kconfig | 38 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
kernel/printk/printk.c | 12 ++++++++++++
3 files changed, 65 insertions(+), 1 deletion(-)

diff --git a/Documentation/kernel-parameters.txt b/Documentation/kernel-parameters.txt
index 30a8ad0d..98ec002 100644
--- a/Documentation/kernel-parameters.txt
+++ b/Documentation/kernel-parameters.txt
@@ -1647,7 +1647,21 @@ bytes respectively. Such letter suffixes can also be entirely omitted.

log_buf_len=n[KMG] Sets the size of the printk ring buffer,
in bytes. n must be a power of two. The default
- size is set in the kernel config file.
+ size is set in the kernel config file. If you want
+ a more proactive solution on *large* production systems
+ consider using CONFIG_LOG_CPU_MIN_BUF_SHIFT which
+ can be used to increase the kernel ring buffer
+ under the assumption that each CPU will contribute
+ a CONFIG_LOG_CPU_MIN_BUF_SHIFT << 1 bytes to the kernel
+ ring buffer in the worst case scenario. The kernel
+ ring buffer will be increased upon bootup if and only
+ if the amount of extra logging expected to be
+ contributed by all CPUs will be greater than half of
+ CONFIG_LOG_BUF_SHIFT << 1 bytes. With defaults of
+ LOG_BUF_SHIFT of 18 and LOG_CPU_MIN_BUF_SHIFT at 12
+ a system would require more than 64 possible CPUs to
+ trigger an increase over the default kernel ring buffer
+ at bootup.

logo.nologo [FB] Disables display of the built-in Linux logo.
This may be used to provide more screen space for
diff --git a/init/Kconfig b/init/Kconfig
index 9d3585b..2e425d7 100644
--- a/init/Kconfig
+++ b/init/Kconfig
@@ -806,6 +806,44 @@ config LOG_BUF_SHIFT
13 => 8 KB
12 => 4 KB

+config LOG_CPU_MIN_BUF_SHIFT
+ int "CPU kernel log buffer size contribution (13 => 8 KB, 17 => 128KB)"
+ range 0 21
+ default 12
+ depends on SMP
+ depends on !BASE_SMALL
+ help
+ The kernel ring buffer will get additional data logged onto it
+ when multiple CPUs are supported. Typically the contributions are
+ only a few lines when idle however under under load this can vary
+ and in the worst case it can mean losing logging information. You
+ can use this to set the maximum expected mount of amount of logging
+ contribution under load by each CPU in the worst case scenerio, as
+ a power of 2. The total amount of contributions made by each CPU
+ must be greater than half of the default kernel ring buffer size
+ (1 << LOG_BUF_SHIFT bytes) in order to trigger an increase upon
+ bootup. For example if LOG_BUF_SHIFT is 18 (256 KB) you're require
+ at least 128 KB contributions by other CPUs in order to trigger
+ an increase. With a LOG_CPU_BUF_SHIFT of 12 (4 KB) you'd require
+ at least anything over > 64 possible CPUs to trigger an increase.
+ If you had 128 possible CPUs your kernel buffer size would be:
+
+ ((1 << 18) + ((128 - 1) * (1 << 12))) / 1024 = 764 KB
+
+ This value is ignored when "log_buf_len" kernel parameter is used
+ as it forces the exact size of the ring buffer to an expected value.
+ The number of possible CPUs is used for this computation ignoring
+ hotplugging making the compuation optimal for the the worst case
+ scenerio while allowing a simple algorithm to be used from bootup.
+
+ Examples shift values and their meaning:
+ 17 => 128 KB for each CPU
+ 16 => 64 KB for each CPU
+ 15 => 32 KB for each CPU
+ 14 => 16 KB for each CPU
+ 13 => 8 KB for each CPU
+ 12 => 4 KB for each CPU
+
#
# Architectures with an unreliable sched_clock() should select this:
#
diff --git a/kernel/printk/printk.c b/kernel/printk/printk.c
index 7228258..3f3356b 100644
--- a/kernel/printk/printk.c
+++ b/kernel/printk/printk.c
@@ -246,6 +246,7 @@ static u32 clear_idx;
#define LOG_ALIGN __alignof__(struct printk_log)
#endif
#define __LOG_BUF_LEN (1 << CONFIG_LOG_BUF_SHIFT)
+#define __LOG_CPU_MIN_BUF_LEN (1 << CONFIG_LOG_CPU_MIN_BUF_SHIFT)
static char __log_buf[__LOG_BUF_LEN] __aligned(LOG_ALIGN);
static char *log_buf = __log_buf;
static u32 log_buf_len = __LOG_BUF_LEN;
@@ -752,6 +753,17 @@ void __init setup_log_buf(int early)
unsigned long flags;
char *new_log_buf;
int free;
+ int cpu_extra = (num_possible_cpus() - 1) * __LOG_CPU_MIN_BUF_LEN;
+
+ /*
+ * If you set log_buf_len=n kernel parameter LOG_CPU_MIN_BUF_SHIFT will
+ * be ignored. LOG_CPU_MIN_BUF_SHIFT is a proactive measure for large
+ * systems. With a LOG_BUF_SHIFT of 18 and LOG_CPU_MIN_BUF_SHIFT 12 at
+ * we'd require more than 64 CPUs to trigger an increase from the
+ * default.
+ */
+ if (!new_log_buf_len && (cpu_extra > __LOG_BUF_LEN / 2))
+ new_log_buf_len = __LOG_BUF_LEN + cpu_extra;

if (!new_log_buf_len)
return;
--
2.0.0.rc3.18.g00a5b79


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