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SubjectRe: [PATCH 1/11] ksm: allow trees per NUMA node
On Fri, Jan 25, 2013 at 05:54:53PM -0800, Hugh Dickins wrote:
> From: Petr Holasek <pholasek@redhat.com>
>
> Introduces new sysfs boolean knob /sys/kernel/mm/ksm/merge_across_nodes
> which control merging pages across different numa nodes.
> When it is set to zero only pages from the same node are merged,
> otherwise pages from all nodes can be merged together (default behavior).
>
> Typical use-case could be a lot of KVM guests on NUMA machine
> and cpus from more distant nodes would have significant increase
> of access latency to the merged ksm page. Sysfs knob was choosen
> for higher variability when some users still prefers higher amount
> of saved physical memory regardless of access latency.
>

This is understandable but it's going to be a fairly obscure option.
I do not think it can be known in advance if the option should be set.
The user must either run benchmarks before and after or use perf to
record the "node-load-misses" event and see if setting the parameter
reduces the number of remote misses.

I don't know the internals of ksm.c at all and this is my first time reading
this series. Everything in this review is subject to being completely
wrong or due to a major misunderstanding on my part. Delete all feedback
if desired.

> Every numa node has its own stable & unstable trees because of faster
> searching and inserting. Changing of merge_across_nodes value is possible
> only when there are not any ksm shared pages in system.
>
> I've tested this patch on numa machines with 2, 4 and 8 nodes and
> measured speed of memory access inside of KVM guests with memory pinned
> to one of nodes with this benchmark:
>
> http://pholasek.fedorapeople.org/alloc_pg.c
>
> Population standard deviations of access times in percentage of average
> were following:
>
> merge_across_nodes=1
> 2 nodes 1.4%
> 4 nodes 1.6%
> 8 nodes 1.7%
>
> merge_across_nodes=0
> 2 nodes 1%
> 4 nodes 0.32%
> 8 nodes 0.018%
>
> RFC: https://lkml.org/lkml/2011/11/30/91
> v1: https://lkml.org/lkml/2012/1/23/46
> v2: https://lkml.org/lkml/2012/6/29/105
> v3: https://lkml.org/lkml/2012/9/14/550
> v4: https://lkml.org/lkml/2012/9/23/137
> v5: https://lkml.org/lkml/2012/12/10/540
> v6: https://lkml.org/lkml/2012/12/23/154
> v7: https://lkml.org/lkml/2012/12/27/225
>
> Hugh notes that this patch brings two problems, whose solution needs
> further support in mm/ksm.c, which follows in subsequent patches:
> 1) switching merge_across_nodes after running KSM is liable to oops
> on stale nodes still left over from the previous stable tree;
> 2) memory hotremove may migrate KSM pages, but there is no provision
> here for !merge_across_nodes to migrate nodes to the proper tree.
>
> Signed-off-by: Petr Holasek <pholasek@redhat.com>
> Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com>
> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
> ---
> Documentation/vm/ksm.txt | 7 +
> mm/ksm.c | 151 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-----
> 2 files changed, 139 insertions(+), 19 deletions(-)
>
> --- mmotm.orig/Documentation/vm/ksm.txt 2013-01-25 14:36:31.724205455 -0800
> +++ mmotm/Documentation/vm/ksm.txt 2013-01-25 14:36:38.608205618 -0800
> @@ -58,6 +58,13 @@ sleep_millisecs - how many milliseconds
> e.g. "echo 20 > /sys/kernel/mm/ksm/sleep_millisecs"
> Default: 20 (chosen for demonstration purposes)
>
> +merge_across_nodes - specifies if pages from different numa nodes can be merged.
> + When set to 0, ksm merges only pages which physically
> + reside in the memory area of same NUMA node. It brings
> + lower latency to access to shared page. Value can be
> + changed only when there is no ksm shared pages in system.
> + Default: 1
> +
> run - set 0 to stop ksmd from running but keep merged pages,
> set 1 to run ksmd e.g. "echo 1 > /sys/kernel/mm/ksm/run",
> set 2 to stop ksmd and unmerge all pages currently merged,
> --- mmotm.orig/mm/ksm.c 2013-01-25 14:36:31.724205455 -0800
> +++ mmotm/mm/ksm.c 2013-01-25 14:36:38.608205618 -0800
> @@ -36,6 +36,7 @@
> #include <linux/hashtable.h>
> #include <linux/freezer.h>
> #include <linux/oom.h>
> +#include <linux/numa.h>
>
> #include <asm/tlbflush.h>
> #include "internal.h"
> @@ -139,6 +140,9 @@ struct rmap_item {
> struct mm_struct *mm;
> unsigned long address; /* + low bits used for flags below */
> unsigned int oldchecksum; /* when unstable */
> +#ifdef CONFIG_NUMA
> + unsigned int nid;
> +#endif
> union {
> struct rb_node node; /* when node of unstable tree */
> struct { /* when listed from stable tree */

> @@ -153,8 +157,8 @@ struct rmap_item {
> #define STABLE_FLAG 0x200 /* is listed from the stable tree */
>
> /* The stable and unstable tree heads */
> -static struct rb_root root_stable_tree = RB_ROOT;
> -static struct rb_root root_unstable_tree = RB_ROOT;
> +static struct rb_root root_unstable_tree[MAX_NUMNODES];
> +static struct rb_root root_stable_tree[MAX_NUMNODES];
>

With multiple stable node trees does the comment that begins with

* A few notes about the KSM scanning process,
* to make it easier to understand the data structures below:

need an update?

It's uninitialised so kernel data size in vmlinux should be unaffected but
it's an additional runtime cost of around 4K for a standardish enterprise
distro kernel config. Small beans on a NUMA machine and maybe not worth
the hassle of kmalloc for nr_online_nodes and dealing with node memory
hotplug but it's a pity.

> #define MM_SLOTS_HASH_BITS 10
> static DEFINE_HASHTABLE(mm_slots_hash, MM_SLOTS_HASH_BITS);
> @@ -188,6 +192,9 @@ static unsigned int ksm_thread_pages_to_
> /* Milliseconds ksmd should sleep between batches */
> static unsigned int ksm_thread_sleep_millisecs = 20;
>
> +/* Zeroed when merging across nodes is not allowed */
> +static unsigned int ksm_merge_across_nodes = 1;
> +

Nit but initialised data does increase the size of vmlinux so maybe this
should be the "opposite". i.e. rename it to ksm_merge_within_nodes and
default it to 0?

__read_mostly?

> #define KSM_RUN_STOP 0
> #define KSM_RUN_MERGE 1
> #define KSM_RUN_UNMERGE 2
> @@ -441,10 +448,25 @@ out: page = NULL;
> return page;
> }
>
> +/*
> + * This helper is used for getting right index into array of tree roots.
> + * When merge_across_nodes knob is set to 1, there are only two rb-trees for
> + * stable and unstable pages from all nodes with roots in index 0. Otherwise,
> + * every node has its own stable and unstable tree.
> + */
> +static inline int get_kpfn_nid(unsigned long kpfn)
> +{
> + if (ksm_merge_across_nodes)
> + return 0;
> + else
> + return pfn_to_nid(kpfn);
> +}
> +

If we start with ksm_merge_across_nodes, KSM runs for a while and populates
the stable node tree for node 0 and then ksm_merge_across_nodes gets set
then badness happens because this can go anywhere

nid = get_kpfn_nid(stable_node->kpfn);
rb_erase(&stable_node->node, &root_stable_tree[nid]);

Very late in the review I noticed that you comment on this already in the
changelog and that it is addressed later in the series. I haven't seen
this patch yet so the following suggestion is very stale but might still
be relevant.

We could increase size of root_stable_node[] by 1, have
get_kpfn_nid return MAX_NR_NODES if ksm_merge_across_nodes and
if ksm_merge_across_nodes gets set to 0 then we walk the stable
tree at root_stable_tree[MAX_NR_NODES] and delete the entire
tree? It's be disruptive as hell unfortunately and might break
entirely if there is not enough memory to unshare the pages.

Ideally we could take our time walking root_stable_tree[MAX_NR_NODES]
without worrying about collisions and fix it up somehow. Dunno

> static void remove_node_from_stable_tree(struct stable_node *stable_node)
> {
> struct rmap_item *rmap_item;
> struct hlist_node *hlist;
> + int nid;
>
> hlist_for_each_entry(rmap_item, hlist, &stable_node->hlist, hlist) {
> if (rmap_item->hlist.next)
> @@ -456,7 +478,9 @@ static void remove_node_from_stable_tree
> cond_resched();
> }
>
> - rb_erase(&stable_node->node, &root_stable_tree);
> + nid = get_kpfn_nid(stable_node->kpfn);
> +
> + rb_erase(&stable_node->node, &root_stable_tree[nid]);
> free_stable_node(stable_node);
> }
>
> @@ -554,7 +578,12 @@ static void remove_rmap_item_from_tree(s
> age = (unsigned char)(ksm_scan.seqnr - rmap_item->address);
> BUG_ON(age > 1);
> if (!age)
> - rb_erase(&rmap_item->node, &root_unstable_tree);
> +#ifdef CONFIG_NUMA
> + rb_erase(&rmap_item->node,
> + &root_unstable_tree[rmap_item->nid]);
> +#else
> + rb_erase(&rmap_item->node, &root_unstable_tree[0]);
> +#endif
>

nit, does rmap_item->nid deserve a getter and setter helper instead?

#ifdef CONFIG_NUMA
static inline int rmap_item_nid(struct rmap_item *item)
{
return rmap_item->nid;
}

static inline void set_rmap_item_nid(struct rmap_item *item, int nid)
{
rmap_item->nid = nid;
}
#else
static inline int rmap_item_nid(struct rmap_item *item)
{
return 0;
}

static inline void set_rmap_item_nid(struct rmap_item *item, int nid)
{
}
#endif


> ksm_pages_unshared--;
> rmap_item->address &= PAGE_MASK;
> @@ -990,8 +1019,9 @@ static struct page *try_to_merge_two_pag
> */
> static struct page *stable_tree_search(struct page *page)
> {
> - struct rb_node *node = root_stable_tree.rb_node;
> + struct rb_node *node;
> struct stable_node *stable_node;
> + int nid;
>
> stable_node = page_stable_node(page);
> if (stable_node) { /* ksm page forked */
> @@ -999,6 +1029,9 @@ static struct page *stable_tree_search(s
> return page;
> }
>
> + nid = get_kpfn_nid(page_to_pfn(page));
> + node = root_stable_tree[nid].rb_node;
> +
> while (node) {
> struct page *tree_page;
> int ret;
> @@ -1033,10 +1066,16 @@ static struct page *stable_tree_search(s
> */
> static struct stable_node *stable_tree_insert(struct page *kpage)
> {
> - struct rb_node **new = &root_stable_tree.rb_node;
> + int nid;
> + unsigned long kpfn;
> + struct rb_node **new;
> struct rb_node *parent = NULL;
> struct stable_node *stable_node;
>
> + kpfn = page_to_pfn(kpage);
> + nid = get_kpfn_nid(kpfn);
> + new = &root_stable_tree[nid].rb_node;
> +
> while (*new) {
> struct page *tree_page;
> int ret;
> @@ -1070,11 +1109,11 @@ static struct stable_node *stable_tree_i
> return NULL;
>
> rb_link_node(&stable_node->node, parent, new);
> - rb_insert_color(&stable_node->node, &root_stable_tree);
> + rb_insert_color(&stable_node->node, &root_stable_tree[nid]);
>
> INIT_HLIST_HEAD(&stable_node->hlist);
>
> - stable_node->kpfn = page_to_pfn(kpage);
> + stable_node->kpfn = kpfn;
> set_page_stable_node(kpage, stable_node);
>
> return stable_node;
> @@ -1098,10 +1137,15 @@ static
> struct rmap_item *unstable_tree_search_insert(struct rmap_item *rmap_item,
> struct page *page,
> struct page **tree_pagep)
> -
> {
> - struct rb_node **new = &root_unstable_tree.rb_node;
> + struct rb_node **new;
> + struct rb_root *root;
> struct rb_node *parent = NULL;
> + int nid;
> +
> + nid = get_kpfn_nid(page_to_pfn(page));
> + root = &root_unstable_tree[nid];
> + new = &root->rb_node;
>
> while (*new) {
> struct rmap_item *tree_rmap_item;
> @@ -1122,6 +1166,18 @@ struct rmap_item *unstable_tree_search_i
> return NULL;
> }
>
> + /*
> + * If tree_page has been migrated to another NUMA node, it
> + * will be flushed out and put into the right unstable tree
> + * next time: only merge with it if merge_across_nodes.
> + * Just notice, we don't have similar problem for PageKsm
> + * because their migration is disabled now. (62b61f611e)
> + */
> + if (!ksm_merge_across_nodes && page_to_nid(tree_page) != nid) {
> + put_page(tree_page);
> + return NULL;
> + }
> +

What about this case?

1. ksm_merge_across_nodes==0
2. pages gets placed on different unstable trees
3. ksm_merge_across_nodes==1

At that point we should be removing pages from the different unstable
tree and moving them to root_unstable_tree[0] but this put_page() doesn't
happen. Does it matter?

> ret = memcmp_pages(page, tree_page);
>
> parent = *new;
> @@ -1139,8 +1195,11 @@ struct rmap_item *unstable_tree_search_i
>
> rmap_item->address |= UNSTABLE_FLAG;
> rmap_item->address |= (ksm_scan.seqnr & SEQNR_MASK);
> +#ifdef CONFIG_NUMA
> + rmap_item->nid = nid;
> +#endif
> rb_link_node(&rmap_item->node, parent, new);
> - rb_insert_color(&rmap_item->node, &root_unstable_tree);
> + rb_insert_color(&rmap_item->node, root);
>
> ksm_pages_unshared++;
> return NULL;
> @@ -1154,6 +1213,13 @@ struct rmap_item *unstable_tree_search_i
> static void stable_tree_append(struct rmap_item *rmap_item,
> struct stable_node *stable_node)
> {
> +#ifdef CONFIG_NUMA
> + /*
> + * Usually rmap_item->nid is already set correctly,
> + * but it may be wrong after switching merge_across_nodes.
> + */
> + rmap_item->nid = get_kpfn_nid(stable_node->kpfn);
> +#endif
> rmap_item->head = stable_node;
> rmap_item->address |= STABLE_FLAG;
> hlist_add_head(&rmap_item->hlist, &stable_node->hlist);
> @@ -1283,6 +1349,7 @@ static struct rmap_item *scan_get_next_r
> struct mm_slot *slot;
> struct vm_area_struct *vma;
> struct rmap_item *rmap_item;
> + int nid;
>
> if (list_empty(&ksm_mm_head.mm_list))
> return NULL;
> @@ -1301,7 +1368,8 @@ static struct rmap_item *scan_get_next_r
> */
> lru_add_drain_all();
>
> - root_unstable_tree = RB_ROOT;
> + for (nid = 0; nid < nr_node_ids; nid++)
> + root_unstable_tree[nid] = RB_ROOT;
>

Minor but you shouldn't need to reset tham all if
ksm_merge_across_nodes==1

Initially this triggered an alarm because it's not immediately obvious
why you can just discard an rbtree like this. It looks like because the
unstable tree is also part of a linked list so the rb representation can
be reset quickly without leaking memory.

> spin_lock(&ksm_mmlist_lock);
> slot = list_entry(slot->mm_list.next, struct mm_slot, mm_list);
> @@ -1770,15 +1838,19 @@ static struct stable_node *ksm_check_sta
> unsigned long end_pfn)
> {
> struct rb_node *node;
> + int nid;
>
> - for (node = rb_first(&root_stable_tree); node; node = rb_next(node)) {
> - struct stable_node *stable_node;
> + for (nid = 0; nid < nr_node_ids; nid++)
> + for (node = rb_first(&root_stable_tree[nid]); node;
> + node = rb_next(node)) {
> + struct stable_node *stable_node;
> +
> + stable_node = rb_entry(node, struct stable_node, node);
> + if (stable_node->kpfn >= start_pfn &&
> + stable_node->kpfn < end_pfn)
> + return stable_node;
> + }
>
> - stable_node = rb_entry(node, struct stable_node, node);
> - if (stable_node->kpfn >= start_pfn &&
> - stable_node->kpfn < end_pfn)
> - return stable_node;
> - }
> return NULL;
> }
>
> @@ -1925,6 +1997,40 @@ static ssize_t run_store(struct kobject
> }
> KSM_ATTR(run);
>
> +#ifdef CONFIG_NUMA
> +static ssize_t merge_across_nodes_show(struct kobject *kobj,
> + struct kobj_attribute *attr, char *buf)
> +{
> + return sprintf(buf, "%u\n", ksm_merge_across_nodes);
> +}
> +
> +static ssize_t merge_across_nodes_store(struct kobject *kobj,
> + struct kobj_attribute *attr,
> + const char *buf, size_t count)
> +{
> + int err;
> + unsigned long knob;
> +
> + err = kstrtoul(buf, 10, &knob);
> + if (err)
> + return err;
> + if (knob > 1)
> + return -EINVAL;
> +
> + mutex_lock(&ksm_thread_mutex);
> + if (ksm_merge_across_nodes != knob) {
> + if (ksm_pages_shared)
> + err = -EBUSY;
> + else
> + ksm_merge_across_nodes = knob;
> + }
> + mutex_unlock(&ksm_thread_mutex);
> +
> + return err ? err : count;
> +}
> +KSM_ATTR(merge_across_nodes);
> +#endif
> +
> static ssize_t pages_shared_show(struct kobject *kobj,
> struct kobj_attribute *attr, char *buf)
> {
> @@ -1979,6 +2085,9 @@ static struct attribute *ksm_attrs[] = {
> &pages_unshared_attr.attr,
> &pages_volatile_attr.attr,
> &full_scans_attr.attr,
> +#ifdef CONFIG_NUMA
> + &merge_across_nodes_attr.attr,
> +#endif
> NULL,
> };
>
> @@ -1992,11 +2101,15 @@ static int __init ksm_init(void)
> {
> struct task_struct *ksm_thread;
> int err;
> + int nid;
>
> err = ksm_slab_init();
> if (err)
> goto out;
>
> + for (nid = 0; nid < nr_node_ids; nid++)
> + root_stable_tree[nid] = RB_ROOT;
> +
> ksm_thread = kthread_run(ksm_scan_thread, NULL, "ksmd");
> if (IS_ERR(ksm_thread)) {
> printk(KERN_ERR "ksm: creating kthread failed\n");
>

--
Mel Gorman
SUSE Labs


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