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SubjectRe: [patch 2/2] memcg: do not sleep on OOM waitqueue with full charge context
On Thu, Jun 06, 2013 at 01:33:15AM -0400, Johannes Weiner wrote:
> On Wed, Jun 05, 2013 at 09:10:51PM -0700, David Rientjes wrote:
> > On Wed, 5 Jun 2013, Johannes Weiner wrote:
> >
> > > The memcg OOM handling is incredibly fragile because once a memcg goes
> > > OOM, one task (kernel or userspace) is responsible for resolving the
> > > situation.
> >
> > Not sure what this means. Are you referring to the case where the memcg
> > is disabled from oom killing and we're relying on a userspace handler and
> > it may be caught on the waitqueue itself? Otherwise, are you referring to
> > the task as eventually being the only one that takes the hierarchy oom
> > lock and calls mem_cgroup_out_of_memory()? I don't think you can make a
> > case for the latter since the one that calls mem_cgroup_out_of_memory()
> > should return and call memcg_wakeup_oom(). We obviously don't want to do
> > any memory allocations in this path.
>
> If the killing task or one of the sleeping tasks is holding a lock
> that the selected victim needs in order to exit no progress can be
> made.
>
> The report we had a few months ago was that a task held the i_mutex
> when trying to charge a page cache page and then invoked the OOM
> handler and looped on CHARGE_RETRY. Meanwhile, the selected victim
> was just entering truncate() and now stuck waiting for the i_mutex.
>
> I'll add this scenario to the changelog, hopefully it will make the
> rest a little clearer.

David, is the updated patch below easier to understand?

---
From: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
Subject: [patch] memcg: do not trap chargers with full callstack on OOM

The memcg OOM handling is incredibly fragile and can deadlock. When a
task fails to charge memory, it invokes the OOM killer and loops right
there in the charge code until it succeeds. Comparably, any other
task that enters the charge path at this point will go to a waitqueue
right then and there and sleep until the OOM situation is resolved.
The problem is that these tasks may hold filesystem locks and the
mmap_sem; locks that the selected OOM victim may need to exit.

For example, in one reported case, the task invoking the OOM killer
was about to charge a page cache page during a write(), which holds
the i_mutex. The OOM killer selected a task that was just entering
truncate() and trying to acquire the i_mutex:

OOM invoking task:
[<ffffffff8110a9c1>] mem_cgroup_handle_oom+0x241/0x3b0
[<ffffffff8110b5ab>] T.1146+0x5ab/0x5c0
[<ffffffff8110c22e>] mem_cgroup_cache_charge+0xbe/0xe0
[<ffffffff810ca28c>] add_to_page_cache_locked+0x4c/0x140
[<ffffffff810ca3a2>] add_to_page_cache_lru+0x22/0x50
[<ffffffff810ca45b>] grab_cache_page_write_begin+0x8b/0xe0
[<ffffffff81193a18>] ext3_write_begin+0x88/0x270
[<ffffffff810c8fc6>] generic_file_buffered_write+0x116/0x290
[<ffffffff810cb3cc>] __generic_file_aio_write+0x27c/0x480
[<ffffffff810cb646>] generic_file_aio_write+0x76/0xf0 # takes ->i_mutex
[<ffffffff8111156a>] do_sync_write+0xea/0x130
[<ffffffff81112183>] vfs_write+0xf3/0x1f0
[<ffffffff81112381>] sys_write+0x51/0x90
[<ffffffff815b5926>] system_call_fastpath+0x18/0x1d
[<ffffffffffffffff>] 0xffffffffffffffff

OOM kill victim:
[<ffffffff811109b8>] do_truncate+0x58/0xa0 # takes i_mutex
[<ffffffff81121c90>] do_last+0x250/0xa30
[<ffffffff81122547>] path_openat+0xd7/0x440
[<ffffffff811229c9>] do_filp_open+0x49/0xa0
[<ffffffff8110f7d6>] do_sys_open+0x106/0x240
[<ffffffff8110f950>] sys_open+0x20/0x30
[<ffffffff815b5926>] system_call_fastpath+0x18/0x1d
[<ffffffffffffffff>] 0xffffffffffffffff

The OOM handling task will retry the charge indefinitely while the OOM
killed task is not releasing any resources.

A similar scenario can happen when the kernel OOM killer for a memcg
is disabled and a userspace task is in charge of resolving OOM
situations. In this case, ALL tasks that enter the OOM path will be
made to sleep on the OOM waitqueue and wait for userspace to free
resources or increase the group's limit. But a userspace OOM handler
is prone to deadlock itself on the locks held by the waiting tasks.
For example one of the sleeping tasks may be stuck in a brk() call
with the mmap_sem held for writing but the userspace handler, in order
to pick an optimal victim, may need to read files from /proc/<pid>,
which tries to acquire the same mmap_sem for reading and deadlocks.

This patch changes the way tasks behave after detecting an OOM and
makes sure nobody loops or sleeps on OOM with locks held:

1. When OOMing in a system call (buffered IO and friends), invoke the
OOM killer but just return -ENOMEM, never sleep on a OOM waitqueue.
Userspace should be able to handle this and it prevents anybody
from looping or waiting with locks held.

2. When OOMing in a page fault, invoke the OOM killer and restart the
fault instead of looping on the charge attempt. This way, the OOM
victim can not get stuck on locks the looping task may hold.

3. When detecting an OOM in a page fault but somebody else is handling
it (either the kernel OOM killer or a userspace handler), don't go
to sleep in the charge context. Instead, remember the OOMing memcg
in the task struct and then fully unwind the page fault stack with
-ENOMEM. pagefault_out_of_memory() will then call back into the
memcg code to check if the -ENOMEM came from the memcg, and then
either put the task to sleep on the memcg's OOM waitqueue or just
restart the fault. The OOM victim can no longer get stuck on any
lock a sleeping task may hold.

While reworking the OOM routine, also remove a needless OOM waitqueue
wakeup when invoking the killer. Only uncharges and limit increases,
things that actually change the memory situation, should do wakeups.

Reported-by: Reported-by: azurIt <azurit@pobox.sk>
Debugged-by: Michal Hocko <mhocko@suse.cz>
Reported-by: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
Reviewed-by: Michal Hocko <mhocko@suse.cz>
---
include/linux/memcontrol.h | 22 +++++++
include/linux/mm.h | 1 +
include/linux/sched.h | 6 ++
mm/ksm.c | 2 +-
mm/memcontrol.c | 152 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-----------------
mm/memory.c | 40 ++++++++----
mm/oom_kill.c | 7 ++-
7 files changed, 160 insertions(+), 70 deletions(-)

diff --git a/include/linux/memcontrol.h b/include/linux/memcontrol.h
index c8b1412..8e0f900 100644
--- a/include/linux/memcontrol.h
+++ b/include/linux/memcontrol.h
@@ -124,6 +124,15 @@ unsigned long mem_cgroup_get_lru_size(struct lruvec *lruvec, enum lru_list);
void mem_cgroup_update_lru_size(struct lruvec *, enum lru_list, int);
extern void mem_cgroup_print_oom_info(struct mem_cgroup *memcg,
struct task_struct *p);
+static inline void mem_cgroup_set_userfault(struct task_struct *p)
+{
+ p->memcg_oom.in_userfault = 1;
+}
+static inline void mem_cgroup_clear_userfault(struct task_struct *p)
+{
+ p->memcg_oom.in_userfault = 0;
+}
+bool mem_cgroup_oom_synchronize(void);
extern void mem_cgroup_replace_page_cache(struct page *oldpage,
struct page *newpage);

@@ -343,6 +352,19 @@ mem_cgroup_print_oom_info(struct mem_cgroup *memcg, struct task_struct *p)
{
}

+static inline void mem_cgroup_set_userfault(struct task_struct *p)
+{
+}
+
+static inline void mem_cgroup_clear_userfault(struct task_struct *p)
+{
+}
+
+static inline bool mem_cgroup_oom_synchronize(void)
+{
+ return false;
+}
+
static inline void mem_cgroup_begin_update_page_stat(struct page *page,
bool *locked, unsigned long *flags)
{
diff --git a/include/linux/mm.h b/include/linux/mm.h
index b87681a..79ee304 100644
--- a/include/linux/mm.h
+++ b/include/linux/mm.h
@@ -176,6 +176,7 @@ extern pgprot_t protection_map[16];
#define FAULT_FLAG_RETRY_NOWAIT 0x10 /* Don't drop mmap_sem and wait when retrying */
#define FAULT_FLAG_KILLABLE 0x20 /* The fault task is in SIGKILL killable region */
#define FAULT_FLAG_TRIED 0x40 /* second try */
+#define FAULT_FLAG_KERNEL 0x80 /* kernel-triggered fault (get_user_pages etc.) */

/*
* vm_fault is filled by the the pagefault handler and passed to the vma's
diff --git a/include/linux/sched.h b/include/linux/sched.h
index 08090e6..0659277 100644
--- a/include/linux/sched.h
+++ b/include/linux/sched.h
@@ -1403,6 +1403,12 @@ struct task_struct {
unsigned long memsw_nr_pages; /* uncharged mem+swap usage */
} memcg_batch;
unsigned int memcg_kmem_skip_account;
+ struct memcg_oom_info {
+ unsigned int in_userfault:1;
+ unsigned int in_memcg_oom:1;
+ int wakeups;
+ struct mem_cgroup *wait_on_memcg;
+ } memcg_oom;
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_UPROBES
struct uprobe_task *utask;
diff --git a/mm/ksm.c b/mm/ksm.c
index b6afe0c..9dff93b 100644
--- a/mm/ksm.c
+++ b/mm/ksm.c
@@ -372,7 +372,7 @@ static int break_ksm(struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long addr)
break;
if (PageKsm(page))
ret = handle_mm_fault(vma->vm_mm, vma, addr,
- FAULT_FLAG_WRITE);
+ FAULT_FLAG_KERNEL | FAULT_FLAG_WRITE);
else
ret = VM_FAULT_WRITE;
put_page(page);
diff --git a/mm/memcontrol.c b/mm/memcontrol.c
index d169a8d..3c9dc93 100644
--- a/mm/memcontrol.c
+++ b/mm/memcontrol.c
@@ -298,6 +298,7 @@ struct mem_cgroup {

bool oom_lock;
atomic_t under_oom;
+ atomic_t oom_wakeups;

atomic_t refcnt;

@@ -2305,6 +2306,7 @@ static int memcg_oom_wake_function(wait_queue_t *wait,

static void memcg_wakeup_oom(struct mem_cgroup *memcg)
{
+ atomic_inc(&memcg->oom_wakeups);
/* for filtering, pass "memcg" as argument. */
__wake_up(&memcg_oom_waitq, TASK_NORMAL, 0, memcg);
}
@@ -2316,56 +2318,109 @@ static void memcg_oom_recover(struct mem_cgroup *memcg)
}

/*
- * try to call OOM killer. returns false if we should exit memory-reclaim loop.
+ * try to call OOM killer
*/
-static bool mem_cgroup_handle_oom(struct mem_cgroup *memcg, gfp_t mask,
- int order)
+static void mem_cgroup_oom(struct mem_cgroup *memcg, gfp_t mask, int order)
{
- struct oom_wait_info owait;
- bool locked, need_to_kill;
-
- owait.memcg = memcg;
- owait.wait.flags = 0;
- owait.wait.func = memcg_oom_wake_function;
- owait.wait.private = current;
- INIT_LIST_HEAD(&owait.wait.task_list);
- need_to_kill = true;
- mem_cgroup_mark_under_oom(memcg);
+ bool locked, need_to_kill = true;

/* At first, try to OOM lock hierarchy under memcg.*/
spin_lock(&memcg_oom_lock);
locked = mem_cgroup_oom_lock(memcg);
- /*
- * Even if signal_pending(), we can't quit charge() loop without
- * accounting. So, UNINTERRUPTIBLE is appropriate. But SIGKILL
- * under OOM is always welcomed, use TASK_KILLABLE here.
- */
- prepare_to_wait(&memcg_oom_waitq, &owait.wait, TASK_KILLABLE);
if (!locked || memcg->oom_kill_disable)
need_to_kill = false;
if (locked)
mem_cgroup_oom_notify(memcg);
spin_unlock(&memcg_oom_lock);

- if (need_to_kill) {
- finish_wait(&memcg_oom_waitq, &owait.wait);
- mem_cgroup_out_of_memory(memcg, mask, order);
- } else {
- schedule();
- finish_wait(&memcg_oom_waitq, &owait.wait);
+ /*
+ * A system call can just return -ENOMEM, but if this is a
+ * page fault and somebody else is handling the OOM already,
+ * we need to sleep on the OOM waitqueue for this memcg until
+ * the situation is resolved. Which can take some time
+ * because it might be handled by a userspace task.
+ *
+ * However, this is the charge context, which means that we
+ * may sit on a large call stack and hold various filesystem
+ * locks, the mmap_sem etc. and we don't want the OOM handler
+ * to deadlock on them while we sit here and wait. Store the
+ * current OOM context in the task_struct, then return
+ * -ENOMEM. At the end of the page fault handler, with the
+ * stack unwound, pagefault_out_of_memory() will check back
+ * with us by calling mem_cgroup_oom_synchronize(), possibly
+ * putting the task to sleep.
+ */
+ if (current->memcg_oom.in_userfault) {
+ current->memcg_oom.in_memcg_oom = 1;
+ /*
+ * Somebody else is handling the situation. Make sure
+ * no wakeups are missed between now and going to
+ * sleep at the end of the page fault.
+ */
+ if (!need_to_kill) {
+ mem_cgroup_mark_under_oom(memcg);
+ current->memcg_oom.wakeups =
+ atomic_read(&memcg->oom_wakeups);
+ css_get(&memcg->css);
+ current->memcg_oom.wait_on_memcg = memcg;
+ }
}
- spin_lock(&memcg_oom_lock);
- if (locked)
+
+ if (need_to_kill)
+ mem_cgroup_out_of_memory(memcg, mask, order);
+
+ if (locked) {
+ spin_lock(&memcg_oom_lock);
mem_cgroup_oom_unlock(memcg);
- memcg_wakeup_oom(memcg);
- spin_unlock(&memcg_oom_lock);
+ /*
+ * Sleeping tasks might have been killed, make sure
+ * they get scheduled so they can exit.
+ */
+ if (need_to_kill)
+ mem_cgroup_oom_recover(memcg);
+ spin_unlock(&memcg_oom_lock);
+ }
+}

- mem_cgroup_unmark_under_oom(memcg);
+bool mem_cgroup_oom_synchronize(void)
+{
+ struct oom_wait_info owait;
+ struct mem_cgroup *memcg;

- if (test_thread_flag(TIF_MEMDIE) || fatal_signal_pending(current))
+ /* OOM is global, do not handle */
+ if (!current->memcg_oom.in_memcg_oom)
return false;
- /* Give chance to dying process */
- schedule_timeout_uninterruptible(1);
+
+ /*
+ * We invoked the OOM killer but there is a chance that a kill
+ * did not free up any charges. Everybody else might already
+ * be sleeping, so restart the fault and keep the rampage
+ * going until some charges are released.
+ */
+ memcg = current->memcg_oom.wait_on_memcg;
+ if (!memcg)
+ goto out;
+
+ if (test_thread_flag(TIF_MEMDIE) || fatal_signal_pending(current))
+ goto out_put;
+
+ owait.memcg = memcg;
+ owait.wait.flags = 0;
+ owait.wait.func = memcg_oom_wake_function;
+ owait.wait.private = current;
+ INIT_LIST_HEAD(&owait.wait.task_list);
+
+ prepare_to_wait(&memcg_oom_waitq, &owait.wait, TASK_KILLABLE);
+ /* Only sleep if we didn't miss any wakeups since OOM */
+ if (atomic_read(&memcg->oom_wakeups) == current->memcg_oom.wakeups)
+ schedule();
+ finish_wait(&memcg_oom_waitq, &owait.wait);
+out_put:
+ mem_cgroup_unmark_under_oom(memcg);
+ css_put(&memcg->css);
+ current->memcg_oom.wait_on_memcg = NULL;
+out:
+ current->memcg_oom.in_memcg_oom = 0;
return true;
}

@@ -2678,12 +2733,11 @@ enum {
CHARGE_RETRY, /* need to retry but retry is not bad */
CHARGE_NOMEM, /* we can't do more. return -ENOMEM */
CHARGE_WOULDBLOCK, /* GFP_WAIT wasn't set and no enough res. */
- CHARGE_OOM_DIE, /* the current is killed because of OOM */
};

static int mem_cgroup_do_charge(struct mem_cgroup *memcg, gfp_t gfp_mask,
unsigned int nr_pages, unsigned int min_pages,
- bool oom_check)
+ bool invoke_oom)
{
unsigned long csize = nr_pages * PAGE_SIZE;
struct mem_cgroup *mem_over_limit;
@@ -2740,14 +2794,10 @@ static int mem_cgroup_do_charge(struct mem_cgroup *memcg, gfp_t gfp_mask,
if (mem_cgroup_wait_acct_move(mem_over_limit))
return CHARGE_RETRY;

- /* If we don't need to call oom-killer at el, return immediately */
- if (!oom_check)
- return CHARGE_NOMEM;
- /* check OOM */
- if (!mem_cgroup_handle_oom(mem_over_limit, gfp_mask, get_order(csize)))
- return CHARGE_OOM_DIE;
+ if (invoke_oom)
+ mem_cgroup_oom(mem_over_limit, gfp_mask, get_order(csize));

- return CHARGE_RETRY;
+ return CHARGE_NOMEM;
}

/*
@@ -2850,7 +2900,7 @@ again:
}

do {
- bool oom_check;
+ bool invoke_oom = oom && !nr_oom_retries;

/* If killed, bypass charge */
if (fatal_signal_pending(current)) {
@@ -2858,14 +2908,8 @@ again:
goto bypass;
}

- oom_check = false;
- if (oom && !nr_oom_retries) {
- oom_check = true;
- nr_oom_retries = MEM_CGROUP_RECLAIM_RETRIES;
- }
-
- ret = mem_cgroup_do_charge(memcg, gfp_mask, batch, nr_pages,
- oom_check);
+ ret = mem_cgroup_do_charge(memcg, gfp_mask, batch,
+ nr_pages, invoke_oom);
switch (ret) {
case CHARGE_OK:
break;
@@ -2878,16 +2922,12 @@ again:
css_put(&memcg->css);
goto nomem;
case CHARGE_NOMEM: /* OOM routine works */
- if (!oom) {
+ if (!oom || invoke_oom) {
css_put(&memcg->css);
goto nomem;
}
- /* If oom, we never return -ENOMEM */
nr_oom_retries--;
break;
- case CHARGE_OOM_DIE: /* Killed by OOM Killer */
- css_put(&memcg->css);
- goto bypass;
}
} while (ret != CHARGE_OK);

diff --git a/mm/memory.c b/mm/memory.c
index 2210b21..05f307b 100644
--- a/mm/memory.c
+++ b/mm/memory.c
@@ -1819,7 +1819,7 @@ long __get_user_pages(struct task_struct *tsk, struct mm_struct *mm,
while (!(page = follow_page_mask(vma, start,
foll_flags, &page_mask))) {
int ret;
- unsigned int fault_flags = 0;
+ unsigned int fault_flags = FAULT_FLAG_KERNEL;

/* For mlock, just skip the stack guard page. */
if (foll_flags & FOLL_MLOCK) {
@@ -1947,6 +1947,7 @@ int fixup_user_fault(struct task_struct *tsk, struct mm_struct *mm,
if (!vma || address < vma->vm_start)
return -EFAULT;

+ fault_flags |= FAULT_FLAG_KERNEL;
ret = handle_mm_fault(mm, vma, address, fault_flags);
if (ret & VM_FAULT_ERROR) {
if (ret & VM_FAULT_OOM)
@@ -3764,22 +3765,14 @@ unlock:
/*
* By the time we get here, we already hold the mm semaphore
*/
-int handle_mm_fault(struct mm_struct *mm, struct vm_area_struct *vma,
- unsigned long address, unsigned int flags)
+static int __handle_mm_fault(struct mm_struct *mm, struct vm_area_struct *vma,
+ unsigned long address, unsigned int flags)
{
pgd_t *pgd;
pud_t *pud;
pmd_t *pmd;
pte_t *pte;

- __set_current_state(TASK_RUNNING);
-
- count_vm_event(PGFAULT);
- mem_cgroup_count_vm_event(mm, PGFAULT);
-
- /* do counter updates before entering really critical section. */
- check_sync_rss_stat(current);
-
if (unlikely(is_vm_hugetlb_page(vma)))
return hugetlb_fault(mm, vma, address, flags);

@@ -3860,6 +3853,31 @@ retry:
return handle_pte_fault(mm, vma, address, pte, pmd, flags);
}

+int handle_mm_fault(struct mm_struct *mm, struct vm_area_struct *vma,
+ unsigned long address, unsigned int flags)
+{
+ int in_userfault = !(flags & FAULT_FLAG_KERNEL);
+ int ret;
+
+ __set_current_state(TASK_RUNNING);
+
+ count_vm_event(PGFAULT);
+ mem_cgroup_count_vm_event(mm, PGFAULT);
+
+ /* do counter updates before entering really critical section. */
+ check_sync_rss_stat(current);
+
+ if (in_userfault)
+ mem_cgroup_set_userfault(current);
+
+ ret = __handle_mm_fault(mm, vma, address, flags);
+
+ if (in_userfault)
+ mem_cgroup_clear_userfault(current);
+
+ return ret;
+}
+
#ifndef __PAGETABLE_PUD_FOLDED
/*
* Allocate page upper directory.
diff --git a/mm/oom_kill.c b/mm/oom_kill.c
index 79e451a..0c9f836 100644
--- a/mm/oom_kill.c
+++ b/mm/oom_kill.c
@@ -678,9 +678,12 @@ out:
*/
void pagefault_out_of_memory(void)
{
- struct zonelist *zonelist = node_zonelist(first_online_node,
- GFP_KERNEL);
+ struct zonelist *zonelist;

+ if (mem_cgroup_oom_synchronize())
+ return;
+
+ zonelist = node_zonelist(first_online_node, GFP_KERNEL);
if (try_set_zonelist_oom(zonelist, GFP_KERNEL)) {
out_of_memory(NULL, 0, 0, NULL, false);
clear_zonelist_oom(zonelist, GFP_KERNEL);
--
1.8.3


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