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SubjectRe: [RFC 4/4] Sparse initialization of struct page array.
On Fri, Jul 12, 2013 at 09:19:12PM -0700, Yinghai Lu wrote:
> On Thu, Jul 11, 2013 at 7:03 PM, Robin Holt <holt@sgi.com> wrote:
> > During boot of large memory machines, a significant portion of boot
> > is spent initializing the struct page array. The vast majority of
> > those pages are not referenced during boot.
> >
> > Change this over to only initializing the pages when they are
> > actually allocated.
> >
> > Besides the advantage of boot speed, this allows us the chance to
> > use normal performance monitoring tools to determine where the bulk
> > of time is spent during page initialization.
> >
> > Signed-off-by: Robin Holt <holt@sgi.com>
> > Signed-off-by: Nate Zimmer <nzimmer@sgi.com>
> > To: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@zytor.com>
> > To: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
> > Cc: Linux Kernel <linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org>
> > Cc: Linux MM <linux-mm@kvack.org>
> > Cc: Rob Landley <rob@landley.net>
> > Cc: Mike Travis <travis@sgi.com>
> > Cc: Daniel J Blueman <daniel@numascale-asia.com>
> > Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
> > Cc: Greg KH <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
> > Cc: Yinghai Lu <yinghai@kernel.org>
> > Cc: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de>
> > ---
> > include/linux/mm.h | 11 +++++
> > include/linux/page-flags.h | 5 +-
> > mm/nobootmem.c | 5 ++
> > mm/page_alloc.c | 117 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++--
> > 4 files changed, 132 insertions(+), 6 deletions(-)
> >
> > diff --git a/include/linux/mm.h b/include/linux/mm.h
> > index e0c8528..3de08b5 100644
> > --- a/include/linux/mm.h
> > +++ b/include/linux/mm.h
> > @@ -1330,8 +1330,19 @@ static inline void __free_reserved_page(struct page *page)
> > __free_page(page);
> > }
> >
> > +extern void __reserve_bootmem_region(phys_addr_t start, phys_addr_t end);
> > +
> > +static inline void __reserve_bootmem_page(struct page *page)
> > +{
> > + phys_addr_t start = page_to_pfn(page) << PAGE_SHIFT;
> > + phys_addr_t end = start + PAGE_SIZE;
> > +
> > + __reserve_bootmem_region(start, end);
> > +}
> > +
> > static inline void free_reserved_page(struct page *page)
> > {
> > + __reserve_bootmem_page(page);
> > __free_reserved_page(page);
> > adjust_managed_page_count(page, 1);
> > }
> > diff --git a/include/linux/page-flags.h b/include/linux/page-flags.h
> > index 6d53675..79e8eb7 100644
> > --- a/include/linux/page-flags.h
> > +++ b/include/linux/page-flags.h
> > @@ -83,6 +83,7 @@ enum pageflags {
> > PG_owner_priv_1, /* Owner use. If pagecache, fs may use*/
> > PG_arch_1,
> > PG_reserved,
> > + PG_uninitialized2mib, /* Is this the right spot? ntz - Yes - rmh */
> > PG_private, /* If pagecache, has fs-private data */
> > PG_private_2, /* If pagecache, has fs aux data */
> > PG_writeback, /* Page is under writeback */
> > @@ -211,6 +212,8 @@ PAGEFLAG(SwapBacked, swapbacked) __CLEARPAGEFLAG(SwapBacked, swapbacked)
> >
> > __PAGEFLAG(SlobFree, slob_free)
> >
> > +PAGEFLAG(Uninitialized2Mib, uninitialized2mib)
> > +
> > /*
> > * Private page markings that may be used by the filesystem that owns the page
> > * for its own purposes.
> > @@ -499,7 +502,7 @@ static inline void ClearPageSlabPfmemalloc(struct page *page)
> > #define PAGE_FLAGS_CHECK_AT_FREE \
> > (1 << PG_lru | 1 << PG_locked | \
> > 1 << PG_private | 1 << PG_private_2 | \
> > - 1 << PG_writeback | 1 << PG_reserved | \
> > + 1 << PG_writeback | 1 << PG_reserved | 1 << PG_uninitialized2mib | \
> > 1 << PG_slab | 1 << PG_swapcache | 1 << PG_active | \
> > 1 << PG_unevictable | __PG_MLOCKED | __PG_HWPOISON | \
> > __PG_COMPOUND_LOCK)
> > diff --git a/mm/nobootmem.c b/mm/nobootmem.c
> > index 3b512ca..e3a386d 100644
> > --- a/mm/nobootmem.c
> > +++ b/mm/nobootmem.c
> > @@ -126,6 +126,9 @@ static unsigned long __init free_low_memory_core_early(void)
> > phys_addr_t start, end, size;
> > u64 i;
> >
> > + for_each_reserved_mem_region(i, &start, &end)
> > + __reserve_bootmem_region(start, end);
> > +
>
> How about holes that is not in memblock.reserved?
>
> before this patch:
> free_area_init_node/free_area_init_core/memmap_init_zone
> will mark all page in node range to Reserved in struct page, at first.
>
> but those holes is not mapped via kernel low mapping.
> so it should be ok not touch "struct page" for them.
>
> Now you only mark reserved for memblock.reserved at first, and later
> mark {memblock.memory} - { memblock.reserved} to be available.
> And that is ok.
>
> but should split that change to another patch and add some comment
> and change log for the change.
> in case there is some user like UEFI etc do weird thing.

I will split out a separate patch for this.

> > for_each_free_mem_range(i, MAX_NUMNODES, &start, &end, NULL)
> > count += __free_memory_core(start, end);
> >
> > @@ -162,6 +165,8 @@ unsigned long __init free_all_bootmem(void)
> > {
> > struct pglist_data *pgdat;
> >
> > + memblock_dump_all();
> > +
>
> Not needed.

Left over debug in the rush to ask our question.

> > for_each_online_pgdat(pgdat)
> > reset_node_lowmem_managed_pages(pgdat);
> >
> > diff --git a/mm/page_alloc.c b/mm/page_alloc.c
> > index 635b131..fe51eb9 100644
> > --- a/mm/page_alloc.c
> > +++ b/mm/page_alloc.c
> > @@ -740,6 +740,54 @@ static void __init_single_page(struct page *page, unsigned long zone, int nid, i
> > #endif
> > }
> >
> > +static void expand_page_initialization(struct page *basepage)
> > +{
> > + unsigned long pfn = page_to_pfn(basepage);
> > + unsigned long end_pfn = pfn + PTRS_PER_PMD;
> > + unsigned long zone = page_zonenum(basepage);
> > + int reserved = PageReserved(basepage);
> > + int nid = page_to_nid(basepage);
> > +
> > + ClearPageUninitialized2Mib(basepage);
> > +
> > + for( pfn++; pfn < end_pfn; pfn++ )
> > + __init_single_page(pfn_to_page(pfn), zone, nid, reserved);
> > +}
> > +
> > +void ensure_pages_are_initialized(unsigned long start_pfn,
> > + unsigned long end_pfn)
> > +{
> > + unsigned long aligned_start_pfn = start_pfn & ~(PTRS_PER_PMD - 1);
> > + unsigned long aligned_end_pfn;
> > + struct page *page;
> > +
> > + aligned_end_pfn = end_pfn & ~(PTRS_PER_PMD - 1);
> > + aligned_end_pfn += PTRS_PER_PMD;
> > + while (aligned_start_pfn < aligned_end_pfn) {
> > + if (pfn_valid(aligned_start_pfn)) {
> > + page = pfn_to_page(aligned_start_pfn);
> > +
> > + if(PageUninitialized2Mib(page))
> > + expand_page_initialization(page);
> > + }
> > +
> > + aligned_start_pfn += PTRS_PER_PMD;
> > + }
> > +}
> > +
> > +void __reserve_bootmem_region(phys_addr_t start, phys_addr_t end)
> > +{
> > + unsigned long start_pfn = PFN_DOWN(start);
> > + unsigned long end_pfn = PFN_UP(end);
> > +
> > + ensure_pages_are_initialized(start_pfn, end_pfn);
> > +}
>
> that name is confusing, actually it is setting to struct page to Reserved only.
> maybe __reserve_pages_bootmem() to be aligned to free_pages_bootmem ?

Done.

> > +
> > +static inline void ensure_page_is_initialized(struct page *page)
> > +{
> > + __reserve_bootmem_page(page);
> > +}
>
> how about use __reserve_page_bootmem directly and add comment in callers site ?

I really dislike that. The inline function makes the need for a comment
unnecessary in my opinion and leaves the implementation localized to
the one-line function. Those wanting to understand why can quickly see
that the intended functionality is accomplished by the other function.
I would really like to leave this as-is.

> > +
> > static bool free_pages_prepare(struct page *page, unsigned int order)
> > {
> > int i;
> > @@ -751,7 +799,10 @@ static bool free_pages_prepare(struct page *page, unsigned int order)
> > if (PageAnon(page))
> > page->mapping = NULL;
> > for (i = 0; i < (1 << order); i++)
> > - bad += free_pages_check(page + i);
> > + if (PageUninitialized2Mib(page + i))
> > + i += PTRS_PER_PMD - 1;
> > + else
> > + bad += free_pages_check(page + i);
> > if (bad)
> > return false;
> >
> > @@ -795,13 +846,22 @@ void __meminit __free_pages_bootmem(struct page *page, unsigned int order)
> > unsigned int loop;
> >
> > prefetchw(page);
> > - for (loop = 0; loop < nr_pages; loop++) {
> > + for (loop = 0; loop < nr_pages; ) {
> > struct page *p = &page[loop];
> >
> > if (loop + 1 < nr_pages)
> > prefetchw(p + 1);
> > +
> > + if ((PageUninitialized2Mib(p)) &&
> > + ((loop + PTRS_PER_PMD) > nr_pages))
> > + ensure_page_is_initialized(p);
> > +
> > __ClearPageReserved(p);
> > set_page_count(p, 0);
> > + if (PageUninitialized2Mib(p))
> > + loop += PTRS_PER_PMD;
> > + else
> > + loop += 1;
> > }
> >
> > page_zone(page)->managed_pages += 1 << order;
> > @@ -856,6 +916,7 @@ static inline void expand(struct zone *zone, struct page *page,
> > area--;
> > high--;
> > size >>= 1;
> > + ensure_page_is_initialized(page);
> > VM_BUG_ON(bad_range(zone, &page[size]));
> >
> > #ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_PAGEALLOC
> > @@ -903,6 +964,10 @@ static int prep_new_page(struct page *page, int order, gfp_t gfp_flags)
> >
> > for (i = 0; i < (1 << order); i++) {
> > struct page *p = page + i;
> > +
> > + if (PageUninitialized2Mib(p))
> > + expand_page_initialization(page);
> > +
> > if (unlikely(check_new_page(p)))
> > return 1;
> > }
> > @@ -985,6 +1050,7 @@ int move_freepages(struct zone *zone,
> > unsigned long order;
> > int pages_moved = 0;
> >
> > + ensure_pages_are_initialized(page_to_pfn(start_page), page_to_pfn(end_page));
> > #ifndef CONFIG_HOLES_IN_ZONE
> > /*
> > * page_zone is not safe to call in this context when
> > @@ -3859,6 +3925,9 @@ static int pageblock_is_reserved(unsigned long start_pfn, unsigned long end_pfn)
> > for (pfn = start_pfn; pfn < end_pfn; pfn++) {
> > if (!pfn_valid_within(pfn) || PageReserved(pfn_to_page(pfn)))
> > return 1;
> > +
> > + if (PageUninitialized2Mib(pfn_to_page(pfn)))
> > + pfn += PTRS_PER_PMD;
> > }
> > return 0;
> > }
> > @@ -3947,6 +4016,29 @@ static void setup_zone_migrate_reserve(struct zone *zone)
> > }
> > }
> >
> > +int __meminit pfn_range_init_avail(unsigned long pfn, unsigned long end_pfn,
> > + unsigned long size, int nid)
> why not use static ? it seems there is not outside user.

Left over from early patch series where we were using this from
mm/nobootmem.c. Fixed.

> > +{
> > + unsigned long validate_end_pfn = pfn + size;
> > +
> > + if (pfn & (size - 1))
> > + return 1;
> > +
> > + if (pfn + size >= end_pfn)
> > + return 1;
> > +
> > + while (pfn < validate_end_pfn)
> > + {
> > + if (!early_pfn_valid(pfn))
> > + return 1;
> > + if (!early_pfn_in_nid(pfn, nid))
> > + return 1;
> > + pfn++;
> > + }
> > +
> > + return size;
> > +}
> > +
> > /*
> > * Initially all pages are reserved - free ones are freed
> > * up by free_all_bootmem() once the early boot process is
> > @@ -3964,20 +4056,34 @@ void __meminit memmap_init_zone(unsigned long size, int nid, unsigned long zone,
> > highest_memmap_pfn = end_pfn - 1;
> >
> > z = &NODE_DATA(nid)->node_zones[zone];
> > - for (pfn = start_pfn; pfn < end_pfn; pfn++) {
> > + for (pfn = start_pfn; pfn < end_pfn; ) {
> > /*
> > * There can be holes in boot-time mem_map[]s
> > * handed to this function. They do not
> > * exist on hotplugged memory.
> > */
> > + int pfns = 1;
> > if (context == MEMMAP_EARLY) {
> > - if (!early_pfn_valid(pfn))
> > + if (!early_pfn_valid(pfn)) {
> > + pfn++;
> > continue;
> > - if (!early_pfn_in_nid(pfn, nid))
> > + }
> > + if (!early_pfn_in_nid(pfn, nid)) {
> > + pfn++;
> > continue;
> > + }
> > +
> > + pfns = pfn_range_init_avail(pfn, end_pfn,
> > + PTRS_PER_PMD, nid);
> > }
>
> maybe could update memmap_init_zone() only iterate {memblock.memory} -
> {memblock.reserved}, so you do need to check avail ....
>
> as memmap_init_zone do not need to handle holes to mark reserve for them.

Maybe I can change pfn_range_init_avail in such a way that the
__reserve_pages_bootmem() work above is not needed. I will dig into
that some more before the next patch submission.

>
> > +
> > page = pfn_to_page(pfn);
> > __init_single_page(page, zone, nid, 1);
> > +
> > + if (pfns > 1)
> > + SetPageUninitialized2Mib(page);
> > +
> > + pfn += pfns;
> > }
> > }
> >
> > @@ -6196,6 +6302,7 @@ static const struct trace_print_flags pageflag_names[] = {
> > {1UL << PG_owner_priv_1, "owner_priv_1" },
> > {1UL << PG_arch_1, "arch_1" },
> > {1UL << PG_reserved, "reserved" },
> > + {1UL << PG_uninitialized2mib, "Uninit_2MiB" },
>
> PG_uninitialized_2m ?

Done.

> > {1UL << PG_private, "private" },
> > {1UL << PG_private_2, "private_2" },
> > {1UL << PG_writeback, "writeback" },
>
> Yinghai


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