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SubjectRe: [PATCH 01/23] radix-tree: implement preload for multiple contiguous elements
Date
Jan Kara wrote:
> On Wed 07-08-13 19:32:36, Kirill A. Shutemov wrote:
> > Jan Kara wrote:
> > > On Sun 04-08-13 05:17:03, Kirill A. Shutemov wrote:
> > > > From: "Kirill A. Shutemov" <kirill.shutemov@linux.intel.com>
> > > >
> > > > The radix tree is variable-height, so an insert operation not only has
> > > > to build the branch to its corresponding item, it also has to build the
> > > > branch to existing items if the size has to be increased (by
> > > > radix_tree_extend).
> > > >
> > > > The worst case is a zero height tree with just a single item at index 0,
> > > > and then inserting an item at index ULONG_MAX. This requires 2 new branches
> > > > of RADIX_TREE_MAX_PATH size to be created, with only the root node shared.
> > > >
> > > > Radix tree is usually protected by spin lock. It means we want to
> > > > pre-allocate required memory before taking the lock.
> > > >
> > > > Currently radix_tree_preload() only guarantees enough nodes to insert
> > > > one element. It's a hard limit. For transparent huge page cache we want
> > > > to insert HPAGE_PMD_NR (512 on x86-64) entries to address_space at once.
> > > >
> > > > This patch introduces radix_tree_preload_count(). It allows to
> > > > preallocate nodes enough to insert a number of *contiguous* elements.
> > > > The feature costs about 5KiB per-CPU, details below.
> > > >
> > > > Worst case for adding N contiguous items is adding entries at indexes
> > > > (ULONG_MAX - N) to ULONG_MAX. It requires nodes to insert single worst-case
> > > > item plus extra nodes if you cross the boundary from one node to the next.
> > > >
> > > > Preload uses per-CPU array to store nodes. The total cost of preload is
> > > > "array size" * sizeof(void*) * NR_CPUS. We want to increase array size
> > > > to be able to handle 512 entries at once.
> > > >
> > > > Size of array depends on system bitness and on RADIX_TREE_MAP_SHIFT.
> > > >
> > > > We have three possible RADIX_TREE_MAP_SHIFT:
> > > >
> > > > #ifdef __KERNEL__
> > > > #define RADIX_TREE_MAP_SHIFT (CONFIG_BASE_SMALL ? 4 : 6)
> > > > #else
> > > > #define RADIX_TREE_MAP_SHIFT 3 /* For more stressful testing */
> > > > #endif
> > > >
> > > > On 64-bit system:
> > > > For RADIX_TREE_MAP_SHIFT=3, old array size is 43, new is 107.
> > > > For RADIX_TREE_MAP_SHIFT=4, old array size is 31, new is 63.
> > > > For RADIX_TREE_MAP_SHIFT=6, old array size is 21, new is 30.
> > > >
> > > > On 32-bit system:
> > > > For RADIX_TREE_MAP_SHIFT=3, old array size is 21, new is 84.
> > > > For RADIX_TREE_MAP_SHIFT=4, old array size is 15, new is 46.
> > > > For RADIX_TREE_MAP_SHIFT=6, old array size is 11, new is 19.
> > > >
> > > > On most machines we will have RADIX_TREE_MAP_SHIFT=6. In this case,
> > > > on 64-bit system the per-CPU feature overhead is
> > > > for preload array:
> > > > (30 - 21) * sizeof(void*) = 72 bytes
> > > > plus, if the preload array is full
> > > > (30 - 21) * sizeof(struct radix_tree_node) = 9 * 560 = 5040 bytes
> > > > total: 5112 bytes
> > > >
> > > > on 32-bit system the per-CPU feature overhead is
> > > > for preload array:
> > > > (19 - 11) * sizeof(void*) = 32 bytes
> > > > plus, if the preload array is full
> > > > (19 - 11) * sizeof(struct radix_tree_node) = 8 * 296 = 2368 bytes
> > > > total: 2400 bytes
> > > >
> > > > Since only THP uses batched preload at the moment, we disable (set max
> > > > preload to 1) it if !CONFIG_TRANSPARENT_HUGEPAGE_PAGECACHE. This can be
> > > > changed in the future.
> > > >
> > > > Signed-off-by: Matthew Wilcox <willy@linux.intel.com>
> > > > Signed-off-by: Kirill A. Shutemov <kirill.shutemov@linux.intel.com>
> > > > Acked-by: Dave Hansen <dave.hansen@linux.intel.com>
> > > > ---
> > > > include/linux/radix-tree.h | 11 +++++++++++
> > > > lib/radix-tree.c | 41 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++---------
> > > > 2 files changed, 43 insertions(+), 9 deletions(-)
> > > ...
> > > > diff --git a/lib/radix-tree.c b/lib/radix-tree.c
> > > > index 7811ed3..99ab73c 100644
> > > > --- a/lib/radix-tree.c
> > > > +++ b/lib/radix-tree.c
> > > > @@ -82,16 +82,24 @@ static struct kmem_cache *radix_tree_node_cachep;
> > > > * The worst case is a zero height tree with just a single item at index 0,
> > > > * and then inserting an item at index ULONG_MAX. This requires 2 new branches
> > > > * of RADIX_TREE_MAX_PATH size to be created, with only the root node shared.
> > > > + *
> > > > + * Worst case for adding N contiguous items is adding entries at indexes
> > > > + * (ULONG_MAX - N) to ULONG_MAX. It requires nodes to insert single worst-case
> > > > + * item plus extra nodes if you cross the boundary from one node to the next.
> > > > + *
> > > > * Hence:
> > > > */
> > > > -#define RADIX_TREE_PRELOAD_SIZE (RADIX_TREE_MAX_PATH * 2 - 1)
> > > > +#define RADIX_TREE_PRELOAD_MIN (RADIX_TREE_MAX_PATH * 2 - 1)
> > > > +#define RADIX_TREE_PRELOAD_MAX \
> > > > + (RADIX_TREE_PRELOAD_MIN + \
> > > > + DIV_ROUND_UP(RADIX_TREE_PRELOAD_NR - 1, RADIX_TREE_MAP_SIZE))
> > > Umm, is this really correct? I see two problems:
> > > 1) You may need internal tree nodes at various levels but you seem to
> > > account only for the level 1.
> > > 2) The rounding doesn't seem right because RADIX_TREE_MAP_SIZE+2 nodes may
> > > require 3 nodes at level 1 if the indexes are like:
> > > i_0 | i_1 .. i_{RADIX_TREE_MAP_SIZE} | i_{RADIX_TREE_MAP_SIZE+1}
> > > ^ ^
> > > node boundary node boundary
> >
> > My bad. Let's try to calculate once again.
> >
> > We want to insert N contiguous items without restriction on alignment.
> >
> > Let's limit N <= 1UL << (2 * RADIX_TREE_MAP_SHIFT), without
> > CONFIG_BASE_SMALL it's 4096. It will simplify calculation a bit.
> >
> > Worst case scenario, I can imagine, is tree with only one element at index
> > 0 and we add N items where at least one index requires max tree high and
> > we cross boundary between items in root node.
> >
> > Basically, at least one index is less then
> >
> > 1UL << ((RADIX_TREE_MAX_PATH - 1) * RADIX_TREE_MAP_SHIFT)
> >
> > and one equal or more.
> >
> > In this case we need:
> >
> > - RADIX_TREE_MAX_PATH nodes to build new path to item with index 0;
> > - DIV_ROUND_UP(N, RADIX_TREE_MAP_SIZE) nodes for last level nodes for new
> > items;
> Here, I think you need to count with
> DIV_ROUND_UP(N + RADIX_TREE_MAP_SIZE - 1, RADIX_TREE_MAP_SIZE) to propely
> account for the situation b) I described.

It's not obvious for me why it's needed. Since we limit N, we can cross
second (or above) level node boundary only once.

I've tried to confirm the math with my kvm (see *ugly* patch below) and
I was not able to find anything that is not covered.

Could you demonstrate the case you are talking about.

diff --git a/include/linux/radix-tree.h b/include/linux/radix-tree.h
index 3bf0b3e..67768b6 100644
--- a/include/linux/radix-tree.h
+++ b/include/linux/radix-tree.h
@@ -63,12 +63,14 @@ static inline int radix_tree_is_indirect_ptr(void *ptr)
/* root tags are stored in gfp_mask, shifted by __GFP_BITS_SHIFT */
struct radix_tree_root {
unsigned int height;
+ unsigned int nr_nodes;
gfp_t gfp_mask;
struct radix_tree_node __rcu *rnode;
};

#define RADIX_TREE_INIT(mask) { \
.height = 0, \
+ .nr_nodes = 0, \
.gfp_mask = (mask), \
.rnode = NULL, \
}
@@ -79,6 +81,7 @@ struct radix_tree_root {
#define INIT_RADIX_TREE(root, mask) \
do { \
(root)->height = 0; \
+ (root)->nr_nodes = 0; \
(root)->gfp_mask = (mask); \
(root)->rnode = NULL; \
} while (0)
diff --git a/lib/radix-tree.c b/lib/radix-tree.c
index 99ab73c..a4d267e 100644
--- a/lib/radix-tree.c
+++ b/lib/radix-tree.c
@@ -33,7 +33,7 @@
#include <linux/bitops.h>
#include <linux/rcupdate.h>
#include <linux/hardirq.h> /* in_interrupt() */
-
+#include <linux/reboot.h>

#ifdef __KERNEL__
#define RADIX_TREE_MAP_SHIFT (CONFIG_BASE_SMALL ? 4 : 6)
@@ -44,6 +44,9 @@
#define RADIX_TREE_MAP_SIZE (1UL << RADIX_TREE_MAP_SHIFT)
#define RADIX_TREE_MAP_MASK (RADIX_TREE_MAP_SIZE-1)

+#undef RADIX_TREE_PRELOAD_NR
+#define RADIX_TREE_PRELOAD_NR (1UL << 9)
+
#define RADIX_TREE_TAG_LONGS \
((RADIX_TREE_MAP_SIZE + BITS_PER_LONG - 1) / BITS_PER_LONG)

@@ -91,8 +94,9 @@ static struct kmem_cache *radix_tree_node_cachep;
*/
#define RADIX_TREE_PRELOAD_MIN (RADIX_TREE_MAX_PATH * 2 - 1)
#define RADIX_TREE_PRELOAD_MAX \
- (RADIX_TREE_PRELOAD_MIN + \
- DIV_ROUND_UP(RADIX_TREE_PRELOAD_NR - 1, RADIX_TREE_MAP_SIZE))
+ ( RADIX_TREE_MAX_PATH + \
+ DIV_ROUND_UP(RADIX_TREE_PRELOAD_NR, RADIX_TREE_MAP_SIZE) + \
+ 2 * (RADIX_TREE_MAX_PATH - 2) )

/*
* Per-cpu pool of preloaded nodes
@@ -240,6 +244,9 @@ radix_tree_node_alloc(struct radix_tree_root *root)
ret = kmem_cache_alloc(radix_tree_node_cachep, gfp_mask);

BUG_ON(radix_tree_is_indirect_ptr(ret));
+ if (ret)
+ root->nr_nodes++;
+
return ret;
}

@@ -264,8 +271,9 @@ static void radix_tree_node_rcu_free(struct rcu_head *head)
}

static inline void
-radix_tree_node_free(struct radix_tree_node *node)
+radix_tree_node_free(struct radix_tree_root *root, struct radix_tree_node *node)
{
+ root->nr_nodes--;
call_rcu(&node->rcu_head, radix_tree_node_rcu_free);
}

@@ -1353,7 +1361,7 @@ static inline void radix_tree_shrink(struct radix_tree_root *root)
*((unsigned long *)&to_free->slots[0]) |=
RADIX_TREE_INDIRECT_PTR;

- radix_tree_node_free(to_free);
+ radix_tree_node_free(root, to_free);
}
}

@@ -1420,7 +1428,7 @@ void *radix_tree_delete(struct radix_tree_root *root, unsigned long index)
* last reference to it disappears (set NULL, above).
*/
if (to_free)
- radix_tree_node_free(to_free);
+ radix_tree_node_free(root, to_free);

if (node->count) {
if (node == indirect_to_ptr(root->rnode))
@@ -1440,7 +1448,7 @@ void *radix_tree_delete(struct radix_tree_root *root, unsigned long index)
root->height = 0;
root->rnode = NULL;
if (to_free)
- radix_tree_node_free(to_free);
+ radix_tree_node_free(root, to_free);

out:
return slot;
@@ -1504,6 +1512,33 @@ static int radix_tree_callback(struct notifier_block *nfb,
return NOTIFY_OK;
}

+static void self_test(void)
+{
+ struct radix_tree_root test_tree = RADIX_TREE_INIT(GFP_ATOMIC);
+ int i;
+ unsigned long off = (1UL << ((RADIX_TREE_MAX_PATH - 1) * RADIX_TREE_MAP_SHIFT)) - 1;
+
+ printk("radix tree self-test\n");
+ printk("RADIX_TREE_PRELOAD_MAX: %lu\n", RADIX_TREE_PRELOAD_MAX);
+ printk("RADIX_TREE_PRELOAD_MIN: %lu\n", RADIX_TREE_PRELOAD_MIN);
+ printk("RADIX_TREE_PRELOAD_NR: %lu\n", RADIX_TREE_PRELOAD_NR);
+
+ radix_tree_insert(&test_tree, 0, (void*)0xdead0000);
+
+ if (test_tree.nr_nodes != 0) {
+ printk("\toff: %lu, nr_nodes: %d\n", off, test_tree.nr_nodes);
+ BUG();
+ }
+
+ for (i = 0; i < RADIX_TREE_PRELOAD_NR; i++) {
+ radix_tree_insert(&test_tree, off + i, (void*)0xdead0000);
+ }
+ printk("off: %lu, nr_nodes: %d, height: %d\n",
+ off, test_tree.nr_nodes, test_tree.height);
+
+ emergency_restart();
+}
+
void __init radix_tree_init(void)
{
radix_tree_node_cachep = kmem_cache_create("radix_tree_node",
@@ -1511,5 +1546,6 @@ void __init radix_tree_init(void)
SLAB_PANIC | SLAB_RECLAIM_ACCOUNT,
radix_tree_node_ctor);
radix_tree_init_maxindex();
+ self_test();
hotcpu_notifier(radix_tree_callback, 0);
}
--
Kirill A. Shutemov

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