lkml.org 
[lkml]   [2013]   [Oct]   [7]   [last100]   RSS Feed
Views: [wrap][no wrap]   [headers]  [forward] 
 
Messages in this thread
Patch in this message
/
From
Subject[PATCH 01/63] hotplug: Optimize {get,put}_online_cpus()
Date
From: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>

NOTE: This is a placeholder only. A more comprehensive series is in
progress but this patch on its own mitigates most of the
overhead the migrate_swap patch is concerned with. It's
expected that CPU hotplug locking series would go in before
this series.

The current implementation of get_online_cpus() is global of nature
and thus not suited for any kind of common usage.

Re-implement the current recursive r/w cpu hotplug lock such that the
read side locks are as light as possible.

The current cpu hotplug lock is entirely reader biased; but since
readers are expensive there aren't a lot of them about and writer
starvation isn't a particular problem.

However by making the reader side more usable there is a fair chance
it will get used more and thus the starvation issue becomes a real
possibility.

Therefore this new implementation is fair, alternating readers and
writers; this however requires per-task state to allow the reader
recursion -- this new task_struct member is placed in a 4 byte hole on
64bit builds.

Many comments are contributed by Paul McKenney, and many previous
attempts were shown to be inadequate by both Paul and Oleg; many
thanks to them for persisting to poke holes in my attempts.

Signed-off-by: Oleg Nesterov <oleg@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Reviewed-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
---
include/linux/cpu.h | 67 ++++++++++++++-
include/linux/sched.h | 3 +
kernel/cpu.c | 227 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-------------
kernel/sched/core.c | 2 +
4 files changed, 237 insertions(+), 62 deletions(-)

diff --git a/include/linux/cpu.h b/include/linux/cpu.h
index 801ff9e..e520c76 100644
--- a/include/linux/cpu.h
+++ b/include/linux/cpu.h
@@ -16,6 +16,8 @@
#include <linux/node.h>
#include <linux/compiler.h>
#include <linux/cpumask.h>
+#include <linux/percpu.h>
+#include <linux/sched.h>

struct device;

@@ -173,10 +175,69 @@ extern struct bus_type cpu_subsys;
#ifdef CONFIG_HOTPLUG_CPU
/* Stop CPUs going up and down. */

+extern void cpu_hotplug_init_task(struct task_struct *p);
+
extern void cpu_hotplug_begin(void);
extern void cpu_hotplug_done(void);
-extern void get_online_cpus(void);
-extern void put_online_cpus(void);
+
+extern int __cpuhp_state;
+DECLARE_PER_CPU(unsigned int, __cpuhp_refcount);
+
+extern void __get_online_cpus(void);
+
+static inline void get_online_cpus(void)
+{
+ might_sleep();
+
+ /* Support reader recursion */
+ /* The value was >= 1 and remains so, reordering causes no harm. */
+ if (current->cpuhp_ref++)
+ return;
+
+ preempt_disable();
+ /*
+ * We are in an RCU-sched read-side critical section, so the writer
+ * cannot both change __cpuhp_state from readers_fast and start
+ * checking counters while we are here. So if we see !__cpuhp_state,
+ * we know that the writer won't be checking until we past the
+ * preempt_enable() and that once the synchronize_sched() is done, the
+ * writer will see anything we did within this RCU-sched read-side
+ * critical section.
+ */
+ if (likely(!__cpuhp_state))
+ __this_cpu_inc(__cpuhp_refcount);
+ else
+ __get_online_cpus(); /* Unconditional memory barrier. */
+ preempt_enable();
+ /*
+ * The barrier() from preempt_enable() prevents the compiler from
+ * bleeding the critical section out.
+ */
+}
+
+extern void __put_online_cpus(void);
+
+static inline void put_online_cpus(void)
+{
+ /* The value was >= 1 and remains so, reordering causes no harm. */
+ if (--current->cpuhp_ref)
+ return;
+
+ /*
+ * The barrier() in preempt_disable() prevents the compiler from
+ * bleeding the critical section out.
+ */
+ preempt_disable();
+ /*
+ * Same as in get_online_cpus().
+ */
+ if (likely(!__cpuhp_state))
+ __this_cpu_dec(__cpuhp_refcount);
+ else
+ __put_online_cpus(); /* Unconditional memory barrier. */
+ preempt_enable();
+}
+
extern void cpu_hotplug_disable(void);
extern void cpu_hotplug_enable(void);
#define hotcpu_notifier(fn, pri) cpu_notifier(fn, pri)
@@ -200,6 +261,8 @@ static inline void cpu_hotplug_driver_unlock(void)

#else /* CONFIG_HOTPLUG_CPU */

+static inline void cpu_hotplug_init_task(struct task_struct *p) {}
+
static inline void cpu_hotplug_begin(void) {}
static inline void cpu_hotplug_done(void) {}
#define get_online_cpus() do { } while (0)
diff --git a/include/linux/sched.h b/include/linux/sched.h
index 6682da3..5308d89 100644
--- a/include/linux/sched.h
+++ b/include/linux/sched.h
@@ -1026,6 +1026,9 @@ struct task_struct {
#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
struct llist_node wake_entry;
int on_cpu;
+#ifdef CONFIG_HOTPLUG_CPU
+ int cpuhp_ref;
+#endif
struct task_struct *last_wakee;
unsigned long wakee_flips;
unsigned long wakee_flip_decay_ts;
diff --git a/kernel/cpu.c b/kernel/cpu.c
index d7f07a2..dccf605 100644
--- a/kernel/cpu.c
+++ b/kernel/cpu.c
@@ -49,88 +49,195 @@ static int cpu_hotplug_disabled;

#ifdef CONFIG_HOTPLUG_CPU

-static struct {
- struct task_struct *active_writer;
- struct mutex lock; /* Synchronizes accesses to refcount, */
+enum { readers_fast = 0, readers_slow, readers_block };
+
+int __cpuhp_state;
+EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(__cpuhp_state);
+
+DEFINE_PER_CPU(unsigned int, __cpuhp_refcount);
+EXPORT_PER_CPU_SYMBOL_GPL(__cpuhp_refcount);
+
+static atomic_t cpuhp_waitcount;
+static DECLARE_WAIT_QUEUE_HEAD(cpuhp_readers);
+static DECLARE_WAIT_QUEUE_HEAD(cpuhp_writer);
+
+void cpu_hotplug_init_task(struct task_struct *p)
+{
+ p->cpuhp_ref = 0;
+}
+
+void __get_online_cpus(void)
+{
+again:
+ __this_cpu_inc(__cpuhp_refcount);
+
/*
- * Also blocks the new readers during
- * an ongoing cpu hotplug operation.
+ * Due to having preemption disabled the decrement happens on
+ * the same CPU as the increment, avoiding the
+ * increment-on-one-CPU-and-decrement-on-another problem.
+ *
+ * And yes, if the reader misses the writer's assignment of
+ * readers_block to __cpuhp_state, then the writer is
+ * guaranteed to see the reader's increment. Conversely, any
+ * readers that increment their __cpuhp_refcount after the
+ * writer looks are guaranteed to see the readers_block value,
+ * which in turn means that they are guaranteed to immediately
+ * decrement their __cpuhp_refcount, so that it doesn't matter
+ * that the writer missed them.
*/
- int refcount;
-} cpu_hotplug = {
- .active_writer = NULL,
- .lock = __MUTEX_INITIALIZER(cpu_hotplug.lock),
- .refcount = 0,
-};

-void get_online_cpus(void)
-{
- might_sleep();
- if (cpu_hotplug.active_writer == current)
+ smp_mb(); /* A matches D */
+
+ if (likely(__cpuhp_state != readers_block))
return;
- mutex_lock(&cpu_hotplug.lock);
- cpu_hotplug.refcount++;
- mutex_unlock(&cpu_hotplug.lock);

+ /*
+ * Make sure an outgoing writer sees the waitcount to ensure we
+ * make progress.
+ */
+ atomic_inc(&cpuhp_waitcount);
+
+ /*
+ * Per the above comment; we still have preemption disabled and
+ * will thus decrement on the same CPU as we incremented.
+ */
+ __put_online_cpus();
+
+ /*
+ * We either call schedule() in the wait, or we'll fall through
+ * and reschedule on the preempt_enable() in get_online_cpus().
+ */
+ preempt_enable_no_resched();
+ __wait_event(cpuhp_readers, __cpuhp_state != readers_block);
+ preempt_disable();
+
+ /*
+ * Given we've still got preempt_disabled and new cpu_hotplug_begin()
+ * must do a synchronize_sched() we're guaranteed a successfull
+ * acquisition this time -- even if we wake the current
+ * cpu_hotplug_end() now.
+ */
+ if (atomic_dec_and_test(&cpuhp_waitcount))
+ wake_up(&cpuhp_writer);
+
+ goto again;
}
-EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(get_online_cpus);
+EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(__get_online_cpus);

-void put_online_cpus(void)
+void __put_online_cpus(void)
{
- if (cpu_hotplug.active_writer == current)
- return;
- mutex_lock(&cpu_hotplug.lock);
+ smp_mb(); /* B matches C */
+ /*
+ * In other words, if they see our decrement (presumably to aggregate
+ * zero, as that is the only time it matters) they will also see our
+ * critical section.
+ */
+ this_cpu_dec(__cpuhp_refcount);
+
+ /* Prod writer to recheck readers_active */
+ wake_up(&cpuhp_writer);
+}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(__put_online_cpus);

- if (WARN_ON(!cpu_hotplug.refcount))
- cpu_hotplug.refcount++; /* try to fix things up */
+#define per_cpu_sum(var) \
+({ \
+ typeof(var) __sum = 0; \
+ int cpu; \
+ for_each_possible_cpu(cpu) \
+ __sum += per_cpu(var, cpu); \
+ __sum; \
+})

- if (!--cpu_hotplug.refcount && unlikely(cpu_hotplug.active_writer))
- wake_up_process(cpu_hotplug.active_writer);
- mutex_unlock(&cpu_hotplug.lock);
+/*
+ * Return true if the modular sum of the __cpuhp_refcount per-CPU variables
+ * is zero. If this sum is zero, then it is stable due to the fact that if
+ * any newly arriving readers increment a given counter, they will
+ * immediately decrement that same counter.
+ */
+static bool cpuhp_readers_active_check(void)
+{
+ if (per_cpu_sum(__cpuhp_refcount) != 0)
+ return false;

+ /*
+ * If we observed the decrement; ensure we see the entire critical
+ * section.
+ */
+
+ smp_mb(); /* C matches B */
+
+ return true;
}
-EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(put_online_cpus);

/*
- * This ensures that the hotplug operation can begin only when the
- * refcount goes to zero.
- *
- * Note that during a cpu-hotplug operation, the new readers, if any,
- * will be blocked by the cpu_hotplug.lock
- *
- * Since cpu_hotplug_begin() is always called after invoking
- * cpu_maps_update_begin(), we can be sure that only one writer is active.
- *
- * Note that theoretically, there is a possibility of a livelock:
- * - Refcount goes to zero, last reader wakes up the sleeping
- * writer.
- * - Last reader unlocks the cpu_hotplug.lock.
- * - A new reader arrives at this moment, bumps up the refcount.
- * - The writer acquires the cpu_hotplug.lock finds the refcount
- * non zero and goes to sleep again.
- *
- * However, this is very difficult to achieve in practice since
- * get_online_cpus() not an api which is called all that often.
- *
+ * This will notify new readers to block and wait for all active readers to
+ * complete.
*/
void cpu_hotplug_begin(void)
{
- cpu_hotplug.active_writer = current;
+ /*
+ * Since cpu_hotplug_begin() is always called after invoking
+ * cpu_maps_update_begin(), we can be sure that only one writer is
+ * active.
+ */
+ lockdep_assert_held(&cpu_add_remove_lock);

- for (;;) {
- mutex_lock(&cpu_hotplug.lock);
- if (likely(!cpu_hotplug.refcount))
- break;
- __set_current_state(TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE);
- mutex_unlock(&cpu_hotplug.lock);
- schedule();
- }
+ /* Allow reader-in-writer recursion. */
+ current->cpuhp_ref++;
+
+ /* Notify readers to take the slow path. */
+ __cpuhp_state = readers_slow;
+
+ /* See percpu_down_write(); guarantees all readers take the slow path */
+ synchronize_sched();
+
+ /*
+ * Notify new readers to block; up until now, and thus throughout the
+ * longish synchronize_sched() above, new readers could still come in.
+ */
+ __cpuhp_state = readers_block;
+
+ smp_mb(); /* D matches A */
+
+ /*
+ * If they don't see our writer of readers_block to __cpuhp_state,
+ * then we are guaranteed to see their __cpuhp_refcount increment, and
+ * therefore will wait for them.
+ */
+
+ /* Wait for all now active readers to complete. */
+ wait_event(cpuhp_writer, cpuhp_readers_active_check());
}

void cpu_hotplug_done(void)
{
- cpu_hotplug.active_writer = NULL;
- mutex_unlock(&cpu_hotplug.lock);
+ /*
+ * Signal the writer is done, no fast path yet.
+ *
+ * One reason that we cannot just immediately flip to readers_fast is
+ * that new readers might fail to see the results of this writer's
+ * critical section.
+ */
+ __cpuhp_state = readers_slow;
+ wake_up_all(&cpuhp_readers);
+
+ /*
+ * The wait_event()/wake_up_all() prevents the race where the readers
+ * are delayed between fetching __cpuhp_state and blocking.
+ */
+
+ /* See percpu_up_write(); readers will no longer attempt to block. */
+ synchronize_sched();
+
+ /* Let 'em rip */
+ __cpuhp_state = readers_fast;
+ current->cpuhp_ref--;
+
+ /*
+ * Wait for any pending readers to be running. This ensures readers
+ * after writer and avoids writers starving readers.
+ */
+ wait_event(cpuhp_writer, !atomic_read(&cpuhp_waitcount));
}

/*
diff --git a/kernel/sched/core.c b/kernel/sched/core.c
index 5ac63c9..2f3420c 100644
--- a/kernel/sched/core.c
+++ b/kernel/sched/core.c
@@ -1630,6 +1630,8 @@ static void __sched_fork(struct task_struct *p)
p->numa_scan_period = sysctl_numa_balancing_scan_delay;
p->numa_work.next = &p->numa_work;
#endif /* CONFIG_NUMA_BALANCING */
+
+ cpu_hotplug_init_task(p);
}

#ifdef CONFIG_NUMA_BALANCING
--
1.8.4


\
 
 \ /
  Last update: 2013-10-07 13:21    [W:3.456 / U:0.012 seconds]
©2003-2020 Jasper Spaans|hosted at Digital Ocean and TransIP|Read the blog|Advertise on this site