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Subject[RFC PATCH v2 tip 5/7] use BPF in tracing filters
Date
Such filters can be written in C and allow safe read-only access to
any kernel data structure.
Like systemtap but with safety guaranteed by kernel.

The user can do:
cat bpf_program > /sys/kernel/debug/tracing/.../filter
if tracing event is either static or dynamic via kprobe_events.

The program can be anything as long as bpf_check() can verify its safety.
For example, the user can create kprobe_event on dst_discard()
and use logically following code inside BPF filter:
skb = (struct sk_buff *)ctx->arg1;
dev = bpf_load_pointer(&skb->dev);
to access 'struct net_device'
Since its prototype is 'int dst_discard(struct sk_buff *skb);'
bpf_load_pointer() will try to fetch 'dev' field of 'sk_buff'
structure and will suppress page-fault if pointer is incorrect.

Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@plumgrid.com>
---
include/linux/ftrace_event.h | 5 +
include/trace/bpf_trace.h | 41 ++++++++
include/trace/ftrace.h | 17 ++++
kernel/trace/Kconfig | 1 +
kernel/trace/Makefile | 1 +
kernel/trace/bpf_trace_callbacks.c | 193 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
kernel/trace/trace.c | 7 ++
kernel/trace/trace.h | 11 +-
kernel/trace/trace_events.c | 9 +-
kernel/trace/trace_events_filter.c | 61 +++++++++++-
kernel/trace/trace_kprobe.c | 15 ++-
11 files changed, 356 insertions(+), 5 deletions(-)
create mode 100644 include/trace/bpf_trace.h
create mode 100644 kernel/trace/bpf_trace_callbacks.c

diff --git a/include/linux/ftrace_event.h b/include/linux/ftrace_event.h
index 4e4cc28..616ae01 100644
--- a/include/linux/ftrace_event.h
+++ b/include/linux/ftrace_event.h
@@ -204,6 +204,7 @@ enum {
TRACE_EVENT_FL_IGNORE_ENABLE_BIT,
TRACE_EVENT_FL_WAS_ENABLED_BIT,
TRACE_EVENT_FL_USE_CALL_FILTER_BIT,
+ TRACE_EVENT_FL_BPF_BIT,
};

/*
@@ -224,6 +225,7 @@ enum {
TRACE_EVENT_FL_IGNORE_ENABLE = (1 << TRACE_EVENT_FL_IGNORE_ENABLE_BIT),
TRACE_EVENT_FL_WAS_ENABLED = (1 << TRACE_EVENT_FL_WAS_ENABLED_BIT),
TRACE_EVENT_FL_USE_CALL_FILTER = (1 << TRACE_EVENT_FL_USE_CALL_FILTER_BIT),
+ TRACE_EVENT_FL_BPF = (1 << TRACE_EVENT_FL_BPF_BIT),
};

struct ftrace_event_call {
@@ -487,6 +489,9 @@ event_trigger_unlock_commit_regs(struct ftrace_event_file *file,
event_triggers_post_call(file, tt);
}

+struct bpf_context;
+void filter_call_bpf(struct event_filter *filter, struct bpf_context *ctx);
+
enum {
FILTER_OTHER = 0,
FILTER_STATIC_STRING,
diff --git a/include/trace/bpf_trace.h b/include/trace/bpf_trace.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..3402384
--- /dev/null
+++ b/include/trace/bpf_trace.h
@@ -0,0 +1,41 @@
+/* Copyright (c) 2011-2014 PLUMgrid, http://plumgrid.com
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
+ * modify it under the terms of version 2 of the GNU General Public
+ * License as published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ */
+#ifndef _LINUX_KERNEL_BPF_TRACE_H
+#define _LINUX_KERNEL_BPF_TRACE_H
+
+struct pt_regs;
+
+struct bpf_context {
+ long arg1;
+ long arg2;
+ long arg3;
+ long arg4;
+ long arg5;
+ struct pt_regs *regs;
+};
+
+static inline void init_bpf_context(struct bpf_context *ctx, long arg1,
+ long arg2, long arg3, long arg4, long arg5)
+{
+ ctx->arg1 = arg1;
+ ctx->arg2 = arg2;
+ ctx->arg3 = arg3;
+ ctx->arg4 = arg4;
+ ctx->arg5 = arg5;
+}
+void *bpf_load_pointer(void *unsafe_ptr);
+long bpf_memcmp(void *unsafe_ptr, void *safe_ptr, long size);
+void bpf_dump_stack(struct bpf_context *ctx);
+void bpf_trace_printk(char *fmt, long fmt_size,
+ long arg1, long arg2, long arg3);
+void *bpf_table_lookup(struct bpf_context *ctx, long table_id, const void *key);
+long bpf_table_update(struct bpf_context *ctx, long table_id, const void *key,
+ const void *leaf);
+
+extern struct bpf_callbacks bpf_trace_cb;
+
+#endif /* _LINUX_KERNEL_BPF_TRACE_H */
diff --git a/include/trace/ftrace.h b/include/trace/ftrace.h
index 1a8b28d..2348afd 100644
--- a/include/trace/ftrace.h
+++ b/include/trace/ftrace.h
@@ -17,6 +17,8 @@
*/

#include <linux/ftrace_event.h>
+#include <linux/kexec.h>
+#include <trace/bpf_trace.h>

/*
* DECLARE_EVENT_CLASS can be used to add a generic function
@@ -556,6 +558,21 @@ ftrace_raw_event_##call(void *__data, proto) \
if (ftrace_trigger_soft_disabled(ftrace_file)) \
return; \
\
+ if (unlikely(ftrace_file->flags & FTRACE_EVENT_FL_FILTERED) && \
+ unlikely(ftrace_file->event_call->flags & TRACE_EVENT_FL_BPF)) { \
+ struct bpf_context _ctx; \
+ struct pt_regs _regs; \
+ void (*_fn)(struct bpf_context *, proto, \
+ long, long, long, long); \
+ crash_setup_regs(&_regs, NULL); \
+ _fn = (void (*)(struct bpf_context *, proto, long, long,\
+ long, long))init_bpf_context; \
+ _fn(&_ctx, args, 0, 0, 0, 0); \
+ _ctx.regs = &_regs; \
+ filter_call_bpf(ftrace_file->filter, &_ctx); \
+ return; \
+ } \
+ \
local_save_flags(irq_flags); \
pc = preempt_count(); \
\
diff --git a/kernel/trace/Kconfig b/kernel/trace/Kconfig
index 015f85a..2809cd1 100644
--- a/kernel/trace/Kconfig
+++ b/kernel/trace/Kconfig
@@ -80,6 +80,7 @@ config FTRACE_NMI_ENTER

config EVENT_TRACING
select CONTEXT_SWITCH_TRACER
+ select BPF64
bool

config CONTEXT_SWITCH_TRACER
diff --git a/kernel/trace/Makefile b/kernel/trace/Makefile
index 1378e84..dc4fb44 100644
--- a/kernel/trace/Makefile
+++ b/kernel/trace/Makefile
@@ -51,6 +51,7 @@ obj-$(CONFIG_EVENT_TRACING) += trace_event_perf.o
endif
obj-$(CONFIG_EVENT_TRACING) += trace_events_filter.o
obj-$(CONFIG_EVENT_TRACING) += trace_events_trigger.o
+obj-$(CONFIG_EVENT_TRACING) += bpf_trace_callbacks.o
obj-$(CONFIG_KPROBE_EVENT) += trace_kprobe.o
obj-$(CONFIG_TRACEPOINTS) += power-traces.o
ifeq ($(CONFIG_PM_RUNTIME),y)
diff --git a/kernel/trace/bpf_trace_callbacks.c b/kernel/trace/bpf_trace_callbacks.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..2b7955d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/kernel/trace/bpf_trace_callbacks.c
@@ -0,0 +1,193 @@
+/* Copyright (c) 2011-2014 PLUMgrid, http://plumgrid.com
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
+ * modify it under the terms of version 2 of the GNU General Public
+ * License as published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ */
+#include <linux/kernel.h>
+#include <linux/types.h>
+#include <linux/slab.h>
+#include <linux/bpf_jit.h>
+#include <linux/uaccess.h>
+#include <trace/bpf_trace.h>
+#include "trace.h"
+
+#define MAX_CTX_OFF sizeof(struct bpf_context)
+
+static const struct bpf_context_access ctx_access[MAX_CTX_OFF] = {
+ [offsetof(struct bpf_context, arg1)] = {
+ FIELD_SIZEOF(struct bpf_context, arg1),
+ BPF_READ
+ },
+ [offsetof(struct bpf_context, arg2)] = {
+ FIELD_SIZEOF(struct bpf_context, arg2),
+ BPF_READ
+ },
+ [offsetof(struct bpf_context, arg3)] = {
+ FIELD_SIZEOF(struct bpf_context, arg3),
+ BPF_READ
+ },
+ [offsetof(struct bpf_context, arg4)] = {
+ FIELD_SIZEOF(struct bpf_context, arg4),
+ BPF_READ
+ },
+ [offsetof(struct bpf_context, arg5)] = {
+ FIELD_SIZEOF(struct bpf_context, arg5),
+ BPF_READ
+ },
+};
+
+static const struct bpf_context_access *get_context_access(int off)
+{
+ if (off >= MAX_CTX_OFF)
+ return NULL;
+ return &ctx_access[off];
+}
+
+void *bpf_load_pointer(void *unsafe_ptr)
+{
+ void *ptr = NULL;
+
+ probe_kernel_read(&ptr, unsafe_ptr, sizeof(void *));
+ return ptr;
+}
+
+long bpf_memcmp(void *unsafe_ptr, void *safe_ptr, long size)
+{
+ char buf[64];
+ int err;
+
+ if (size < 64) {
+ err = probe_kernel_read(buf, unsafe_ptr, size);
+ if (err)
+ return err;
+ return memcmp(buf, safe_ptr, size);
+ }
+ return -1;
+}
+
+void bpf_dump_stack(struct bpf_context *ctx)
+{
+ unsigned long flags;
+
+ local_save_flags(flags);
+
+ __trace_stack_regs(flags, 0, preempt_count(), ctx->regs);
+}
+
+/*
+ * limited trace_printk()
+ * only %d %u %p %x conversion specifiers allowed
+ */
+void bpf_trace_printk(char *fmt, long fmt_size, long arg1, long arg2, long arg3)
+{
+ int fmt_cnt = 0;
+ int i;
+
+ /*
+ * bpf_check() guarantees that fmt points to bpf program stack and
+ * fmt_size bytes of it were initialized by bpf program
+ */
+ if (fmt[fmt_size - 1] != 0)
+ return;
+
+ for (i = 0; i < fmt_size; i++)
+ if (fmt[i] == '%') {
+ if (i + 1 >= fmt_size)
+ return;
+ if (fmt[i + 1] != 'p' && fmt[i + 1] != 'd' &&
+ fmt[i + 1] != 'u' && fmt[i + 1] != 'x')
+ return;
+ fmt_cnt++;
+ }
+ if (fmt_cnt > 3)
+ return;
+ __trace_printk((unsigned long)__builtin_return_address(3), fmt,
+ arg1, arg2, arg3);
+}
+
+
+static const struct bpf_func_proto *get_func_proto(char *strtab, int id)
+{
+ if (!strcmp(strtab + id, "bpf_load_pointer")) {
+ static const struct bpf_func_proto proto = {RET_INTEGER};
+ return &proto;
+ }
+ if (!strcmp(strtab + id, "bpf_memcmp")) {
+ static const struct bpf_func_proto proto = {RET_INTEGER,
+ INVALID_PTR, PTR_TO_STACK_IMM,
+ CONST_ARG_STACK_IMM_SIZE};
+ return &proto;
+ }
+ if (!strcmp(strtab + id, "bpf_dump_stack")) {
+ static const struct bpf_func_proto proto = {RET_VOID,
+ PTR_TO_CTX};
+ return &proto;
+ }
+ if (!strcmp(strtab + id, "bpf_trace_printk")) {
+ static const struct bpf_func_proto proto = {RET_VOID,
+ PTR_TO_STACK_IMM, CONST_ARG_STACK_IMM_SIZE};
+ return &proto;
+ }
+ if (!strcmp(strtab + id, "bpf_table_lookup")) {
+ static const struct bpf_func_proto proto = {
+ PTR_TO_TABLE_CONDITIONAL, PTR_TO_CTX,
+ CONST_ARG_TABLE_ID, PTR_TO_STACK_IMM_TABLE_KEY};
+ return &proto;
+ }
+ if (!strcmp(strtab + id, "bpf_table_update")) {
+ static const struct bpf_func_proto proto = {RET_INTEGER,
+ PTR_TO_CTX, CONST_ARG_TABLE_ID,
+ PTR_TO_STACK_IMM_TABLE_KEY,
+ PTR_TO_STACK_IMM_TABLE_ELEM};
+ return &proto;
+ }
+ return NULL;
+}
+
+static void execute_func(char *strtab, int id, u64 *regs)
+{
+ regs[R0] = 0;
+
+ /*
+ * strcmp-approach is not efficient.
+ * TODO: optimize it for poor archs that don't have JIT yet
+ */
+ if (!strcmp(strtab + id, "bpf_load_pointer")) {
+ regs[R0] = (u64)bpf_load_pointer((void *)regs[R1]);
+ } else if (!strcmp(strtab + id, "bpf_memcmp")) {
+ regs[R0] = (u64)bpf_memcmp((void *)regs[R1], (void *)regs[R2],
+ (long)regs[R3]);
+ } else if (!strcmp(strtab + id, "bpf_dump_stack")) {
+ bpf_dump_stack((struct bpf_context *)regs[R1]);
+ } else if (!strcmp(strtab + id, "bpf_trace_printk")) {
+ bpf_trace_printk((char *)regs[R1], (long)regs[R2],
+ (long)regs[R3], (long)regs[R4],
+ (long)regs[R5]);
+ } else {
+ pr_err_once("trace cannot execute unknown bpf function %d '%s'\n",
+ id, strtab + id);
+ }
+}
+
+static void *jit_select_func(char *strtab, int id)
+{
+ if (!strcmp(strtab + id, "bpf_load_pointer"))
+ return bpf_load_pointer;
+
+ if (!strcmp(strtab + id, "bpf_memcmp"))
+ return bpf_memcmp;
+
+ if (!strcmp(strtab + id, "bpf_dump_stack"))
+ return bpf_dump_stack;
+
+ if (!strcmp(strtab + id, "bpf_trace_printk"))
+ return bpf_trace_printk;
+
+ return NULL;
+}
+
+struct bpf_callbacks bpf_trace_cb = {
+ execute_func, jit_select_func, get_func_proto, get_context_access
+};
+
diff --git a/kernel/trace/trace.c b/kernel/trace/trace.c
index 815c878..1a7762b 100644
--- a/kernel/trace/trace.c
+++ b/kernel/trace/trace.c
@@ -1791,6 +1791,13 @@ void __trace_stack(struct trace_array *tr, unsigned long flags, int skip,
__ftrace_trace_stack(tr->trace_buffer.buffer, flags, skip, pc, NULL);
}

+void __trace_stack_regs(unsigned long flags, int skip, int pc,
+ struct pt_regs *regs)
+{
+ __ftrace_trace_stack(global_trace.trace_buffer.buffer, flags, skip,
+ pc, regs);
+}
+
/**
* trace_dump_stack - record a stack back trace in the trace buffer
* @skip: Number of functions to skip (helper handlers)
diff --git a/kernel/trace/trace.h b/kernel/trace/trace.h
index 02b592f..fa7db5f 100644
--- a/kernel/trace/trace.h
+++ b/kernel/trace/trace.h
@@ -619,6 +619,8 @@ void ftrace_trace_userstack(struct ring_buffer *buffer, unsigned long flags,

void __trace_stack(struct trace_array *tr, unsigned long flags, int skip,
int pc);
+void __trace_stack_regs(unsigned long flags, int skip, int pc,
+ struct pt_regs *regs);
#else
static inline void ftrace_trace_stack(struct ring_buffer *buffer,
unsigned long flags, int skip, int pc)
@@ -640,6 +642,10 @@ static inline void __trace_stack(struct trace_array *tr, unsigned long flags,
int skip, int pc)
{
}
+static inline void __trace_stack_regs(unsigned long flags, int skip, int pc,
+ struct pt_regs *regs)
+{
+}
#endif /* CONFIG_STACKTRACE */

extern cycle_t ftrace_now(int cpu);
@@ -939,12 +945,15 @@ struct ftrace_event_field {
int is_signed;
};

+struct bpf_program;
+
struct event_filter {
int n_preds; /* Number assigned */
int a_preds; /* allocated */
struct filter_pred *preds;
struct filter_pred *root;
char *filter_string;
+ struct bpf_program *prog;
};

struct event_subsystem {
@@ -1017,7 +1026,7 @@ filter_parse_regex(char *buff, int len, char **search, int *not);
extern void print_event_filter(struct ftrace_event_file *file,
struct trace_seq *s);
extern int apply_event_filter(struct ftrace_event_file *file,
- char *filter_string);
+ char *filter_string, int filter_len);
extern int apply_subsystem_event_filter(struct ftrace_subsystem_dir *dir,
char *filter_string);
extern void print_subsystem_event_filter(struct event_subsystem *system,
diff --git a/kernel/trace/trace_events.c b/kernel/trace/trace_events.c
index e71ffd4..b6aadc3 100644
--- a/kernel/trace/trace_events.c
+++ b/kernel/trace/trace_events.c
@@ -1042,9 +1042,16 @@ event_filter_write(struct file *filp, const char __user *ubuf, size_t cnt,
mutex_lock(&event_mutex);
file = event_file_data(filp);
if (file)
- err = apply_event_filter(file, buf);
+ err = apply_event_filter(file, buf, cnt);
mutex_unlock(&event_mutex);

+ if (file->event_call->flags & TRACE_EVENT_FL_BPF)
+ /*
+ * allocate per-cpu printk buffers, since BPF program
+ * might be calling bpf_trace_printk
+ */
+ trace_printk_init_buffers();
+
free_page((unsigned long) buf);
if (err < 0)
return err;
diff --git a/kernel/trace/trace_events_filter.c b/kernel/trace/trace_events_filter.c
index 8a86319..d4fb09c 100644
--- a/kernel/trace/trace_events_filter.c
+++ b/kernel/trace/trace_events_filter.c
@@ -23,6 +23,8 @@
#include <linux/mutex.h>
#include <linux/perf_event.h>
#include <linux/slab.h>
+#include <linux/bpf_jit.h>
+#include <trace/bpf_trace.h>

#include "trace.h"
#include "trace_output.h"
@@ -535,6 +537,20 @@ static int filter_match_preds_cb(enum move_type move, struct filter_pred *pred,
return WALK_PRED_DEFAULT;
}

+void filter_call_bpf(struct event_filter *filter, struct bpf_context *ctx)
+{
+ BUG_ON(!filter || !filter->prog);
+
+ if (!filter->prog->jit_image) {
+ pr_warn_once("BPF jit image is not available. Fallback to emulation\n");
+ bpf_run(filter->prog, ctx);
+ return;
+ }
+
+ filter->prog->jit_image(ctx);
+}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(filter_call_bpf);
+
/* return 1 if event matches, 0 otherwise (discard) */
int filter_match_preds(struct event_filter *filter, void *rec)
{
@@ -794,6 +810,7 @@ static void __free_filter(struct event_filter *filter)
if (!filter)
return;

+ bpf_free(filter->prog);
__free_preds(filter);
kfree(filter->filter_string);
kfree(filter);
@@ -1898,6 +1915,37 @@ static int create_filter_start(char *filter_str, bool set_str,
return err;
}

+static int create_filter_bpf(char *filter_str, int filter_len,
+ struct event_filter **filterp)
+{
+ struct event_filter *filter;
+ int err = 0;
+
+ *filterp = NULL;
+
+ filter = __alloc_filter();
+ if (filter)
+ err = replace_filter_string(filter, "bpf");
+
+ if (!filter || err) {
+ __free_filter(filter);
+ return -ENOMEM;
+ }
+
+ err = bpf_load_image(filter_str, filter_len, &bpf_trace_cb,
+ &filter->prog);
+
+ if (err) {
+ pr_err("failed to load bpf %d\n", err);
+ __free_filter(filter);
+ return -EACCES;
+ }
+
+ *filterp = filter;
+
+ return err;
+}
+
static void create_filter_finish(struct filter_parse_state *ps)
{
if (ps) {
@@ -1985,7 +2033,8 @@ static int create_system_filter(struct event_subsystem *system,
}

/* caller must hold event_mutex */
-int apply_event_filter(struct ftrace_event_file *file, char *filter_string)
+int apply_event_filter(struct ftrace_event_file *file, char *filter_string,
+ int filter_len)
{
struct ftrace_event_call *call = file->event_call;
struct event_filter *filter;
@@ -2007,7 +2056,15 @@ int apply_event_filter(struct ftrace_event_file *file, char *filter_string)
return 0;
}

- err = create_filter(call, filter_string, true, &filter);
+ if (!strcmp(filter_string, "bpf")) {
+ err = create_filter_bpf(filter_string, filter_len, &filter);
+ if (!err)
+ call->flags |= TRACE_EVENT_FL_BPF;
+ } else {
+ err = create_filter(call, filter_string, true, &filter);
+ if (!err)
+ call->flags &= ~TRACE_EVENT_FL_BPF;
+ }

/*
* Always swap the call filter with the new filter
diff --git a/kernel/trace/trace_kprobe.c b/kernel/trace/trace_kprobe.c
index bdbae45..1e508d2 100644
--- a/kernel/trace/trace_kprobe.c
+++ b/kernel/trace/trace_kprobe.c
@@ -19,7 +19,7 @@

#include <linux/module.h>
#include <linux/uaccess.h>
-
+#include <trace/bpf_trace.h>
#include "trace_probe.h"

#define KPROBE_EVENT_SYSTEM "kprobes"
@@ -936,6 +936,19 @@ __kprobe_trace_func(struct trace_kprobe *tk, struct pt_regs *regs,
if (ftrace_trigger_soft_disabled(ftrace_file))
return;

+ if (unlikely(ftrace_file->flags & FTRACE_EVENT_FL_FILTERED) &&
+ unlikely(ftrace_file->event_call->flags & TRACE_EVENT_FL_BPF)) {
+ struct bpf_context ctx;
+ ctx.regs = regs;
+ ctx.arg1 = regs_get_argument_nth(regs, 0);
+ ctx.arg2 = regs_get_argument_nth(regs, 1);
+ ctx.arg3 = regs_get_argument_nth(regs, 2);
+ ctx.arg4 = regs_get_argument_nth(regs, 3);
+ ctx.arg5 = regs_get_argument_nth(regs, 4);
+ filter_call_bpf(ftrace_file->filter, &ctx);
+ return;
+ }
+
local_save_flags(irq_flags);
pc = preempt_count();

--
1.7.9.5


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