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SubjectRe: kdbus: add documentation

> kdbus is a system for low-latency, low-overhead, easy to use
> interprocess communication (IPC).
>
> The interface to all functions in this driver is implemented through ioctls
> on /dev nodes. This patch adds detailed documentation about the kernel
> level API design.

just some typos below

> Signed-off-by: Daniel Mack <daniel@zonque.org>
> Signed-off-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
> ---
> Documentation/kdbus.txt | 1815 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
> 1 file changed, 1815 insertions(+)
> create mode 100644 Documentation/kdbus.txt
>
> diff --git a/Documentation/kdbus.txt b/Documentation/kdbus.txt
> new file mode 100644
> index 000000000000..ac1a18908976
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/Documentation/kdbus.txt
> @@ -0,0 +1,1815 @@
> +D-Bus is a system for powerful, easy to use interprocess communication (IPC).
> +
> +The focus of this document is an overview of the low-level, native kernel D-Bus
> +transport called kdbus. Kdbus in the kernel acts similar to a device driver,
> +all communication between processes take place over special character device

takes

> +nodes in /dev/kdbus/.
> +
> +For the general D-Bus protocol specification, the payload format, the
> +marshaling, and the communication semantics, please refer to:
> + http://dbus.freedesktop.org/doc/dbus-specification.html
> +
> +For a kdbus specific userspace library implementation please refer to:
> + http://cgit.freedesktop.org/systemd/systemd/tree/src/systemd/sd-bus.h
> +
> +Articles about D-Bus and kdbus:
> + http://lwn.net/Articles/580194/
> +
> +
> +1. Terminology
> +===============================================================================
> +
> + Domain:
> + A domain is a named object containing a number of buses. A system
> + container that contains its own init system and users usually also
> + runs in its own kdbus domain. The /dev/kdbus/domain/<container-name>/
> + directory shows up inside the domain as /dev/kdbus/. Every domain offers
> + its own "control" device node to create new buses or new sub-domains.
> + Domains have no connection to each other and cannot see nor talk to
> + each other. See section 5 for more details.
> +
> + Bus:
> + A bus is a named object inside a domain. Clients exchange messages
> + over a bus. Multiple buses themselves have no connection to each other;
> + messages can only be exchanged on the same bus. The default entry point to
> + a bus, where clients establish the connection to, is the "bus" device node
> + /dev/kdbus/<bus name>/bus.
> + Common operating system setups create one "system bus" per system, and one
> + "user bus" for every logged-in user. Applications or services may create
> + their own private named buses. See section 5 for more details.
> +
> + Endpoint:
> + An endpoint provides the device node to talk to a bus. Opening an
> + endpoint creates a new connection to the bus to which the endpoint belongs.
> + Every bus has a default endpoint called "bus".
> + A bus can optionally offer additional endpoints with custom names to
> + provide a restricted access to the same bus. Custom endpoints carry
> + additional policy which can be used to give sandboxed processes only
> + a locked-down, limited, filtered access to the same bus.
> + See section 5 for more details.
> +
> + Connection:
> + A connection to a bus is created by opening an endpoint device node of
> + a bus and becoming an active client with the HELLO exchange. Every
> + connected client connection has a unique identifier on the bus and can
> + address messages to every other connection on the same bus by using
> + the peer's connection id as the destination.
> + See section 6 for more details.
> +
> + Pool:
> + Each connection allocates a piece of shmem-backed memory that is used
> + to receive messages and answers to ioctl command from the kernel. It is
> + never used to send anything to the kernel. In order to access that memory,
> + userspace must mmap() it into its task.
> + See section 12 for more details.
> +
> + Well-known Name:
> + A connection can, in addition to its implicit unique connection id, request
> + the ownership of a textual well-known name. Well-known names are noted in
> + reverse-domain notation, such as com.example.service1. Connections offering
> + a service on a bus are usually reached by its well-known name. The analogy
> + of connection id and well-known name is an IP address and a DNS name
> + associated with that address.
> +
> + Message:
> + Connections can exchange messages with other connections by addressing
> + the peers with their connection id or well-known name. A message consists
> + of a message header with kernel-specific information on how to route the
> + message, and the message payload, which is a logical byte stream of
> + arbitrary size. Messages can carry additional file descriptors to be passed
> + from one connection to another. Every connection can specify which set of
> + metadata the kernel should attach to the message when it is delivered
> + to the receiving connection. Metadata contains information like: system
> + timestamps, uid, gid, tid, proc-starttime, well-known-names, process comm,
> + process exe, process argv, cgroup, capabilities, seclabel, audit session,
> + loginuid and the connection's human-readable name.
> + See section 7 and 13 for more details.
> +
> + Item:
> + The API of kdbus implements a notion of items, submitted through and
> + returned by most ioctls, and stored inside data structures in the
> + connection's pool. See section 4 for more details.
> +
> + Broadcast and Match:
> + Broadcast messages are potentially sent to all connections of a bus. By
> + default, the connections will not actually receive any of the sent
> + broadcast messages; only after installing a match for specific message
> + properties, a broadcast message passes this filter.
> + See section 10 for more details.
> +
> + Policy:
> + A policy is a set of rules that define which connections can see, talk to,
> + or register a well-know name on the bus. A policy is attached to buses and
> + custom endpoints, and modified by policy holder connection or owners of
> + custom endpoints. See section 11 for more details.
> +
> + Access rules to allow who can see a name on the bus are only checked on
> + custom endpoints. Policies may be defined with names that end with '.*'.
> + When matching a well-known name against such a wildcard entry, the last
> + part of the name is ignored and checked against the wildcard name without
> + the trailing '.*'. See section 11 for more details.
> +
> + Privileged bus users:
> + A user connecting to the bus is considered privileged if it is either the
> + creator of the bus, or if it has the CAP_IPC_OWNER capability flag set.
> +
> +
> +2. Device Node Layout
> +===============================================================================
> +
> +The kdbus interface is exposed through device nodes in /dev.
> +
> + /sys/bus/kdbus
> + `-- devices
> + |-- kdbus!0-system!bus -> ../../../devices/virtual/kdbus/kdbus!0-system!bus
> + |-- kdbus!2702-user!bus -> ../../../devices/virtual/kdbus/kdbus!2702-user!bus
> + |-- kdbus!2702-user!ep.app -> ../../../devices/virtual/kdbus/kdbus!2702-user!ep.app
> + `-- kdbus!control -> ../../../devices/kdbus!control
> +
> + /dev/kdbus
> + |-- control
> + |-- 0-system
> + | |-- bus
> + | `-- ep.apache
> + |-- 1000-user
> + | `-- bus
> + |-- 2702-user
> + | |-- bus
> + | `-- ep.app
> + `-- domain
> + |-- fedoracontainer
> + | |-- control
> + | |-- 0-system
> + | | `-- bus
> + | `-- 1000-user
> + | `-- bus
> + `-- mydebiancontainer
> + |-- control
> + `-- 0-system
> + `-- bus
> +
> +Note:
> + The device node subdirectory layout is arranged that a future version of
> + kdbus could be implemented as a file system with a separate instance mounted
> + for each domain. For any future changes, this always needs to be kept
> + in mind. Also the dependency on udev's userspace hookups or sysfs attribute
> + use should be limited to the absolute minimum for the same reason.
> +
> +
> +3. Data Structures and flags
> +===============================================================================
> +
> +3.1 Data structures and interconnections
> +----------------------------------------
> +
> + +-------------------------------------------------------------------------+
> + | Domain (Init Domain) |
> + | /dev/kdbus/control |
> + | +---------------------------------------------------------------------+ |
> + | | Bus (System Bus) | |
> + | | /dev/kdbus/0-system/ | |
> + | | +-------------------------------+ +-------------------------------+ | |
> + | | | Endpoint | | Endpoint | | |
> + | | | /dev/kdbus/0-system/bus | | /dev/kdbus/0-system/ep.app | | |
> + | | +-------------------------------+ +-------------------------------+ | |
> + | | +--------------+ +--------------+ +--------------+ +--------------+ | |
> + | | | Connection | | Connection | | Connection | | Connection | | |
> + | | | :1.22 | | :1.25 | | :1.55 | | :1.81 | | |
> + | | +--------------+ +--------------+ +--------------+ +--------------+ | |
> + | +---------------------------------------------------------------------+ |
> + | |
> + | +---------------------------------------------------------------------+ |
> + | | Bus (User Bus for UID 2702) | |
> + | | /dev/kdbus/2702-user/ | |
> + | | +-------------------------------+ +-------------------------------+ | |
> + | | | Endpoint | | Endpoint | | |
> + | | | /dev/kdbus/2702-user/bus | | /dev/kdbus/2702-user/ep.app | | |
> + | | +-------------------------------+ +-------------------------------+ | |
> + | | +--------------+ +--------------+ +--------------+ +--------------+ | |
> + | | | Connection | | Connection | | Connection | | Connection | | |
> + | | | :1.22 | | :1.25 | | :1.55 | | :1.81 | | |
> + | | +--------------+ +--------------+ +-------------------------------+ | |
> + | +---------------------------------------------------------------------+ |
> + | |
> + | +---------------------------------------------------------------------+ |
> + | | Domain (Container; inside it, fedoracontainer/ becomes /dev/kdbus/) | |
> + | | /dev/kdbus/domain/fedoracontainer/control | |
> + | | +-----------------------------------------------------------------+ | |
> + | | | Bus (System Bus of "fedoracontainer") | | |
> + | | | /dev/kdbus/domain/fedoracontainer/0-system/ | | |
> + | | | +-----------------------------+ | | |
> + | | | | Endpoint | | | |
> + | | | | /dev/.../0-system/bus | | | |
> + | | | +-----------------------------+ | | |
> + | | | +-------------+ +-------------+ | | |
> + | | | | Connection | | Connection | | | |
> + | | | | :1.22 | | :1.25 | | | |
> + | | | +-------------+ +-------------+ | | |
> + | | +-----------------------------------------------------------------+ | |
> + | | | |
> + | | +-----------------------------------------------------------------+ | |
> + | | | Bus (User Bus for UID 270 of "fedoracontainer") | | |
> + | | | /dev/kdbus/domain/fedoracontainer/2702-user/ | | |
> + | | | +-----------------------------+ | | |
> + | | | | Endpoint | | | |
> + | | | | /dev/.../2702-user/bus | | | |
> + | | | +-----------------------------+ | | |
> + | | | +-------------+ +-------------+ | | |
> + | | | | Connection | | Connection | | | |
> + | | | | :1.22 | | :1.25 | | | |
> + | | | +-------------+ +-------------+ | | |
> + | | +-----------------------------------------------------------------+ | |
> + | +---------------------------------------------------------------------+ |
> + +-------------------------------------------------------------------------+
> +
> +The above description uses the D-Bus notation of unique connection names that
> +adds a ":1." prefix to the connection's unique ID. kbus itself doesn't
> +use that notation, neither internally nor externally. However, libraries and
> +other usespace code that aims for compatibility to D-Bus might.
> +
> +3.2 Flags
> +---------
> +
> +All ioctls used in the communication with the driver contain two 64-bit fields,
> +'flags' and 'kernel_flags'. In 'flags', the behavior of the command can be
> +tweaked, whereas in 'kernel_flags', the kernel driver writes back the mask of
> +supported bits upon each call, and sets the KDBUS_FLAGS_KERNEL bit. This is a
> +way to probe possible kernel features and make code forward and backward
> +compatible.
> +
> +All bits that are not recognized by the kernel in 'flags' are rejected, and the
> +ioctl fails with -EINVAL.
> +
> +
> +4. Items
> +===============================================================================
> +
> +To flexibly augment transport structures used by kdbus, data blobs of type
> +struct kdbus_item are used. An item has a fixed-sized header that only stores
> +the type of the item and the overall size. The total size is variable and is
> +in some cases defined by the item type, in other cases, they can be of
> +arbitrary length (for instance, a string).
> +
> +In the external kernel API, items are used for many ioctls to transport
> +optional information from userspace to kernelspace. They are also used for
> +information stored in a connection's pool, such as messages, name lists or
> +requested connection information.
> +
> +In all such occasions where items are used as part of the kdbus kernel API,
> +they are embedded in structs that have an overall size of their own, so there
> +can be many of them.
> +
> +The kernel expects all items to be aligned to 8-byte boundaries.
> +
> +A simple iterator in userspace would iterate over the items until the items
> +have reached the embedding structure's overall size. An example implementation
> +of such an iterator can be found in tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/kdbus-util.h.
> +
> +
> +5. Creation of new domains, buses and endpoints
> +===============================================================================
> +
> +The initial kdbus domain is unconditionally created by the kernel module. A
> +domain contains a "control" device node which allows to create a new bus or
> +domain. New domains do not have any buses created by default.
> +
> +
> +5.1 Domains and buses
> +---------------------
> +
> +Opening the control device node returns a file descriptor, it accepts the
> +ioctls KDBUS_CMD_BUS_MAKE and KDBUS_CMD_DOMAIN_MAKE which specify the name of
> +the new bus or domain to create. The control file descriptor needs to be kept
> +open for the entire life-time of the created bus or domain, closing it will
> +immediately cleanup the entire bus or domain and all its associated
> +resources and connections. Every control file descriptor can only be used once
> +to create a new bus or domain; from that point, it is not used for any
> +further communication until the final close().
> +
> +Each bus will generate a random, 128-bit UUID upon creation. It will be
> +returned to the creators of connections through kdbus_cmd_hello.id128 and can
> +be used by userspace to uniquely identify buses, even across different machines
> +or containers. The UUID will have its its variant bits set to 'DCE', and denote

its its

> +version 4 (random).
> +
> +When a new domain is created, its structure in /dev/kdbus/<name>/ is a
> +replication of what's initially created in /dev/kdbus. In fact, internally,
> +a dummy default domain is set up when the driver is loaded. This allows
> +userspace to bind-mount domain subtrees of /dev/kdbus into a container's
> +filesystem view, and hence achieve complete isolation from the host's domain
> +and those of other containers.
> +
> +
> +5.2 Endpoints
> +-------------
> +
> +Endpoints are entry points to a bus. By default, each bus has a default
> +endpoint called 'bus'. The bus owner has the ability to create custom
> +endpoints with specific names, permissions, and policy databases (see below).
> +
> +To create a custom endpoint, use the KDBUS_CMD_ENDPOINT_MAKE ioctl with struct
> +kdbus_cmd_make. Custom endpoints always have a policy db that, by default,

db -> database

> +does not allow anything. Everything that users of this new endpoint should be
> +able to do has to be explicitly specified through KDBUS_ITEM_NAME and
> +KDBUS_ITEM_POLICY_ACCESS items.
> +
> +5.3 Creating domains, buses and endpoints
> +-----------------------------------------
> +
> +KDBUS_CMD_BUS_MAKE, KDBUS_CMD_DOMAIN_MAKE and KDBUS_CMD_ENDPOINT_MAKE take a
> +struct kdbus_cmd_make argument.
> +
> +struct kdbus_cmd_make {
> + __u64 size;
> + The overall size of the struct, including its items.
> +
> + __u64 flags;
> + The flags for creation.
> +
> + KDBUS_MAKE_ACCESS_GROUP
> + Make the device node group-accessible
> +
> + KDBUS_MAKE_ACCESS_WORLD
> + Make the device node world-accessible
> +
> + __u64 kernel_flags;
> + Valid flags for this command, returned by the kernel upon each call.
> +
> + struct kdbus_item items[0];
> + A list of items, only used for creating custom endpoints. Ignored for
> + buses and domains.
> +};
> +
> +
> +6. Connections
> +===============================================================================
> +
> +
> +6.1 Connection IDs and well-known connection names
> +--------------------------------------------------
> +
> +Connections are identified by their connection id, internally implemented as a
> +uint64_t counter. The IDs of every newly created bus start at 1, and every new
> +connection will increment the counter by 1. The ids are not reused.
> +
> +In higher level tools, the user visible representation of a connection is
> +defined by the D-Bus protocol specification as ":1.<id>".
> +
> +Messages with a specific uint64_t destination id are directly delivered to
> +the connection with the corresponding id. Messages with the special destination
> +id KDBUS_DST_ID_BROADCAST are broadcast messages and are potentially delivered
> +to all known connections on the bus; clients interested in broadcast messages
> +need to subscribe to the specific messages they are interested though, before

comma before though

> +any broadcast message reaches them.
> +
> +Messages synthesized and sent directly by the kernel will carry the special
> +source id KDBUS_SRC_ID_KERNEL (0).
> +
> +In addition to the unique uint64_t connection id, established connections can
> +request the ownership of well-known names, under which they can be found and
> +addressed by other bus clients. A well-known name is associated with one and
> +only one connection at a time. See section 8 on name acquisition and the
> +name registry, and the validity of names.
> +
> +Messages can specify the special destination id 0 and carry a well-known name
> +in the message data. Such a message is delivered to the destination connection
> +which owns that well-known name.
> +
> + +-------------------------------------------------------------------------+
> + | +---------------+ +---------------------------+ |
> + | | Connection | | Message | -----------------+ |
> + | | :1.22 | --> | src: 22 | | |
> + | | | | dst: 25 | | |
> + | | | | | | |
> + | | | | | | |
> + | | | +---------------------------+ | |
> + | | | | |
> + | | | <--------------------------------------+ | |
> + | +---------------+ | | |
> + | | | |
> + | +---------------+ +---------------------------+ | | |
> + | | Connection | | Message | -----+ | |
> + | | :1.25 | --> | src: 25 | | |
> + | | | | dst: 0xffffffffffffffff | -------------+ | |
> + | | | | (KDBUS_DST_ID_BROADCAST) | | | |
> + | | | | | ---------+ | | |
> + | | | +---------------------------+ | | | |
> + | | | | | | |
> + | | | <--------------------------------------------------+ |
> + | +---------------+ | | |
> + | | | |
> + | +---------------+ +---------------------------+ | | |
> + | | Connection | | Message | --+ | | |
> + | | :1.55 | --> | src: 55 | | | | |
> + | | | | dst: 0 / org.foo.bar | | | | |
> + | | | | | | | | |
> + | | | | | | | | |
> + | | | +---------------------------+ | | | |
> + | | | | | | |
> + | | | <------------------------------------------+ | |
> + | +---------------+ | | |
> + | | | |
> + | +---------------+ | | |
> + | | Connection | | | |
> + | | :1.81 | | | |
> + | | org.foo.bar | | | |
> + | | | | | |
> + | | | | | |
> + | | | <-----------------------------------+ | |
> + | | | | |
> + | | | <----------------------------------------------+ |
> + | +---------------+ |
> + +-------------------------------------------------------------------------+
> +
> +
> +6.2 Creating connections
> +------------------------
> +
> +A connection to a bus is created by opening an endpoint device node of
> +a bus and becoming an active client with the KDBUS_CMD_HELLO ioctl. Every
> +connected client connection has a unique identifier on the bus and can
> +address messages to every other connection on the same bus by using
> +the peer's connection id as the destination.
> +
> +The KDBUS_CMD_HELLO ioctl takes the following struct as argument.
> +
> +struct kdbus_cmd_hello {
> + __u64 size;
> + The overall size of the struct, including all attached items.
> +
> + __u64 conn_flags;
> + Flags to apply to this connection:
> +
> + KDBUS_HELLO_ACCEPT_FD
> + When this flag is set, the connection can be sent file descriptors
> + as message payload. If it's not set, any attempt of doing so will
> + result in -ECOMM on the sender's side.
> +
> + KDBUS_HELLO_ACTIVATOR
> + Make this connection an activator (see below). With this bit set,
> + an item of type KDBUS_ITEM_NAME has to be attached which describes
> + the well-known name this connection should be an activator for.
> +
> + KDBUS_HELLO_POLICY_HOLDER
> + Make this connection a policy holder (see below). With this bit set,
> + an item of type KDBUS_ITEM_NAME has to be attached which describes
> + the well-known name this connection should hold a policy for.
> +
> + KDBUS_HELLO_MONITOR
> + Make this connection an eaves-dropping connection that receives all
> + unicast messages sent on the bus. To also receive broadcast messages,
> + the connection has to upload appropriate matches as well.
> + This flag is only valid for privileged bus connections.
> +
> + __u64 attach_flags;
> + Request the attachment of metadata for each message received by this
> + connection. The metadata actually attached may actually augment the list
> + of requested items. See section 13 for more details.
> +
> + __u64 bus_flags;
> + Upon successful completion of the ioctl, this member will contain the
> + flags of the bus it connected to.
> +
> + __u64 id;
> + Upon successful completion of the ioctl, this member will contain the
> + id of the new connection.
> +
> + __u64 pool_size;
> + The size of the communication pool, in bytes. The pool can be accessed
> + by calling mmap() on the file descriptor that was used to issue the
> + KDBUS_CMD_HELLO ioctl.
> +
> + struct kdbus_bloom_parameter bloom;
> + Bloom filter parameter (see below).
> +
> + __u8 id128[16];
> + Upon successful completion of the ioctl, this member will contain the
> + 128 bit wide UUID of the connected bus.
> +
> + struct kdbus_item items[0];
> + Variable list of items to add optional additional information. The
> + following items are currently expected/valid:
> +
> + KDBUS_ITEM_CONN_NAME
> + Contains a string to describes this connection's name, so it can be
> + identified later.
> +
> + KDBUS_ITEM_NAME
> + KDBUS_ITEM_POLICY_ACCESS
> + For activators and policy holders only, combinations of these two
> + items describe policy access entries (see section about policy db).

the section is titled 'Policy', not policy db

> +
> + KDBUS_ITEM_CREDS
> + KDBUS_ITEM_SECLABEL
> + Privileged bus users may submit these types in order to create
> + connections with faked credentials. The only real use case for this
> + is a proxy service which acts on behalf of some other tasks. For a
> + connection that runs in that mode, the message's metadata items will
> + be limited to what's specified here. See section 13 for more
> + information.
> +
> + Items of other types are silently ignored.
> +};
> +
> +
> +6.3 Activator and policy holder connection
> +------------------------------------------
> +
> +An activator connection is a placeholder for a well-known name. Messages sent
> +to such a connection can be used by userspace to start an implementor
> +connection, which will then get all the messages from the activator copied
> +over. An activator connection cannot be used to send any message.
> +
> +A policy holder connection only installs a policy for one or more names.
> +These policy entries are kept active as long as the connection is alive, and
> +are removed once it terminates. Such a policy connection type can be used to
> +deploy restrictions for names that are not yet active on the bus. A policy
> +holder connection cannot be used to send any message.
> +
> +The creation of activator, policy holder or monitor connections is an operation
> +restricted to privileged users on the bus (see section "Terminology").
> +
> +
> +6.4 Retrieving information on a connection
> +------------------------------------------
> +
> +The KDBUS_CMD_CONN_INFO ioctl can be used to retrieve credentials and
> +properties of the initial creator of a connection. This ioctl uses the
> +following struct:
> +
> +struct kdbus_cmd_info {
> + __u64 size;
> + The overall size of the struct, including the name with its 0-byte string
> + terminator.
> +
> + __u64 flags;
> + Specify which items should be attached to the answer.
> + The following flags can be used:
> +
> + KDBUS_ATTACH_NAMES
> + Add an item to the answer containing all the names the connection
> + currently owns.
> +
> + KDBUS_ATTACH_CONN_NAME
> + Add an item to the answer containing the connection's name.
> +
> + After the ioctl returns, this field will contain the current metadata
> + attach flags of the connection.
> +
> + __u64 kernel_flags;
> + Valid flags for this command, returned by the kernel upon each call.
> +
> + __u64 id;
> + The connection's numerical ID to retrieve information for. If set to
> + non-zero value, the 'name' field is ignored.
> +
> + __u64 offset;
> + When the ioctl returns, this value will yield the offset of the connection
> + information inside the caller's pool.
> +
> + struct kdbus_item items[0];
> + The optional item list, containing the well-known name to look up as
> + a KDBUS_ITEM_NAME. Only required if the 'id' field is set to 0.
> + All other items are currently ignored.
> +};
> +
> +After the ioctl returns, the following struct will be stored in the caller's

extra space after struct

> +pool at 'offset'.
> +
> +struct kdbus_info {
> + __u64 size;
> + The overall size of the struct, including all its items.
> +
> + __u64 id;
> + The connection's unique ID.
> +
> + __u64 flags;
> + The connection's flags as specified when it was created.
> +
> + __u64 kernel_flags;
> + Valid flags for this command, returned by the kernel upon each call.
> +
> + struct kdbus_item items[0];
> + Depending on the 'flags' field in struct kdbus_cmd_info, items of
> + types KDBUS_ITEM_NAME and KDBUS_ITEM_CONN_NAME are followed here.
> +};
> +
> +Once the caller is finished with parsing the return buffer, it needs to call
> +KDBUS_CMD_FREE for the offset.
> +
> +
> +6.5 Getting information about a connection's bus creator
> +--------------------------------------------------------
> +
> +The KDBUS_CMD_BUS_CREATOR_INFO ioctl takes the same struct as
> +KDBUS_CMD_CONN_INFO but is used to retrieve information about the creator of
> +the bus the connection is attached to. The metadata returned by this call is
> +collected during the creation of the bus and is never altered afterwards, so
> +it provides pristine information on the task that created the bus, at the
> +moment when it did so.
> +
> +In response to this call, a slice in the connection's pool is allocated and
> +filled with an object of type struct kdbus_info, pointed to by the ioctl's
> +'offset' field.
> +
> +struct kdbus_info {
> + __u64 size;
> + The overall size of the struct, including all its items.
> +
> + __u64 id;
> + The bus' ID
> +
> + __u64 flags;
> + The bus' flags as specified when it was created.
> +
> + __u64 kernel_flags;
> + Valid flags for this command, returned by the kernel upon each call.
> +
> + struct kdbus_item items[0];
> + Metadata information is stored in items here.
> +};
> +
> +Once the caller is finished with parsing the return buffer, it needs to call
> +KDBUS_CMD_FREE for the offset.
> +
> +
> +6.6 Updating connection details
> +-------------------------------
> +
> +Some of a connection's details can be updated with the KDBUS_CMD_CONN_UPDATE
> +ioctl, using the file descriptor that was used to create the connection.
> +The update command uses the following struct.
> +
> +struct kdbus_cmd_update {
> + __u64 size;
> + The overall size of the struct, including all its items.
> +
> + struct kdbus_item items[0];
> + Items to describe the connection details to be updated. The following item
> + types are supported:
> +
> + KDBUS_ITEM_ATTACH_FLAGS
> + Supply a new set of items to be attached to each message.
> +
> + KDBUS_ITEM_NAME
> + KDBUS_ITEM_POLICY_ACCESS
> + Policy holder connections may supply a new set of policy information
> + with these items. For other connection types, -EOPNOTSUPP is returned.
> +};
> +
> +
> +6.6 Termination
> +---------------
> +
> +A connection can be terminated by simply closing the file descriptor that was
> +used to start the connection. All pending incoming messages will be discarded,
> +and the memory in the pool will be freed.
> +
> +An alternative way of way of closing down a connection is calling the

way of way

> +KDBUS_CMD_BYEBYE ioctl on it, which will only succeed if the message queue
> +of the connection is empty at the time of closing, otherwise, -EBUSY is
> +returned.
> +
> +When this ioctl returns successfully, the connection has been terminated and
> +won't accept any new messages from remote peers. This way, a connection can
> +be terminated race-free, without losing any messages.
> +
> +
> +7. Messages
> +===============================================================================
> +
> +Messages consist of a fixed-size header followed directly by a list of
> +variable-sized data 'items'. The overall message size is specified in the
> +header of the message. The chain of data items can contain well-defined
> +message metadata fields, raw data, references to data, or file descriptors.
> +
> +
> +7.1 Sending messages
> +--------------------
> +
> +Messages are passed to the kernel with the KDBUS_CMD_MSG_SEND ioctl. Depending
> +on the the destination address of the message, the kernel delivers the message

the the

> +to the specific destination connection or to all connections on the same bus.
> +Sending messages across buses is not possible. Messages are always queued in
> +the memory pool of the destination connection (see below).
> +
> +The KDBUS_CMD_MSG_SEND ioctl uses struct kdbus_msg to describe the message to
> +be sent.
> +
> +struct kdbus_msg {
> + __u64 size;
> + The over all size of the struct, including the attached items.

overall

> +
> + __u64 flags;
> + Flags for message delivery:
> +
> + KDBUS_MSG_FLAGS_EXPECT_REPLY
> + Expect a reply from the remote peer to this message. With this bit set,
> + the timeout_ns field must be set to a non-zero number of nanoseconds in
> + which the receiving peer is expected to reply. If such a reply is not
> + received in time, the sender will be notified with a timeout message
> + (see below). The value must be an absolute value, in nanoseconds and
> + based on CLOCK_MONOTONIC.
> +
> + For a message to be accepted as reply, it must be a direct message to
> + the original sender (not a broadcast), and its kdbus_msg.reply_cookie
> + must match the previous message's kdbus_msg.cookie.
> +
> + Expected replies also temporarily open the policy of the sending
> + connection, so the other peer is allowed to respond within the given
> + time window.
> +
> + KDBUS_MSG_FLAGS_SYNC_REPLY
> + By default, all calls to kdbus are considered asynchronous,
> + non-blocking. However, as there are many use cases that need to wait
> + for a remote peer to answer a method call, there's a way to send a
> + message and wait for a reply in a synchronous fashion. This is what
> + the KDBUS_MSG_FLAGS_SYNC_REPLY controls. The KDBUS_CMD_MSG_SEND ioctl
> + will block until the reply has arrived, the timeout limit is reached,
> + in case the remote connection was shut down, or if interrupted by
> + a signal before any reply; see signal(7).
> +
> + The offset of the reply message in the sender's pool is stored in
> + in 'offset_reply' when the ioctl has returned without error. Hence,
> + there is no need for another KDBUS_CMD_MSG_RECV ioctl or anything else
> + to receive the reply.
> +
> + KDBUS_MSG_FLAGS_NO_AUTO_START
> + By default, when a message is sent to an activator connection, the
> + activator notified and will start an implementor. This flag inhibits
> + that behavior. With this bit set, and the remote being an activator,
> + -EADDRNOTAVAIL is returned from the ioctl.
> +
> + __u64 kernel_flags;
> + Valid flags for this command, returned by the kernel upon each call of
> + KDBUS_MSG_SEND.
> +
> + __s64 priority;
> + The priority of this message. Receiving messages (see below) may
> + optionally be constrained to messages of a minimal priority. This
> + allows for use cases where timing critical data is interleaved with
> + control data on the same connection. If unused, the priority should be
> + set to zero.
> +
> + __u64 dst_id;
> + The numeric ID of the destination connection, or KDBUS_DST_ID_BROADCAST
> + (~0ULL) to address every peer on the bus, or KDBUS_DST_ID_NAME (0) to look
> + it up dynamically from the bus' name registry. In the latter case, an item
> + of type KDBUS_ITEM_DST_NAME is mandatory.
> +
> + __u64 src_id;
> + Upon return of the ioctl, this member will contain the sending
> + connection's numerical ID. Should be 0 at send time.
> +
> + __u64 payload_type;
> + Type of the payload in the actual data records. Currently, only
> + KDBUS_PAYLOAD_DBUS is accepted as input value of this field. When
> + receiving messages that are generated by the kernel (notifications),
> + this field will yield KDBUS_PAYLOAD_KERNEL.
> +
> + __u64 cookie;
> + Cookie of this message, for later recognition. Also, when replying
> + to a message (see above), the cookie_reply field must match this value.
> +
> + __u64 timeout_ns;
> + If the message sent requires a reply from the remote peer (see above),
> + this field contains the timeout in absolute nanoseconds based on
> + CLOCK_MONOTONIC.
> +
> + __u64 cookie_reply;
> + If the message sent is a reply to another message, this field must
> + match the cookie of the formerly received message.
> +
> + __u64 offset_reply;
> + If the message successfully got a synchronous reply (see above), this
> + field will yield the offset of the reply message in the sender's pool.
> + Is is what KDBUS_CMD_MSG_RECV usually does for asynchronous messages.
> +
> + struct kdbus_item items[0];
> + A dynamically sized list of items to contain additional information.
> + The following items are expected/valid:
> +
> + KDBUS_ITEM_PAYLOAD_VEC
> + KDBUS_ITEM_PAYLOAD_MEMFD
> + KDBUS_ITEM_FDS
> + Actual data records containing the payload. See section "Passing of
> + Payload Data".
> +
> + KDBUS_ITEM_BLOOM_FILTER
> + Bloom filter for matches (see below).
> +
> + KDBUS_ITEM_DST_NAME
> + Well-known name to send this message to. Required if dst_id is set
> + to KDBUS_DST_ID_NAME. If a connection holding the given name can't
> + be found, -ESRCH is returned.
> + For messages to a unique name (ID), this item is optional. If present,
> + the kernel will make sure the name owner matches the given unique name.
> + This allows userspace tie the message sending to the condition that a
> + name is currently owned by a certain unique name.
> +};
> +
> +The message will be augmented by the requested metadata items when queued into
> +the receiver's pool. See also section 13.1 ("Metadata and namespaces").
> +
> +
> +7.2 Message layout
> +------------------
> +
> +The layout of a message is shown below.
> +
> + +-------------------------------------------------------------------------+
> + | Message |
> + | +---------------------------------------------------------------------+ |
> + | | Header | |
> + | | size: overall message size, including the data records | |
> + | | destination: connection id of the receiver | |
> + | | source: connection id of the sender (set by kernel) | |
> + | | payload_type: "DBusDBus" textual identifier stored as uint64_t | |
> + | +---------------------------------------------------------------------+ |
> + | +---------------------------------------------------------------------+ |
> + | | Data Record | |
> + | | size: overall record size (without padding) | |
> + | | type: type of data | |
> + | | data: reference to data (address or file descriptor) | |
> + | +---------------------------------------------------------------------+ |
> + | +---------------------------------------------------------------------+ |
> + | | padding bytes to the next 8 byte alignment | |
> + | +---------------------------------------------------------------------+ |
> + | +---------------------------------------------------------------------+ |
> + | | Data Record | |
> + | | size: overall record size (without padding) | |
> + | | ... | |
> + | +---------------------------------------------------------------------+ |
> + | +---------------------------------------------------------------------+ |
> + | | padding bytes to the next 8 byte alignment | |
> + | +---------------------------------------------------------------------+ |
> + | +---------------------------------------------------------------------+ |
> + | | Data Record | |
> + | | size: overall record size | |
> + | | ... | |
> + | +---------------------------------------------------------------------+ |
> + | +---------------------------------------------------------------------+ |
> + | | padding bytes to the next 8 byte alignment | |
> + | +---------------------------------------------------------------------+ |
> + +-------------------------------------------------------------------------+
> +
> +
> +7.3 Passing of Payload Data
> +---------------------------
> +
> +When connecting to the bus, receivers request a memory pool of a given size,
> +large enough to carry all backlog of data enqueued for the connection. The
> +pool is internally backed by a shared memory file which can be mmap()ed by
> +the receiver.
> +
> +KDBUS_MSG_PAYLOAD_VEC:
> + Messages are directly copied by the sending process into the receiver's pool,
> + that way two peers can exchange data by effectively doing a single-copy from
> + one process to another, the kernel will not buffer the data anywhere else.
> +
> +KDBUS_MSG_PAYLOAD_MEMFD:
> + Messages can reference memfd files which contain the data.
> + memfd files are tmpfs-backed files that allow sealing of the content of the
> + file, which prevents all writable access to the file content.
> + Only sealed memfd files are accepted as payload data, which enforces
> + reliable passing of data; the receiver can assume that neither the sender nor
> + anyone else can alter the content after the message is sent.
> +
> +Apart from the sender filling-in the content into memfd files, the data will
> +be passed as zero-copy from one process to another, read-only, shared between
> +the peers.
> +
> +
> +7.4 Receiving messages
> +----------------------
> +
> +Messages are received by the client with the KDBUS_CMD_MSG_RECV ioctl. The
> +endpoint device node of the bus supports poll() to wake up the receiving
> +process when new messages are queued up to be received.
> +
> +With the KDBUS_CMD_MSG_RECV ioctl, a struct kdbus_cmd_recv is used.
> +
> +struct kdbus_cmd_recv {
> + __u64 flags;
> + Flags to control the receive command.
> +
> + KDBUS_RECV_PEEK
> + Just return the location of the next message. Do not install file
> + descriptors or anything else. This is usually used to determine the
> + sender of the next queued message.
> +
> + KDBUS_RECV_DROP
> + Drop the next message without doing anything else with it, and free the
> + pool slice. This a short-cut for KDBUS_RECV_PEEK and KDBUS_CMD_FREE.
> +
> + KDBUS_RECV_USE_PRIORITY
> + Use the priority field (see below).
> +
> + __u64 kernel_flags;
> + Valid flags for this command, returned by the kernel upon each call.
> +
> + __s64 priority;
> + With KDBUS_RECV_USE_PRIORITY set in flags, receive the next message in
> + the queue with at least the given priority. If no such message is waiting
> + in the queue, -ENOMSG is returned.
> +
> + __u64 offset;
> + Upon return of the ioctl, this field contains the offset in the
> + receiver's memory pool.
> +};
> +
> +Unless KDBUS_RECV_DROP was passed, and given that the ioctl succeeded, the
> +offset field contains the location of the new message inside the receiver's
> +pool. The message is stored as struct kdbus_msg at this offset, and can be
> +interpreted with the semantics described above.
> +
> +Also, if the connection allowed for file descriptor to be passed
> +(KDBUS_HELLO_ACCEPT_FD), and if the message contained any, they will be
> +installed into the receiving process after the KDBUS_CMD_MSG_RECV ioctl
> +returns. The receiving task is obliged to close all of them appropriately.
> +
> +The caller is obliged to call KDBUS_CMD_FREE with the returned offset when
> +the memory is no longer needed.
> +
> +
> +7.5 Canceling messages synchronously waiting for replies
> +--------------------------------------------------------
> +
> +When a connection sends a message with KDBUS_MSG_FLAGS_SYNC_REPLY and
> +blocks while waiting for the reply, the KDBUS_CMD_MSG_CANCEL ioctl can be
> +used on the same file descriptor to cancel the message, based on its cookie.
> +If there are multiple messages with the same cookie that are all synchronously
> +waiting for a reply, all of them will be canceled. Obviously, this is only
> +possible in multi-threaded applications.
> +
> +
> +8. Name registry
> +===============================================================================
> +
> +Each bus instantiates a name registry to resolve well-known names into unique
> +connection IDs for message delivery. The registry will be queried when a
> +message is sent with kdbus_msg.dst_id set to KDBUS_DST_ID_NAME, or when a
> +registry dump is requested.
> +
> +All of the below is subject to policy rules for SEE and OWN permissions.
> +
> +
> +8.1 Name validity
> +-----------------
> +
> +A name has to comply to the following rules to be considered valid:
> +
> + - The name has two or more elements separated by a period ('.') character
> + - All elements must contain at least one character
> + - Each element must only contain the ASCII characters "[A-Z][a-z][0-9]_"
> + and must not begin with a digit
> + - The name must contain at least one '.' (period) character
> + (and thus at least two elements)
> + - The name must not begin with a '.' (period) character
> + - The name must not exceed KDBUS_NAME_MAX_LEN (255)
> +
> +
> +8.2 Acquiring a name
> +--------------------
> +
> +To acquire a name, a client uses the KDBUS_CMD_NAME_ACQUIRE ioctl with the
> +following data structure.
> +
> +struct kdbus_cmd_name {
> + __u64 size;
> + The overall size of this struct, including the name with its 0-byte string
> + terminator.
> +
> + __u64 flags;
> + Flags to control details in the name acquisition.
> +
> + KDBUS_NAME_REPLACE_EXISTING
> + Acquiring a name that is already present usually fails, unless this flag
> + is set in the call, and KDBUS_NAME_ALLOW_REPLACEMENT or (see below) was
> + set when the current owner of the name acquired it, or if the current
> + owner is an activator connection (see below).
> +
> + KDBUS_NAME_ALLOW_REPLACEMENT
> + Allow other connections to take over this name. When this happens, the
> + former owner of the connection will be notified of the name loss.
> +
> + KDBUS_NAME_QUEUE (acquire)
> + A name that is already acquired by a connection, and which wasn't
> + requested with the KDBUS_NAME_ALLOW_REPLACEMENT flag set can not be
> + acquired again. However, a connection can put itself in a queue of
> + connections waiting for the name to be released. Once that happens, the
> + first connection in that queue becomes the new owner and is notified
> + accordingly.
> +
> + __u64 kernel_flags;
> + Valid flags for this command, returned by the kernel upon each call.
> +
> + struct kdbus_item items[0];
> + Items to submit the name. Currently, one one item of type KDBUS_ITEM_NAME

one one

> + is expected and allowed, and the contained string must be a valid bus name.
> +};
> +
> +
> +8.3 Releasing a name
> +--------------------
> +
> +A connection may release a name explicitly with the KDBUS_CMD_NAME_RELEASE
> +ioctl. If the connection was an implementor of an activatable name, its
> +pending messages are moved back to the activator. If there are any connections
> +queued up as waiters for the name, the oldest one of them will become the new
> +owner. The same happens implicitly for all names once a connection terminates.
> +
> +The KDBUS_CMD_NAME_RELEASE ioctl uses the same data structure as the
> +acquisition call, but with slightly different field usage.
> +
> +struct kdbus_cmd_name {
> + __u64 size;
> + The overall size of this struct, including the name with its 0-byte string
> + terminator.
> +
> + __u64 flags;
> +
> + struct kdbus_item items[0];
> + Items to submit the name. Currently, one one item of type KDBUS_ITEM_NAME

one one

> + is expected and allowed, and the contained string must be a valid bus name.
> +};
> +
> +
> +8.4 Dumping the name registry
> +-----------------------------
> +
> +A connection may request a complete or filtered dump of currently active bus
> +names with the KDBUS_CMD_NAME_LIST ioctl, which takes a struct
> +kdbus_cmd_name_list as argument.
> +
> +struct kdbus_cmd_name_list {
> + __u64 flags;
> + Any combination of flags to specify which names should be dumped.
> +
> + KDBUS_NAME_LIST_UNIQUE
> + List the unique (numeric) IDs of the connection, whether it owns a name
> + or not.
> +
> + KDBUS_NAME_LIST_NAMES
> + List well-known names stored in the database which are actively owned by
> + a real connection (not an activator).
> +
> + KDBUS_NAME_LIST_ACTIVATORS
> + List names that are owned by an activator.
> +
> + KDBUS_NAME_LIST_QUEUED
> + List connections that are not yet owning a name but are waiting for it
> + to become available.
> +
> + __u64 offset;
> + When the ioctl returns successfully, the offset to the name registry dump
> + inside the connection's pool will be stored in this field.
> +};
> +
> +The returned list of names is stored in a struct kdbus_name_list that in turn
> +contains a dynamic number of struct kdbus_cmd_name that carry the actual
> +information. The fields inside that struct kdbus_cmd_name is described next.
> +
> +struct kdbus_name_info {
> + __u64 size;
> + The overall size of this struct, including the name with its 0-byte string
> + terminator.
> +
> + __u64 flags;
> + The current flags for this name. Can be any combination of
> +
> + KDBUS_NAME_ALLOW_REPLACEMENT
> +
> + KDBUS_NAME_IN_QUEUE (list)
> + When retrieving a list of currently acquired name in the registry, this
> + flag indicates whether the connection actually owns the name or is
> + currently waiting for it to become available.
> +
> + KDBUS_NAME_ACTIVATOR (list)
> + An activator connection owns a name as a placeholder for an implementor,
> + which is started on demand as soon as the first message arrives. There's
> + some more information on this topic below. In contrast to
> + KDBUS_NAME_REPLACE_EXISTING, when a name is taken over from an activator
> + connection, all the messages that have been queued in the activator
> + connection will be moved over to the new owner. The activator connection
> + will still be tracked for the name and will take control again if the
> + implementor connection terminates.
> + This flag can not be used when acquiring a name, but is implicitly set
> + through KDBUS_CMD_HELLO with KDBUS_HELLO_ACTIVATOR set in
> + kdbus_cmd_hello.conn_flags.
> +
> + __u64 owner_id;
> + The owning connection's unique ID.
> +
> + __u64 conn_flags;
> + The flags of the owning connection.
> +
> + struct kdbus_item items[0];
> + Items containing the actual name. Currently, one one item of type

one one

> + KDBUS_ITEM_NAME will be attached.
> +};
> +
> +The returned buffer must be freed with the KDBUS_CMD_FREE ioctl when the user
> +is finished with it.
> +
> +
> +9. Notifications
> +===============================================================================
> +
> +The kernel will notify its users of the following events.
> +
> + * When connection A is terminated while connection B is waiting for a reply
> + from it, connection B is notified with a message with an item of type
> + KDBUS_ITEM_REPLY_DEAD.
> +
> + * When connection A does not receive a reply from connection B within the
> + specified timeout window, connection A will receive a message with an item
> + of type KDBUS_ITEM_REPLY_TIMEOUT.
> +
> + * When a connection is created on or removed from a bus, messages with an
> + item of type KDBUS_ITEM_ID_ADD or KDBUS_ITEM_ID_REMOVE, respectively, are
> + sent to all bus members that match these messages through their match
> + database.
> +
> + * When a connection owns or loses a name, or a name is moved from one
> + connection to another, messages with an item of type KDBUS_ITEM_NAME_ADD,
> + KDBUS_ITEM_NAME_REMOVE or KDBUS_ITEM_NAME_CHANGE are sent to all bus
> + members that match these messages through their match database.
> +
> +A kernel notification is a regular kdbus message with the following details.
> +
> + * kdbus_msg.src_id == KDBUS_SRC_ID_KERNEL
> + * kdbus_msg.dst_id == KDBUS_DST_ID_BROADCAST
> + * kdbus_msg.payload_type == KDBUS_PAYLOAD_KERNEL
> + * Has exactly one of the aforementioned items attached
> +
> +
> +10. Message Matching, Bloom filters
> +===============================================================================
> +
> +10.1 Matches for broadcast messages from other connections
> +----------------------------------------------------------
> +
> +A message addressed at the connection ID KDBUS_DST_ID_BROADCAST (~0ULL) is a
> +broadcast message, delivered to all connected peers which installed a rule to
> +match certain properties of the message. Without any rules installed in the
> +connection, no broadcast message or kernel-side notifications will be delivered
> +to the connection. Broadcast messages are subject to policy rules and TALK
> +access checks.
> +
> +See section 11 for details on policies, and section 11.5 for more
> +details on implicit policies.
> +
> +Matches for messages from other connections (not kernel notifications) are
> +implemented as bloom filters. The sender adds certain properties of the message
> +as elements to a bloom filter bit field, and sends that along with the
> +broadcast message.
> +
> +The connection adds the message properties it is interested as elements to a
> +bloom mask bit field, and uploads the mask to the match rules of the
> +connection.
> +
> +The kernel will match the broadcast message's bloom filter against the
> +connections bloom mask (simply by &-ing it), and decide whether the message
> +should be delivered to the connection.
> +
> +The kernel has no notion of any specific properties of the message, all it
> +sees are the bit fields of the bloom filter and mask to match against. The
> +use of bloom filters allows simple and efficient matching, without exposing
> +any message properties or internals to the kernel side. Clients need to deal
> +with the fact that they might receive broadcasts which they did not subscribe
> +to, as the bloom filter might allow false-positives to pass the filter.
> +
> +To allow the future extension of the set of elements in the bloom filter, the
> +filter specifies a "generation" number. A later generation must always contain
> +all elements of the set of the previous generation, but can add new elements
> +to the set. The match rules mask can carry an array with all previous
> +generations of masks individually stored. When the filter and mask are matched
> +by the kernel, the mask with the closest matching "generation" is selected
> +as the index into the mask array.
> +
> +
> +10.2 Matches for kernel notifications
> +------------------------------------
> +
> +To receive kernel generated notifications (see section 9), a connection must
> +install special match rules that are different from the bloom filter matches
> +described in the section above. They can be filtered by a sender connection's
> +ID, by one of the name the sender connection owns at the time of sending the
> +message, or by type of the notification (id/name add/remove/change).
> +
> +10.3 Adding a match
> +-------------------
> +
> +To add a match, the KDBUS_CMD_MATCH_ADD ioctl is used, which takes a struct
> +of the struct described below.
> +
> +Note that each of the items attached to this command will internally create
> +one match 'rule', and the collection of them, which is submitted as one block
> +via the ioctl is called a 'match'. To allow a message to pass, all rules of a
> +match have to be satisfied. Hence, adding more items to the command will only
> +narrow the possibility of a match to effectively let the message pass, and will
> +cause the connection's user space process to wake up less likely.
> +
> +Multiple matches can be installed per connection. As long as one of it has a
> +set of rules which allows the message to pass, this one will be decisive.
> +
> +struct kdbus_cmd_match {
> + __u64 size;
> + The overall size of the struct, including its items.
> +
> + __u64 cookie;
> + A cookie which identifies the match, so it can be referred to at removal
> + time.
> +
> + __u64 flags;
> + Flags to control the behavior of the ioctl.
> +
> + KDBUS_MATCH_REPLACE:
> + Remove all entries with the given cookie before installing the new one.
> + This allows for race-free replacement of matches.
> +
> + struct kdbus_item items[0];
> + Items to define the actual rules of the matches. The following item types
> + are expected. Each item will cause one new match rule to be created.
> +
> + KDBUS_ITEM_BLOOM_MASK
> + An item that carries the bloom filter mask to match against in its
> + data field. The payload size must match the bloom filter size that
> + was specified when the bus was created.
> + See section 10.4 for more information.
> +
> + KDBUS_ITEM_NAME
> + Specify a name that a sending connection must own at a time of sending
> + a broadcast message in order to match this rule.
> +
> + KDBUS_ITEM_ID
> + Specify a sender connection's ID that will match this rule.
> +
> + KDBUS_ITEM_NAME_ADD
> + KDBUS_ITEM_NAME_REMOVE
> + KDBUS_ITEM_NAME_CHANGE
> + These items request delivery of broadcast messages that describe a name
> + acquisition, loss, or change. The details are stored in the item's
> + kdbus_notify_name_change member. All information specified must be
> + matched in order to make the message pass. Use KDBUS_MATCH_ID_ANY to
> + match against any unique connection ID.
> +
> + KDBUS_ITEM_ID_ADD
> + KDBUS_ITEM_ID_REMOVE
> + These items request delivery of broadcast messages that are generated
> + when a connection is created or terminated. struct kdbus_notify_id_change
> + is used to store the actual match information. This item can be used to
> + monitor one particular connection ID, or, when the id field is set to
> + KDBUS_MATCH_ID_ANY, all of them.
> +
> + Other item types are ignored.
> +};
> +
> +
> +10.4 Bloom filters
> +------------------
> +
> +Bloom filters allow checking whether a given word is present in a dictionary.
> +This allows connections to set up a mask for information it is interested in,
> +and will be delivered broadcast messages that have a matching filter.
> +
> +For general information on bloom filters, see
> +
> + https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bloom_filter
> +
> +The size of the bloom filter is defined per bus when it is created, in
> +kdbus_bloom_parameter.size. All bloom filters attached to broadcast messages
> +on the bus must match this size, and all bloom filter matches uploaded by
> +connections must also match the size, or a multiple thereof (see below).
> +
> +The calculation of the mask has to be done on the userspace side. The kernel
> +just checks the bitmasks to decide whether or not to let the message pass. All
> +bits in the mask must match the filter in and bit-wise AND logic, but the
> +mask may have more bits set than the filter. Consequently, false positive
> +matches are expected to happen, and userspace must deal with that fact.
> +
> +Masks are entities that are always passed to the kernel as part of a match
> +(with an item of type KDBUS_ITEM_BLOOM_MASK), and filters can be attached to
> +broadcast messages (with an item of type KDBUS_ITEM_BLOOM_FILTER).
> +
> +For a broadcast to match, all set bits in the filter have to be set in the
> +installed match mask as well. For example, consider a bus has a bloom size
> +of 8 bytes, and the following mask/filter combinations:
> +
> + filter 0x0101010101010101
> + mask 0x0101010101010101
> + -> matches
> +
> + filter 0x0303030303030303
> + mask 0x0101010101010101
> + -> doesn't match
> +
> + filter 0x0101010101010101
> + mask 0x0303030303030303
> + -> matches
> +
> +Hence, in order to catch all messages, a mask filled with 0xff bytes can be
> +installed as a wildcard match rule.
> +
> +Uploaded matches may contain multiple masks, each of which in the size of the
> +bloom size defined by the bus. Each block of a mask is called a 'generation',
> +starting at index 0.
> +
> +At match time, when a broadcast message is about to be delivered, a bloom
> +mask generation is passed, which denotes which of the bloom masks the filter
> +should be matched against. This allows userspace to provide backward compatible
> +masks at upload time, while older clients can still match against older
> +versions of filters.
> +
> +
> +10.5 Removing a match
> +--------------------
> +
> +Matches can be removed through the KDBUS_CMD_MATCH_REMOVE ioctl, which again
> +takes struct kdbus_cmd_match as argument, but its fields are used slightly
> +differently.
> +
> +struct kdbus_cmd_match {
> + __u64 size;
> + The overall size of the struct. As it has no items in this use case, the
> + value should yield 16.
> +
> + __u64 cookie;
> + The cookie of the match, as it was passed when the match was added.
> + All matches that have this cookie will be removed.
> +
> + __u64 flags;
> + Unused for this use case,
> +
> + __u64 kernel_flags;
> + Valid flags for this command, returned by the kernel upon each call.
> +
> + struct kdbus_item items[0];
> + Unused for this use case.
> +};
> +
> +
> +11. Policy
> +===============================================================================
> +
> +A policy databases restrict the possibilities of connections to own, see and
> +talk to well-known names. It can be associated with a bus (through a policy
> +holder connection) or a custom endpoint.
> +
> +See section 8.1 for more details on the validity of well-known names.
> +
> +Default endpoints of buses always have a policy database. The default
> +policy is to deny all operations except for operations that are covered by
> +implicit policies. Custom endpoints always have a policy, and by default,
> +a policy database is empty. Therefore, unless policy rules are added, all
> +operations will also be denied by default.
> +
> +See section 11.5 for more details on implicit policies.
> +
> +A set of policy rules is described by a name and multiple access rules, defined
> +by the following struct.
> +
> +struct kdbus_policy_access {
> + __u64 type; /* USER, GROUP, WORLD */
> + One of the following.
> +
> + KDBUS_POLICY_ACCESS_USER
> + Grant access to a user with the uid stored in the 'id' field.
> +
> + KDBUS_POLICY_ACCESS_GROUP
> + Grant access to a user with the gid stored in the 'id' field.
> +
> + KDBUS_POLICY_ACCESS_WORLD
> + Grant access to everyone. The 'id' field is ignored.
> +
> + __u64 access; /* OWN, TALK, SEE */
> + The access to grant.
> +
> + KDBUS_POLICY_SEE
> + Allow the name to be seen.
> +
> + KDBUS_POLICY_TALK
> + Allow the name to be talked to.
> +
> + KDBUS_POLICY_OWN
> + Allow the name to be owned.
> +
> + __u64 id;
> + For KDBUS_POLICY_ACCESS_USER, stores the uid.
> + For KDBUS_POLICY_ACCESS_GROUP, stores the gid.
> +};
> +
> +Policies are set through KDBUS_CMD_HELLO (when creating a policy holder
> +connection), KDBUS_CMD_CONN_UPDATE (when updating a policy holder connection),
> +KDBUS_CMD_ENDPOINT_MAKE (creating a custom endpoint) or
> +KDBUS_CMD_ENDPOINT_UPDATE (updating a custom endpoint). In all cases, the name
> +and policy access information is stored in items of type KDBUS_ITEM_NAME and
> +KDBUS_ITEM_POLICY_ACCESS. For this transport, the following rules apply.
> +
> + * An item of type KDBUS_ITEM_NAME must be followed by at least one
> + KDBUS_ITEM_POLICY_ACCESS item
> + * An item of type KDBUS_ITEM_NAME can be followed by an arbitrary number of
> + KDBUS_ITEM_POLICY_ACCESS items
> + * An arbitrary number of groups of names and access levels can be passed
> +
> +uids and gids are internally always stored in the kernel's view of global ids,
> +and are translated back and forth on the ioctl level accordingly.
> +
> +
> +11.2 Wildcard names
> +-------------------
> +
> +Policy holder connections may upload names that contain the wildcard suffix
> +(".*"). That way, a policy can be uploaded that is effective for every
> +well-kwown name that extends the provided name by exactly one more level.
> +
> +For example, if an item of a set up uploaded policy rules contains the name
> +"foo.bar.*", both "foo.bar.baz" and "foo.bar.bazbaz" are valid, but
> +"foo.bar.baz.baz" is not.
> +
> +This allows connections to take control over multiple names that the policy
> +holder doesn't need to know about when uploading the policy.
> +
> +Such wildcard entries are not allowed for custom endpoints.
> +
> +
> +11.3 Policy example
> +-------------------
> +
> +For example, a set of policy rules may look like this:
> +
> + KDBUS_ITEM_NAME: str='org.foo.bar'
> + KDBUS_ITEM_POLICY_ACCESS: type=USER, access=OWN, id=1000
> + KDBUS_ITEM_POLICY_ACCESS: type=USER, access=TALK, id=1001
> + KDBUS_ITEM_POLICY_ACCESS: type=WORLD, access=SEE
> + KDBUS_ITEM_NAME: str='org.blah.baz'
> + KDBUS_ITEM_POLICY_ACCESS: type=USER, access=OWN, id=0
> + KDBUS_ITEM_POLICY_ACCESS: type=WORLD, access=TALK
> +
> +That means that 'org.foo.bar' may only be owned by uid 1000, but every user on
> +the bus is allowed to see the name. However, only uid 1001 may actually send
> +a message to the connection and receive a reply from it.
> +
> +The second rule allows 'org.blah.baz' to be owned by uid 0 only, but every user
> +may talk to it.
> +
> +
> +11.4 TALK access and multiple well-known names per connection
> +-------------------------------------------------------------
> +
> +Note that TALK access is checked against all names of a connection.
> +For example, if a connection owns both 'org.foo.bar' and 'org.blah.baz', and
> +the policy database allows 'org.blah.baz' to be talked to by WORLD, then this
> +permission is also granted to 'org.foo.bar'. That might sound illogical, but
> +after all, we allow messages to be directed to either the name or a well-known
> +name, and policy is applied to the connection, not the name. In other words,
> +the effective TALK policy for a connection is the most permissive of all names
> +the connection owns.
> +
> +If a policy database exists for a bus (because a policy holder created one on
> +demand) or for a custom endpoint (which always has one), each one is consulted
> +during name registry listing, name owning or message delivery. If either one
> +fails, the operation is failed with -EPERM.
> +
> +For best practices, connections that own names with a restricted TALK
> +access should not install matches. This avoids cases where the sent
> +message may pass the bloom filter due to false-positives and may also
> +satisfy the policy rules.
> +
> +11.5 Implicit policies
> +----------------------
> +
> +Depending on the type of the endpoint, a set of implicit rules might be
> +enforced. On default endpoints, the following set is enforced:
> +
> + * Privileged connections always override any installed policy. Those
> + connections could easily install their own policies, so there is no
> + reason to enforce installed policies.
> + * Connections can always talk to connections of the same user. This
> + includes broadcast messages.
> + * Connections that own names might send broadcast messages to other
> + connections that belong to a different user, but only if that
> + destination connection does not own any name.
> +
> +Custom endpoints have stricter policies. The following rules apply:
> +
> + * Policy rules are always enforced, even if the connection is a privileged
> + connection.
> + * Policy rules are always enforced for TALK access, even if both ends are
> + running under the same user. This includes broadcast messages.
> + * To restrict the set of names that can be seen, endpoint policies can
> + install "SEE" policies.
> +
> +
> +12. Pool
> +===============================================================================
> +
> +A pool for data received from the kernel is installed for every connection of
> +the bus, and is sized according to kdbus_cmd_hello.pool_size. It is accessed
> +when one of the following ioctls is issued:
> +
> + * KDBUS_CMD_MSG_RECV, to receive a message
> + * KDBUS_CMD_NAME_LIST, to dump the name registry
> + * KDBUS_CMD_CONN_INFO, to retrieve information on a connection
> +
> +Internally, the pool is organized in slices, stored in an rb-tree. The offsets
> +returned by either one of the aforementioned ioctls describe offsets inside the
> +pool. In order to make the slice available for subsequent calls, KDBUS_CMD_FREE
> +has to be called on the offset.
> +
> +To access the memory, the caller is expected to mmap() it to its task, like
> +this:
> +
> + /*
> + * POOL_SIZE has to be a multiple of PAGE_SIZE, and it must match the
> + * value that was previously passed in the .pool_size field of struct
> + * kdbus_cmd_hello.
> + */
> +
> + buf = mmap(NULL, POOL_SIZE, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, conn_fd, 0);
> +
> +
> +13. Metadata
> +===============================================================================
> +
> +When a message is delivered to a receiver connection, it is augmented by
> +metadata items in accordance to the destination's current attach flags. The
> +information stored in those metadata items refer to the sender task at the
> +time of sending the message, so even if any detail of the sender task has
> +already changed upon message reception (or if the sender task does not exist
> +anymore), the information is still preserved and won't be modfied until the
> +message is freed.
> +
> +Note that there are two exceptions to the above rules:
> +
> + a) Kernel generated messages don't have a source connection, so they won't be
> + augmented.
> +
> + b) If a connection was created with faked credentials (see section 6.2),
> + the only attached metadata items are the ones provided by the connection
> + itself. The destination's attach_flags won't be looked at in such cases.
> +
> +Also, there are two things to be considered by userspace programs regarding
> +those metadata items:
> +
> + a) Userspace must cope with the fact that it might get more metadata than
> + they requested. That happens, for example, when a broadcast message is
> + sent and receivers have different attach flags. Items that haven't been
> + requested should hence be silently ignored.
> +
> + b) Userspace might not always get all requested metadata items that it
> + requested. That is because some of those items are only added if a
> + corresponding kernel feature has been enabled. Also, the two exceptions
> + described above will as well lead to less items be attached than
> + requested.
> +
> +
> +13.1 Known item types
> +---------------------
> +
> +The following attach flags are currently supported.
> +
> + KDBUS_ATTACH_TIMESTAMP
> + Attaches an item of type KDBUS_ITEM_TIMESTAMP which contains both the
> + monotonic and the realtime timestamp, taken when the message was
> + processed on the kernel side.
> +
> + KDBUS_ATTACH_CREDS
> + Attaches an item of type KDBUS_ITEM_CREDS, containing credentials as
> + described in kdbus_creds: the uid, gid, pid, tid and starttime of the task.
> +
> + KDBUS_ATTACH_AUXGROUPS
> + Attaches an item of type KDBUS_ITEM_AUXGROUPS, containing a dynamic
> + number of auxiliary groups the sending task was a member of.
> +
> + KDBUS_ATTACH_NAMES
> + Attaches items of type KDBUS_ITEM_NAME, one for each name the sending
> + connection currently owns. The name is stored in kdbus_item.str for each
> + of them.
> +
> + KDBUS_ATTACH_COMM
> + Attaches an items of type KDBUS_ITEM_PID_COMM and KDBUS_ITEM_TID_COMM,
> + both transporting the sending task's 'comm', for both the pid and the tid.
> + The strings are stored in kdbus_item.str.
> +
> + KDBUS_ATTACH_EXE
> + Attaches an item of type KDBUS_ITEM_EXE, containing the path to the
> + executable of the sending task, stored in kdbus_item.str.
> +
> + KDBUS_ATTACH_CMDLINE
> + Attaches an item of type KDBUS_ITEM_CMDLINE, containing the command line
> + arguments of the sending task, as an array of strings, stored in
> + kdbus_item.str.
> +
> + KDBUS_ATTACH_CGROUP
> + Attaches an item of type KDBUS_ITEM_CGROUP with the task's cgroup path.
> +
> + KDBUS_ATTACH_CAPS
> + Attaches an item of type KDBUS_ITEM_CAPS, carrying sets of capabilities
> + that should be accessed via kdbus_item.caps.caps. Also, userspace should
> + be written in a way that it takes kdbus_item.caps.last_cap into account,
> + and derive the number of sets and rows from the item size and the reported
> + number of valid capability bits.
> +
> + KDBUS_ATTACH_SECLABEL
> + Attaches an item of type KDBUS_ITEM_SECLABEL, which contains the SELinux
> + security label of the sending task. Access via kdbus_item->str.
> +
> + KDBUS_ATTACH_AUDIT
> + Attaches an item of type KDBUS_ITEM_AUDIT, which contains the audio label
> + of the sending taskj. Access via kdbus_item->str.
> +
> + KDBUS_ATTACH_CONN_NAME
> + Attaches an item of type KDBUS_ITEM_CONN_NAME that contain's the
> + sending's connection current name in kdbus_item.str.
> +
> +
> +13.1 Metadata and namespaces
> +----------------------------
> +Note that if the user or PID namespaces of a connection at the time of sending
> +differ from those that were active then the connection was created
> +(KDBUS_CMD_HELLO), data structures such as messages will not have any metadata
> +attached to prevent leaking security-relevant information.
> +
> +
> +14. Error codes
> +===============================================================================
> +
> +Below is a list of error codes that might be returned by the individual
> +ioctl commands. The list focuses on the return values from kdbus code itself,
> +and might not cover those of all kernel internal functions.
> +
> +For all ioctls:
> +
> + -ENOMEM The kernel memory is exhausted
> + -ENOTTY Illegal ioctl command issued for the file descriptor
> + -ENOSYS The requested functionality is not available
> +
> +For all ioctls that carry a struct as payload:
> +
> + -EFAULT The supplied data pointer was not 64-bit aligned, or was
> + inaccessible from the kernel side.
> + -EINVAL The size inside the supplied struct was smaller than expected
> + -EMSGSIZE The size inside the supplied struct was bigger than expected
> + -ENAMETOOLONG A supplied name is larger than the allowed maximum size
> +
> +For KDBUS_CMD_BUS_MAKE:
> +
> + -EINVAL The flags supplied in the kdbus_cmd_make struct are invalid or
> + the supplied name does not start with the current uid and a '-'
> + -EEXIST A bus of that name already exists
> + -ESHUTDOWN The domain for the bus is already shut down
> + -EMFILE The maximum number of buses for the current user is exhausted
> +
> +For KDBUS_CMD_DOMAIN_MAKE:
> +
> + -EPERM The calling user does not have CAP_IPC_OWNER set, or
> + -EINVAL The flags supplied in the kdbus_cmd_make struct are invalid, or
> + no name supplied for top-level domain
> + -EEXIST A domain of that name already exists
> +
> +For KDBUS_CMD_ENDPOINT_MAKE:
> +
> + -EPERM The calling user is not privileged (see Terminology)
> + -EINVAL The flags supplied in the kdbus_cmd_make struct are invalid
> + -EEXIST An endpoint of that name already exists
> +
> +For KDBUS_CMD_HELLO:
> +
> + -EFAULT The supplied pool size was 0 or not a multiple of the page size
> + -EINVAL The flags supplied in the kdbus_cmd_make struct are invalid, or
> + an illegal combination of KDBUS_HELLO_MONITOR,
> + KDBUS_HELLO_ACTIVATOR and KDBUS_HELLO_POLICY_HOLDER was passed
> + in the flags, or an invalid set of items was supplied
> + -EPERM An KDBUS_ITEM_CREDS items was supplied, but the current user is
> + not privileged
> + -ESHUTDOWN The bus has already been shut down
> + -EMFILE The maximum number of connection on the bus has been reached
> +
> +For KDBUS_CMD_BYEBYE:
> +
> + -EALREADY The connection has already been shut down
> + -EBUSY There are still messages queued up in the connection's pool
> +
> +For KDBUS_CMD_MSG_SEND:
> +
> + -EOPNOTSUPP The connection is unconnected, or a fd was passed that is
> + either a kdbus handle itself or a unix domain socket. Both is
> + currently unsupported.
> + -EINVAL The submitted payload type is KDBUS_PAYLOAD_KERNEL,
> + KDBUS_MSG_FLAGS_EXPECT_REPLY was set without a timeout value,
> + KDBUS_MSG_FLAGS_SYNC_REPLY was set without
> + KDBUS_MSG_FLAGS_EXPECT_REPLY, an invalid item was supplied,
> + src_id was != 0 and different from the current connection's ID,
> + a supplied memfd had a size of 0, a string was not properly
> + nul-terminated
> + -ENOTUNIQ KDBUS_MSG_FLAGS_EXPECT_REPLY was set, but the dst_id is set
> + to KDBUS_DST_ID_BROADCAST
> + -E2BIG Too many items
> + -EMSGSIZE A payload vector was too big, and the current user is
> + unprivileged.
> + -ENOTUNIQ A fd or memfd payload was passed in a broadcast message, or
> + a timeout was given for a broadcast message
> + -EEXIST Multiple KDBUS_ITEM_FDS or KDBUS_ITEM_BLOOM_FILTER,
> + KDBUS_ITEM_DST_NAME were supplied
> + -EBADF A memfd item contained an illegal fd
> + -EMEDIUMTYPE A file descriptor which is not a kdbus memfd was
> + refused to send as KDBUS_MSG_PAYLOAD_MEMFD.
> + -EMFILE Too many file descriptors inside a KDBUS_ITEM_FDS
> + -EBADMSG An item had illegal size, both a dst_id and a
> + KDBUS_ITEM_DST_NAME was given, or both a name and a bloom
> + filter was given
> + -ETXTBSY A kdbus memfd file cannot be sealed or the seal removed,
> + because it is shared with other processes or still mmap()ed
> + -ECOMM A peer does not accept the file descriptors addressed to it
> + -EFAULT The supplied bloom filter size was not 64-bit aligned
> + -EDOM The supplied bloom filter size did not match the bloom filter
> + size of the bus
> + -EDESTADDRREQ dst_id was set to KDBUS_DST_ID_NAME, but no KDBUS_ITEM_DST_NAME
> + was attached
> + -ESRCH The name to look up was not found in the name registry
> + -EADDRNOTAVAIL KDBUS_MSG_FLAGS_NO_AUTO_START was given but the destination
> + connection is an activator.
> + -ENXIO The passed numeric destination connection ID couldn't be found,
> + or is not connected
> + -ECONNRESET The destination connection is no longer active
> + -ETIMEDOUT Timeout while synchronously waiting for a reply
> + -EINTR System call interrupted while synchronously waiting for a reply
> + -EPIPE When sending a message, a synchronous reply from the receiving
> + connection was expected but the connection died before
> + answering
> + -ECANCELED A synchronous message sending was cancelled
> + -ENOBUFS Too many pending messages on the receiver side
> + -EREMCHG Both a well-known name and a unique name (ID) was given, but
> + the name is not currently owned by that connection.
> +
> +For KDBUS_CMD_MSG_RECV:
> +
> + -EINVAL Invalid flags or offset
> + -EAGAIN No message found in the queue
> + -ENOMSG No message of the requested priority found
> +
> +For KDBUS_CMD_MSG_CANCEL:
> +
> + -EINVAL Invalid flags
> + -ENOENT Pending message with the supplied cookie not found
> +
> +For KDBUS_CMD_FREE:
> +
> + -ENXIO No pool slice found at given offset
> + -EINVAL Invalid flags provided, the offset is valid, but the user is
> + not allowed to free the slice. This happens, for example, if
> + the offset was retrieved with KDBUS_RECV_PEEK.
> +
> +For KDBUS_CMD_NAME_ACQUIRE:
> +
> + -EINVAL Illegal command flags, illegal name provided, or an activator
> + tried to acquire a second name
> + -EPERM Policy prohibited name ownership
> + -EALREADY Connection already owns that name
> + -EEXIST The name already exists and can not be taken over
> + -ECONNRESET The connection was reset during the call
> +
> +For KDBUS_CMD_NAME_RELEASE:
> +
> + -EINVAL Invalid command flags, or invalid name provided
> + -ESRCH Name is not found found in the registry
> + -EADDRINUSE Name is owned by a different connection and can't be released
> +
> +For KDBUS_CMD_NAME_LIST:
> +
> + -EINVAL Invalid flags
> + -ENOBUFS No available memory in the connection's pool.
> +
> +For KDBUS_CMD_CONN_INFO:
> +
> + -EINVAL Invalid flags, or neither an ID nor a name was provided,
> + or the name is invalid.
> + -ESRCH Connection lookup by name failed
> + -ENXIO No connection with the provided number connection ID found
> +
> +For KDBUS_CMD_CONN_UPDATE:
> +
> + -EINVAL Illegal flags or items
> + -EOPNOTSUPP Operation not supported by connection.
> + -E2BIG Too many policy items attached
> + -EINVAL Wildcards submitted in policy entries, or illegal sequence
> + of policy items
> +
> +For KDBUS_CMD_ENDPOINT_UPDATE:
> +
> + -E2BIG Too many policy items attached
> + -EINVAL Invalid flags, or wildcards submitted in policy entries,
> + or illegal sequence of policy items
> +
> +For KDBUS_CMD_MATCH_ADD:
> +
> + -EINVAL Illegal flags or items
> + -EDOM Illegal bloom filter size
> + -EMFILE Too many matches for this connection
> +
> +For KDBUS_CMD_MATCH_REMOVE:
> +
> + -EINVAL Illegal flags
> + -ENOENT A match entry with the given cookie could not be found.
>

--

Peter Meerwald
+43-664-2444418 (mobile)


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