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SubjectRe: [RFC PATCH v1 06/22] PCI: use a global lock to serialize PCI root bridge hotplug operations
On 09/12/2012 06:57 AM, Bjorn Helgaas wrote:
> On Tue, Aug 7, 2012 at 10:10 AM, Jiang Liu <> wrote:
>> Currently there's no mechanism to protect the global pci_root_buses list
>> from dynamic change at runtime. That means, PCI root bridge hotplug
>> operations, which dynamically change the pci_root_buses list, may cause
>> invalid memory accesses.
>> So introduce a global lock to serialize accesses to the pci_root_buses
>> list and serialize PCI host bridge hotplug operations.
>> Be careful, never try to acquire this global lock from PCI device drivers,
>> that may cause deadlocks.
>> Signed-off-by: Jiang Liu <>
>> ---
>> drivers/acpi/pci_root.c | 8 +++++++-
>> drivers/edac/i7core_edac.c | 16 +++++++---------
>> drivers/gpu/drm/drm_fops.c | 6 +++++-
>> drivers/pci/host-bridge.c | 19 +++++++++++++++++++
>> drivers/pci/hotplug/sgi_hotplug.c | 2 ++
>> drivers/pci/pci-sysfs.c | 2 ++
>> drivers/pci/probe.c | 5 ++++-
>> drivers/pci/search.c | 9 ++++++++-
>> include/linux/pci.h | 8 ++++++++
>> 9 files changed, 62 insertions(+), 13 deletions(-)
>> diff --git a/drivers/acpi/pci_root.c b/drivers/acpi/pci_root.c
>> index 7aff631..6bd0e32 100644
>> --- a/drivers/acpi/pci_root.c
>> +++ b/drivers/acpi/pci_root.c
>> @@ -463,6 +463,8 @@ static int __devinit acpi_pci_root_add(struct acpi_device *device)
>> if (!root)
>> return -ENOMEM;
>> + pci_host_bridge_hotplug_lock();
> Here's where I get lost. This is an ACPI driver's .add() routine,
> which is analogous to a PCI driver's .probe() routine. PCI driver
> .probe() routines don't need to be concerned with PCI device hotplug.
> All the hotplug-related locking is handled by the PCI core, not by
> individual drivers. So why do we need it here?
> I'm not suggesting that the existing locking is correct. I'm just not
> convinced this is the right way to fix it.
> The commit log says we need protection for the global pci_root_buses
> list. But even with this whole series, we still traverse the list
> without protection in places like pcibios_resource_survey() and
> pci_assign_unassigned_resources().
> Maybe we can make progress on this by identifying specific failures
> that can happen in a couple of these paths, e.g., acpi_pci_root_add()
> and i7core_xeon_pci_fixup(). If we look at those paths, we might a
> way to fix this in a more general fashion than throwing in lock/unlock
> pairs.
> It might also help to know what the rule is for when we need to use
> pci_host_bridge_hotplug_lock() and pci_host_bridge_hotplug_unlock().
> Apparently it is not as simple as protecting every reference to the
> pci_root_buses list.
Hi Bjorn,
It's really a challenge work to protect the pci_root_buses list:)
All evils are caused by the pci_find_next_bus() interface, which is designed
to be called at boot time only. I have tried several other solutions but
First I tried "pci_get_next_bus()" which holds a reference to the
returned root bus "pci_bus". But that doesn't help because pci_bus could
be removed from the pci_root_buses list even you hold a reference to
pci_bus. And it will cause trouble when you call pci_get_next_bus(pci_bus)
again because pci_bus-> is invalid now.
Then I tried RCU and also failed because caller of pci_get_next_bus()
may sleep.
And at last the global host bridge hotplug lock solution. The rules
for locking are:
1) No need for locking when accessing the pci_root_buses list at
system initialization stages. (It's system initialization instead of driver
initialization here because driver's initialization code may be called
at runtime when loading the driver.) It's single-threaded and no hotplug
during system initialization stages.
2) Should acquire the global lock when accessing the pci_root_buses
list at runtime.

I have done several rounds of scanning to identify accessing to
the pci_root_buses list at runtime. But there may still be something missed:(

I think the best solution is to get rid of the pci_find_next_bus().
but not sure whether we could achieve that.

>> diff --git a/drivers/gpu/drm/drm_fops.c b/drivers/gpu/drm/drm_fops.c
>> index 123de28..f559b5b 100644
>> --- a/drivers/gpu/drm/drm_fops.c
>> +++ b/drivers/gpu/drm/drm_fops.c
>> @@ -344,9 +344,13 @@ static int drm_open_helper(struct inode *inode, struct file *filp,
>> pci_dev_put(pci_dev);
>> }
>> if (!dev->hose) {
>> - struct pci_bus *b = pci_bus_b(;
>> + struct pci_bus *b;
>> +
>> + pci_host_bridge_hotplug_lock();
>> + b = pci_find_next_bus(NULL);
> Here's another case I don't understand. We know already that
> pci_find_next_bus() is unsafe with respect to hotplug because it
> doesn't hold a reference on the struct pci_bus it returns. Can't we
> replace this with some variety of pci_get_next_bus() that *does*
> acquire a reference?
> Actually, I looked at the callers of pci_find_next_bus(), and most of
> them are unsafe in an even deeper way: they're doing device setup in
> initcalls, so that setup won't be done for hot-added devices. For
> example, I can pick on sba_init() because I think I wrote it back in
> the dark ages. sba_init() is a subsys_initcall that calls
> sba_connect_bus() for every bus we know about at boot-time, and it
> sets the host bridge's iommu pointer. If we were to hot-add a host
> bridge, we would never set the iommu pointer.
That's a more fundamental issue, another big topic for us:(

> I'm not sure why you didn't add a pci_host_bridge_hotplug_lock() in
> the sba_init() path, since it looks similar to the drm_open_helper()
> path above. But in any case, I think that would be the wrong thing to
> do because it would fix the superficial problem while leaving the
> deeper problem of host bridge hot-add not setting the iommu pointer.
sba_init is called during system initialization stages through subsys_initcall,
so no extra protection for it.

>> if (b)
>> dev->hose = b->sysdata;
>> + pci_host_bridge_hotplug_unlock();
>> }
>> }
>> #endif
> ...
>> diff --git a/drivers/pci/search.c b/drivers/pci/search.c
>> index 993d4a0..f1147a7 100644
>> --- a/drivers/pci/search.c
>> +++ b/drivers/pci/search.c
>> @@ -100,6 +100,13 @@ struct pci_bus * pci_find_bus(int domain, int busnr)
>> * initiated by passing %NULL as the @from argument. Otherwise if
>> * @from is not %NULL, searches continue from next device on the
>> * global list.
>> + *
>> + * Please don't call this function at rumtime if possible.
>> + * It's designed to be called at boot time only because it's unsafe
>> + * to PCI root bridge hotplug operations. But some drivers do invoke
>> + * it at runtime and it's hard to fix those drivers. In such cases,
>> + * use pci_host_bridge_hotplug()_{lock|unlock} to protect the PCI root
>> + * bus list, but you need to be really careful to avoid deadlock.
> I'm not convinced that it's too hard to fix these drivers :) There
> are only six callers, and the only ones that could possibly be at
> runtime are drm_open_helper(), sn_pci_hotplug_init(), and
> bus_rescan_store().
The same issue for i7core_xeon_pci_fixup() in i7core_edac driver too.
Will think about this solution.


> Bjorn

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