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SubjectRe: [PATCH 2/2] nohz: use delayed iowait accounting to avoid race on idle time stats
(2014/04/15 19:04), Peter Zijlstra wrote:
> On Thu, Apr 10, 2014 at 06:13:54PM +0900, Hidetoshi Seto wrote:
>> This patch is v3 of patch set to fix an issue that idle/iowait
>> of /proc/stat can go backward. Originally reported by Tetsuo and
>> Fernando at last year, Mar 2013.
>>
>> [BACKGROUNDS]: idle accounting on NO_HZ
>>
>> If NO_HZ is enabled, cpu stops tick interrupt for itself before
>> go sleep to be idle. It means that time stats of the sleeping cpu
>> will not be updated in tick interrupt. Instead when cpu wakes up,
>> it updates time stats by calculating idle duration time from
>> timestamp at entering idle and current time as exiting idle.
>>
>> OTOH, it can happen that there are some kind of observer who want
>> to know how long the sleeping cpu have been idle. Imagine that
>> userland runs top command or application who read /proc/stats.
>> Therefore kernel provides get_cpu_{idle,iowait}_time_us() function
>> for user to obtain current idle time stats of such sleeping cpu.
>> This function reads time stats and timestamp at entering idle,
>> and then return current idle time by adding duration calculated
>> from timestamp and current time.
>>
>> There are 2 problems:
>>
>> [PROBLEM 1]: there is no exclusive control.
>>
>> It is easy to understand that there are 2 different cpu - an
>> observing cpu where running a program observing idle cpu's stat
>> and an observed cpu where performing idle. It means race can
>> happen if observed cpu wakes up while it is observed. Observer
>> can accidentally add calculated duration time (say delta) to
>> time stats which is just updated by woken cpu. Soon correct
>> idle time is returned in next turn, so it will result in
>> backward time. Therefore readers must be excluded by writer.
>>
>> My former patch happily changes get_cpu_{idle,iowait}_time_us()
>> not to update sleeping cpu's time stats from observing cpu.
>> It makes time stats to be updated by woken cpu only, so there
>> are only one writer now!
>>
>> In summary there are races between one writer and multiple
>> reader but no exclusive control on this idle time stats dataset.
>
> This should've gone in the previous patch; as it describes what that
> does.

Yes, I've being lazy... I'll fix it.

>>
>> [PROBLEM 2]: broken iowait accounting.
>>
>> As historical nature, cpu's idle time was accounted as either
>> idle or iowait depending on the presence of tasks blocked by
>> I/O. No one complain about it for a long time. However:
>>
>> > Still trying to wrap my head around it, but conceptually
>> > get_cpu_iowait_time_us() doesn't make any kind of sense.
>> > iowait isn't per cpu since effectively tasks that aren't
>> > running aren't assigned a cpu (as Oleg already pointed out).
>> -- Peter Zijlstra
>>
>> Now some kernel folks realized that accounting iowait as per-cpu
>> does not make sense in SMP world. When we were in traditional
>> UP era, cpu is considered to be waiting I/O if it is idle while
>> nr_iowait > 0. But in these days with SMP systems, tasks easily
>> migrate from a cpu where they issued an I/O to another cpu where
>> they are queued after I/O completion.
>>
>> Back to NO_HZ mechanism. Totally terrible thing here is that
>> observer need to handle duration "delta" without knowing that
>> nr_iowait of sleeping cpu can be changed easily by migration
>> even if cpu is sleeping. So it can happen that:
>>
>> given:
>> idle time stats: idle=1000, iowait=100
>> stamp at idle entry: entry=50
>> nr tasks waiting io: nr_iowait=1
>>
>> observer temporary assigns delta as iowait at 1st place,
>> (but does not do update (=account delta to time stats)):
>> 1st reader's query @ now = 60:
>> idle=1000
>> iowait=110 (=100+(60-50))
>>
>> then blocked tasks are migrated all:
>> nr_iowait=0
>>
>> and at last in 2nd turn observer assign delta as idle:
>> 2nd reader's query @ now = 70:
>> idle=1020 (=1000+(70-50))
>> iowait=100
>>
>> You will see that iowait is decreased from 110 to 100.
>>
>> In summary iowait accounting has fundamental problem and needs
>> to be precisely reworked. It implies that some user interfaces
>> might be replaced completely. It will take long time to be
>> solved, so workaround for compatibility will be appreciated.
>
> This isn't actually true. The way the current ->nr_iowait accounting
> works is that we inc/dec against the cpu the task went to sleep on. So
> task migration won't actually affect nr_iowait. The only way to
> decrement nr_iowait is to wake a task.

You are right. I used "migration" because still I had an old thought
that "sleeping task is belonging to cpu where it went to sleep on."
I'll update description here.

> That's of course still complete crap, imagine a task going into iowait
> sleep on CPU1 at t0. At t1 it wakes on CPU0, but CPU1 stays in nohz
> sleep. Then at t2 CPU1 wakes and updates its sleep times.
>
> Between t0 and t1 a reader will observe iowait on CPU1 and report iowait
> + x; x < t1 - t0. However a reader at >=t1 will observe no iowait and
> report the old iowait time again but an increased idle time. Furthermore
> when at t2 CPU1 wakes it will observe no iowait and account the entire
> duration as idle, the iowait never happened.

I don't doubt that "per-cpu iowait is complete crap."

However I concern there is no solution yet even though we already have
spent about a year after this "counter goes backward" have reported as
regression.

[continue to your next reply]

Thanks,
H.Seto






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