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Subject[PATCH 0/18] Basic scheduler support for automatic NUMA balancing V5
Date
This continues to build on the previous feedback and further testing and
I'm hoping this can be finalised relatively soon. False sharing is still
a major problem but I still think it deserves its own series. Minimally I
think the fact that we are now scanning shared pages without much additional
system overhead is a big step in the right direction.

Changelog since V4
o Added code that avoids overloading preferred nodes
o Swap tasks if nodes are overloaded and the swap does not impair locality

Changelog since V3
o Correct detection of unset last nid/pid information
o Dropped nr_preferred_running and replaced it with Peter's load balancing
o Pass in correct node information for THP hinting faults
o Pressure tasks sharing a THP page to move towards same node
o Do not set pmd_numa if false sharing is detected

Changelog since V2
o Reshuffle to match Peter's implied preference for layout
o Reshuffle to move private/shared split towards end of series to make it
easier to evaluate the impact
o Use PID information to identify private accesses
o Set the floor for PTE scanning based on virtual address space scan rates
instead of time
o Some locking improvements
o Do not preempt pinned tasks unless they are kernel threads

Changelog since V1
o Scan pages with elevated map count (shared pages)
o Scale scan rates based on the vsz of the process so the sampling of the
task is independant of its size
o Favour moving towards nodes with more faults even if it's not the
preferred node
o Laughably basic accounting of a compute overloaded node when selecting
the preferred node.
o Applied review comments

This series integrates basic scheduler support for automatic NUMA balancing.
It borrows very heavily from Peter Ziljstra's work in "sched, numa, mm:
Add adaptive NUMA affinity support" but deviates too much to preserve
Signed-off-bys. As before, if the relevant authors are ok with it I'll
add Signed-off-bys (or add them yourselves if you pick the patches up).

This is still far from complete and there are known performance gaps
between this series and manual binding (when that is possible). As before,
the intention is not to complete the work but to incrementally improve
mainline and preserve bisectability for any bug reports that crop up. In
some cases performance may be worse unfortunately and when that happens
it will have to be judged if the system overhead is lower and if so,
is it still an acceptable direction as a stepping stone to something better.

Patch 1 adds sysctl documentation

Patch 2 tracks NUMA hinting faults per-task and per-node

Patch 3 corrects a THP NUMA hint fault accounting bug

Patch 4 avoids trying to migrate the THP zero page

Patches 5-7 selects a preferred node at the end of a PTE scan based on what
node incurrent the highest number of NUMA faults. When the balancer
is comparing two CPU it will prefer to locate tasks on their
preferred node.

Patch 8 reschedules a task when a preferred node is selected if it is not
running on that node already. This avoids waiting for the scheduler
to move the task slowly.

Patch 9 adds infrastructure to allow separate tracking of shared/private
pages but treats all faults as if they are private accesses. Laying
it out this way reduces churn later in the series when private
fault detection is introduced

Patch 10 replaces PTE scanning reset hammer and instread increases the
scanning rate when an otherwise settled task changes its
preferred node.

Patch 11 avoids some unnecessary allocation

Patch 12 sets the scan rate proportional to the size of the task being scanned.

Patch 13-14 kicks away some training wheels and scans shared pages and small VMAs.

Patch 15 introduces private fault detection based on the PID of the faulting
process and accounts for shared/private accesses differently

Patch 16 pick the least loaded CPU based on a preferred node based on a scheduling
domain common to both the source and destination NUMA node.

Patch 17 retries task migration if an earlier attempt failed

Patch 18 will swap tasks if the target node is overloaded and the swap would not
impair locality.

Testing on this is only partial as full tests take a long time to run. A
full specjbb for both single and multi takes over 4 hours. NPB D class
also takes a few hours. With all the kernels in question, it still takes
a weekend to churn through them all.

Kernel 3.9 is still the testing baseline.

o vanilla vanilla kernel with automatic numa balancing enabled
o favorpref-v5 Patches 1-11
o scanshared-v5 Patches 1-14
o splitprivate-v5 Patches 1-15
o accountload-v5 Patches 1-16
o retrymigrate-v5 Patches 1-17
o swaptasks-v5 Patches 1-18

This is SpecJBB running on a 4-socket machine with THP enabled and one JVM
running for the whole system. Only a limited number of clients are executed
to save on time.

specjbb
3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0
vanilla favorpref-v5 scanshared-v5 splitprivate-v5 accountload-v5 retrymigrate-v5 swaptasks-v5
TPut 1 24474.00 ( 0.00%) 23503.00 ( -3.97%) 24858.00 ( 1.57%) 23890.00 ( -2.39%) 24303.00 ( -0.70%) 23529.00 ( -3.86%) 26110.00 ( 6.68%)
TPut 7 186914.00 ( 0.00%) 188656.00 ( 0.93%) 186370.00 ( -0.29%) 180352.00 ( -3.51%) 179962.00 ( -3.72%) 183667.00 ( -1.74%) 185912.00 ( -0.54%)
TPut 13 334429.00 ( 0.00%) 327613.00 ( -2.04%) 316733.00 ( -5.29%) 327675.00 ( -2.02%) 327558.00 ( -2.05%) 336418.00 ( 0.59%) 334563.00 ( 0.04%)
TPut 19 422820.00 ( 0.00%) 412078.00 ( -2.54%) 398354.00 ( -5.79%) 443889.00 ( 4.98%) 451359.00 ( 6.75%) 450069.00 ( 6.44%) 426753.00 ( 0.93%)
TPut 25 456121.00 ( 0.00%) 434898.00 ( -4.65%) 432072.00 ( -5.27%) 523230.00 ( 14.71%) 533432.00 ( 16.95%) 504138.00 ( 10.53%) 503152.00 ( 10.31%)
TPut 31 438595.00 ( 0.00%) 391575.00 (-10.72%) 415957.00 ( -5.16%) 520259.00 ( 18.62%) 510638.00 ( 16.43%) 442937.00 ( 0.99%) 486450.00 ( 10.91%)
TPut 37 409654.00 ( 0.00%) 370804.00 ( -9.48%) 398863.00 ( -2.63%) 510303.00 ( 24.57%) 475468.00 ( 16.07%) 427673.00 ( 4.40%) 460531.00 ( 12.42%)
TPut 43 370941.00 ( 0.00%) 327823.00 (-11.62%) 379232.00 ( 2.24%) 443788.00 ( 19.64%) 442169.00 ( 19.20%) 387382.00 ( 4.43%) 425120.00 ( 14.61%)

It's interesting that retrying the migrate introduced such a large dent. I
do not know why at this point. Swapping the tasks helped and overall the
performance is all right with room for improvement.

specjbb Peaks
3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0
vanilla favorpref-v5 scanshared-v5 splitprivate-v5 accountload-v5 retrymigrate-v5 swaptasks-v5
Expctd Warehouse 48.00 ( 0.00%) 48.00 ( 0.00%) 48.00 ( 0.00%) 48.00 ( 0.00%) 48.00 ( 0.00%) 48.00 ( 0.00%) 48.00 ( 0.00%)
Actual Warehouse 26.00 ( 0.00%) 26.00 ( 0.00%) 26.00 ( 0.00%) 26.00 ( 0.00%) 26.00 ( 0.00%) 26.00 ( 0.00%) 26.00 ( 0.00%)
Actual Peak Bops 456121.00 ( 0.00%) 434898.00 ( -4.65%) 432072.00 ( -5.27%) 523230.00 ( 14.71%) 533432.00 ( 16.95%) 504138.00 ( 10.53%) 503152.00 ( 10.31%)

Peak performance improved a bit.

3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0
vanillafavorpref-v5 scanshared-v5 splitprivate-v5 accountload-v5 retrymigrate-v5 swaptasks-v5
User 5178.63 5177.18 5166.66 5163.88 5180.82 5210.99 5174.46
System 63.37 77.01 66.88 70.55 71.84 67.78 64.88
Elapsed 254.06 254.28 254.13 254.12 254.66 254.00 259.90

System CPU is marginally increased for the whole series but bear in mind
that shared pages are now scanned too.

3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0
vanillafavorpref-v5 scanshared-v5 splitprivate-v5 accountload-v5 retrymigrate-v5 swaptasks-v5
THP fault alloc 34484 35783 34536 33833 34698 34144 31746
THP collapse alloc 10 11 10 12 9 9 8
THP splits 4 3 4 4 4 3 4
THP fault fallback 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
THP collapse fail 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Compaction stalls 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Compaction success 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Compaction failures 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Page migrate success 2012272 2026917 1314521 4443221 4364473 4240500 3978819
Page migrate failure 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Compaction pages isolated 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Compaction migrate scanned 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Compaction free scanned 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Compaction cost 2088 2103 1364 4612 4530 4401 4130
NUMA PTE updates 19189011 19981179 14384847 17238428 15784233 15922331 15400588
NUMA hint faults 198452 200904 79319 89363 85872 96136 91433
NUMA hint local faults 140889 134909 30654 32321 29985 40007 37761
NUMA hint local percent 70 67 38 36 34 41 41
NUMA pages migrated 2012272 2026917 1314521 4443221 4364473 4240500 3978819
AutoNUMA cost 1164 1182 522 651 622 672 640

The percentage of hinting faults that are local are impaired although
this is mostly due to scanning shared pages. That will need to be improved
again. Overall there are fewer PTE updates though.

Next is the autonuma benchmark results. These were only run once so I have no
idea what the variance is. Obviously they could be run multiple times but with
this number of kernels we would die of old age waiting on the results.

autonumabench
3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0
vanilla favorpref-v4 scanshared-v4 splitprivate-v4 accountload-v5 retrymigrate-v5 swaptasks-v5
User NUMA01 52623.86 ( 0.00%) 49514.41 ( 5.91%) 53783.60 ( -2.20%) 51205.78 ( 2.69%) 57578.80 ( -9.42%) 52430.64 ( 0.37%) 53708.31 ( -2.06%)
User NUMA01_THEADLOCAL 17595.48 ( 0.00%) 17620.51 ( -0.14%) 19734.74 (-12.16%) 16966.63 ( 3.57%) 17397.51 ( 1.13%) 16934.59 ( 3.76%) 17136.78 ( 2.61%)
User NUMA02 2043.84 ( 0.00%) 1993.04 ( 2.49%) 2051.29 ( -0.36%) 1901.96 ( 6.94%) 1957.73 ( 4.21%) 1936.44 ( 5.25%) 2032.55 ( 0.55%)
User NUMA02_SMT 1057.11 ( 0.00%) 1005.61 ( 4.87%) 980.19 ( 7.28%) 977.65 ( 7.52%) 938.97 ( 11.18%) 968.34 ( 8.40%) 979.50 ( 7.34%)
System NUMA01 414.17 ( 0.00%) 222.86 ( 46.19%) 145.79 ( 64.80%) 321.93 ( 22.27%) 141.79 ( 65.77%) 333.07 ( 19.58%) 345.33 ( 16.62%)
System NUMA01_THEADLOCAL 105.17 ( 0.00%) 102.35 ( 2.68%) 117.22 (-11.46%) 105.35 ( -0.17%) 104.41 ( 0.72%) 119.39 (-13.52%) 115.53 ( -9.85%)
System NUMA02 9.36 ( 0.00%) 9.96 ( -6.41%) 13.02 (-39.10%) 9.53 ( -1.82%) 8.73 ( 6.73%) 10.68 (-14.10%) 8.73 ( 6.73%)
System NUMA02_SMT 3.54 ( 0.00%) 3.53 ( 0.28%) 3.46 ( 2.26%) 5.85 (-65.25%) 3.32 ( 6.21%) 3.30 ( 6.78%) 4.97 (-40.40%)
Elapsed NUMA01 1201.52 ( 0.00%) 1143.59 ( 4.82%) 1244.61 ( -3.59%) 1182.92 ( 1.55%) 1315.30 ( -9.47%) 1201.92 ( -0.03%) 1246.12 ( -3.71%)
Elapsed NUMA01_THEADLOCAL 393.91 ( 0.00%) 392.49 ( 0.36%) 442.04 (-12.22%) 385.61 ( 2.11%) 414.00 ( -5.10%) 383.56 ( 2.63%) 390.09 ( 0.97%)
Elapsed NUMA02 50.30 ( 0.00%) 50.36 ( -0.12%) 49.53 ( 1.53%) 48.91 ( 2.76%) 48.73 ( 3.12%) 50.48 ( -0.36%) 48.76 ( 3.06%)
Elapsed NUMA02_SMT 58.48 ( 0.00%) 47.79 ( 18.28%) 51.56 ( 11.83%) 55.98 ( 4.27%) 56.05 ( 4.16%) 48.18 ( 17.61%) 46.90 ( 19.80%)
CPU NUMA01 4414.00 ( 0.00%) 4349.00 ( 1.47%) 4333.00 ( 1.84%) 4355.00 ( 1.34%) 4388.00 ( 0.59%) 4389.00 ( 0.57%) 4337.00 ( 1.74%)
CPU NUMA01_THEADLOCAL 4493.00 ( 0.00%) 4515.00 ( -0.49%) 4490.00 ( 0.07%) 4427.00 ( 1.47%) 4227.00 ( 5.92%) 4446.00 ( 1.05%) 4422.00 ( 1.58%)
CPU NUMA02 4081.00 ( 0.00%) 3977.00 ( 2.55%) 4167.00 ( -2.11%) 3908.00 ( 4.24%) 4034.00 ( 1.15%) 3856.00 ( 5.51%) 4186.00 ( -2.57%)
CPU NUMA02_SMT 1813.00 ( 0.00%) 2111.00 (-16.44%) 1907.00 ( -5.18%) 1756.00 ( 3.14%) 1681.00 ( 7.28%) 2016.00 (-11.20%) 2098.00 (-15.72%)

numa01 performance is impacted but it's an adverse workload on this
particular machine and at least the system CPu usage is lower in that
case. Otherwise the performnace looks decent although I am mindful that
the system CPU usage is higher in places.

3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0
vanillafavorpref-v4 scanshared-v4 splitprivate-v4 accountload-v5 retrymigrate-v5 swaptasks-v5
THP fault alloc 14325 11724 14906 13553 14033 13994 15838
THP collapse alloc 6 3 7 13 9 6 3
THP splits 4 1 4 2 1 2 4
THP fault fallback 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
THP collapse fail 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Compaction stalls 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Compaction success 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Compaction failures 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Page migrate success 9020528 9708110 6677767 6773951 6247795 5812565 6574293
Page migrate failure 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Compaction pages isolated 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Compaction migrate scanned 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Compaction free scanned 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Compaction cost 9363 10077 6931 7031 6485 6033 6824
NUMA PTE updates 119292401 114641446 85954812 74337906 76564821 73541041 79835108
NUMA hint faults 755901 499186 287825 237095 227211 238800 236077
NUMA hint local faults 595478 333483 152899 122210 118620 132560 133470
NUMA hint local percent 78 66 53 51 52 55 56
NUMA pages migrated 9020528 9708110 6677767 6773951 6247795 5812565 6574293
AutoNUMA cost 4785 3482 2167 1834 1790 1819 1864

conclusions on each testcase. However, in general the series is doing a lot
less work with PTE updates, faults and so on. THe percentage of local faults
suffers but a large part of this seems to be around where shared pages are
getting scanned.

The following is SpecJBB running on with THP enabled and one JVM running per
NUMA node in the system.

specjbb
3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0
vanilla favorpref-v4 scanshared-v4 splitprivate-v4 accountload-v5 retrymigrate-v5 swaptasks-v5
Mean 1 30640.75 ( 0.00%) 31222.25 ( 1.90%) 31275.50 ( 2.07%) 30554.00 ( -0.28%) 31073.25 ( 1.41%) 31210.25 ( 1.86%) 30738.00 ( 0.32%)
Mean 10 136983.25 ( 0.00%) 133072.00 ( -2.86%) 140022.00 ( 2.22%) 119168.25 (-13.01%) 134302.25 ( -1.96%) 140038.50 ( 2.23%) 133968.75 ( -2.20%)
Mean 19 124005.25 ( 0.00%) 121016.25 ( -2.41%) 122189.00 ( -1.46%) 111813.75 ( -9.83%) 120424.25 ( -2.89%) 119575.75 ( -3.57%) 120996.25 ( -2.43%)
Mean 28 114672.00 ( 0.00%) 111643.00 ( -2.64%) 109175.75 ( -4.79%) 101199.50 (-11.75%) 109499.25 ( -4.51%) 109031.25 ( -4.92%) 112354.25 ( -2.02%)
Mean 37 110916.50 ( 0.00%) 105791.75 ( -4.62%) 103103.75 ( -7.04%) 100187.00 ( -9.67%) 104726.75 ( -5.58%) 109913.50 ( -0.90%) 105993.00 ( -4.44%)
Mean 46 110139.25 ( 0.00%) 105383.25 ( -4.32%) 99454.75 ( -9.70%) 99762.00 ( -9.42%) 97961.00 (-11.06%) 105358.50 ( -4.34%) 104700.50 ( -4.94%)
Stddev 1 1002.06 ( 0.00%) 1125.30 (-12.30%) 959.60 ( 4.24%) 960.28 ( 4.17%) 1142.64 (-14.03%) 1245.68 (-24.31%) 860.81 ( 14.10%)
Stddev 10 4656.47 ( 0.00%) 6679.25 (-43.44%) 5946.78 (-27.71%) 10427.37 (-123.93%) 3744.32 ( 19.59%) 3394.82 ( 27.09%) 4160.26 ( 10.66%)
Stddev 19 2578.12 ( 0.00%) 5261.94 (-104.10%) 3414.66 (-32.45%) 5070.00 (-96.65%) 987.10 ( 61.71%) 300.27 ( 88.35%) 3561.43 (-38.14%)
Stddev 28 4123.69 ( 0.00%) 4156.17 ( -0.79%) 6666.32 (-61.66%) 3899.89 ( 5.43%) 1426.42 ( 65.41%) 3823.35 ( 7.28%) 5069.70 (-22.94%)
Stddev 37 2301.94 ( 0.00%) 5225.48 (-127.00%) 5444.18 (-136.50%) 3490.87 (-51.65%) 3133.33 (-36.12%) 2283.83 ( 0.79%) 2626.42 (-14.10%)
Stddev 46 8317.91 ( 0.00%) 6759.04 ( 18.74%) 6587.32 ( 20.81%) 4458.49 ( 46.40%) 5073.30 ( 39.01%) 7422.27 ( 10.77%) 6137.92 ( 26.21%)
TPut 1 122563.00 ( 0.00%) 124889.00 ( 1.90%) 125102.00 ( 2.07%) 122216.00 ( -0.28%) 124293.00 ( 1.41%) 124841.00 ( 1.86%) 122952.00 ( 0.32%)
TPut 10 547933.00 ( 0.00%) 532288.00 ( -2.86%) 560088.00 ( 2.22%) 476673.00 (-13.01%) 537209.00 ( -1.96%) 560154.00 ( 2.23%) 535875.00 ( -2.20%)
TPut 19 496021.00 ( 0.00%) 484065.00 ( -2.41%) 488756.00 ( -1.46%) 447255.00 ( -9.83%) 481697.00 ( -2.89%) 478303.00 ( -3.57%) 483985.00 ( -2.43%)
TPut 28 458688.00 ( 0.00%) 446572.00 ( -2.64%) 436703.00 ( -4.79%) 404798.00 (-11.75%) 437997.00 ( -4.51%) 436125.00 ( -4.92%) 449417.00 ( -2.02%)
TPut 37 443666.00 ( 0.00%) 423167.00 ( -4.62%) 412415.00 ( -7.04%) 400748.00 ( -9.67%) 418907.00 ( -5.58%) 439654.00 ( -0.90%) 423972.00 ( -4.44%)
TPut 46 440557.00 ( 0.00%) 421533.00 ( -4.32%) 397819.00 ( -9.70%) 399048.00 ( -9.42%) 391844.00 (-11.06%) 421434.00 ( -4.34%) 418802.00 ( -4.94%)

This one is more of a black eye. The average and overall performnace
is down although there is a considerable amount of noise. This workload
particularly suffers from false sharing and there is a requirement for a
follow-on series to better group related tasks together so the JVMs migrate
to individual nodes properly.

3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0
vanillafavorpref-v4 scanshared-v4 splitprivate-v4 accountload-v5 retrymigrate-v5 swaptasks-v5
User 52899.04 53106.74 53245.67 52828.25 52817.97 52888.09 53476.23
System 250.42 254.20 203.97 222.28 222.24 229.28 232.46
Elapsed 1199.72 1208.35 1206.14 1197.28 1197.35 1205.42 1208.24

At least system CPU usage is lower.

3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0 3.9.0
vanillafavorpref-v4 scanshared-v4 splitprivate-v4 accountload-v5 retrymigrate-v5 swaptasks-v5
THP fault alloc 65188 66217 68158 63283 66020 69390 66853
THP collapse alloc 97 172 91 108 106 106 103
THP splits 38 37 36 34 34 42 35
THP fault fallback 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
THP collapse fail 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Compaction stalls 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Compaction success 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Compaction failures 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Page migrate success 14583860 14559261 7770770 10131560 10607758 10457889 10145643
Page migrate failure 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Compaction pages isolated 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Compaction migrate scanned 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Compaction free scanned 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Compaction cost 15138 15112 8066 10516 11010 10855 10531
NUMA PTE updates 128327468 129131539 74033679 72954561 73417999 75269838 74507785
NUMA hint faults 2103190 1712971 1488709 1362365 1338427 1275103 1401975
NUMA hint local faults 734136 640363 405816 471928 402556 389653 473054
NUMA hint local percent 34 37 27 34 30 30 33
NUMA pages migrated 14583860 14559261 7770770 10131560 10607758 10457889 10145643
AutoNUMA cost 11691 9745 8109 7515 7407 7101 7724

Far fewer PTEs are updated but the low percentage of local NUMA hinting faults
shows how much room there is for improvement.

So overall the series perfoms ok even though it is not a universal win that I'd
have liked. However, I think the fact that it is now dealing with shared pages,
that system overhead is generally lower and that it's now taking compute overloading
into account are all important steps in the right direction.

I'd still like to see this treated as a standalone with a separate series
focusing on false sharing detection and reduction, shared accesses used
for selecting preferred nodes, shared accesses used for load balancing and
reintroducing Peter's patch that balances compute nodes relative to each
other. This is to keep each series a manageable size for review even if
it's obvious that more work is required.

Documentation/sysctl/kernel.txt | 68 +++++++
include/linux/migrate.h | 7 +-
include/linux/mm.h | 69 ++++---
include/linux/mm_types.h | 7 +-
include/linux/page-flags-layout.h | 28 +--
include/linux/sched.h | 24 ++-
include/linux/sched/sysctl.h | 1 -
kernel/sched/core.c | 61 ++++++-
kernel/sched/fair.c | 374 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++----
kernel/sched/sched.h | 13 ++
kernel/sysctl.c | 14 +-
mm/huge_memory.c | 26 ++-
mm/memory.c | 27 +--
mm/mempolicy.c | 8 +-
mm/migrate.c | 21 +--
mm/mm_init.c | 18 +-
mm/mmzone.c | 12 +-
mm/mprotect.c | 28 +--
mm/page_alloc.c | 4 +-
19 files changed, 658 insertions(+), 152 deletions(-)

--
1.8.1.4



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