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Subject[RFC PATCH v7 05/10] fadump: Convert firmware-assisted cpu state dump data into elf notes.
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Date
From: Mahesh Salgaonkar <mahesh@linux.vnet.ibm.com>

When registered for firmware assisted dump on powerpc, firmware preserves
the registers for the active CPUs during a system crash. This patch reads
the cpu register data stored in Firmware-assisted dump format (except for
crashing cpu) and converts it into elf notes and updates the PT_NOTE program
header accordingly. The exact register state for crashing cpu is saved to
fadump crash info structure in scratch area during crash_fadump() and read
during second kernel boot.

Signed-off-by: Mahesh Salgaonkar <mahesh@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
---
arch/powerpc/include/asm/fadump.h | 44 +++++
arch/powerpc/kernel/fadump.c | 314 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
arch/powerpc/kernel/setup-common.c | 6 +
arch/powerpc/kernel/traps.c | 3
4 files changed, 365 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-)

diff --git a/arch/powerpc/include/asm/fadump.h b/arch/powerpc/include/asm/fadump.h
index 9e172a5..6768195 100644
--- a/arch/powerpc/include/asm/fadump.h
+++ b/arch/powerpc/include/asm/fadump.h
@@ -65,6 +65,18 @@
/* Dump status flag */
#define FADUMP_ERROR_FLAG 0x2000

+#define FADUMP_CPU_ID_MASK ((1UL << 32) - 1)
+
+#define CPU_UNKNOWN (~((u32)0))
+
+/* Utility macros */
+#define SKIP_TO_NEXT_CPU(reg_entry) \
+({ \
+ while (reg_entry->reg_id != REG_ID("CPUEND")) \
+ reg_entry++; \
+ reg_entry++; \
+})
+
/* Kernel Dump section info */
struct fadump_section {
u32 request_flag;
@@ -119,6 +131,9 @@ struct fw_dump {
unsigned long reserve_bootvar;

unsigned long fadumphdr_addr;
+ unsigned long cpu_notes_buf;
+ unsigned long cpu_notes_buf_size;
+
int ibm_configure_kernel_dump;

unsigned long fadump_enabled:1;
@@ -143,13 +158,40 @@ static inline u64 str_to_u64(const char *str)
return val;
}
#define STR_TO_HEX(x) str_to_u64(x)
+#define REG_ID(x) str_to_u64(x)

#define FADUMP_CRASH_INFO_MAGIC STR_TO_HEX("FADMPINF")
+#define REGSAVE_AREA_MAGIC STR_TO_HEX("REGSAVE")
+
+/* The firmware-assisted dump format.
+ *
+ * The register save area is an area in the partition's memory used to preserve
+ * the register contents (CPU state data) for the active CPUs during a firmware
+ * assisted dump. The dump format contains register save area header followed
+ * by register entries. Each list of registers for a CPU starts with
+ * "CPUSTRT" and ends with "CPUEND".
+ */
+
+/* Register save area header. */
+struct fadump_reg_save_area_header {
+ u64 magic_number;
+ u32 version;
+ u32 num_cpu_offset;
+};
+
+/* Register entry. */
+struct fadump_reg_entry {
+ u64 reg_id;
+ u64 reg_value;
+};

/* fadump crash info structure */
struct fadump_crash_info_header {
u64 magic_number;
u64 elfcorehdr_addr;
+ u32 crashing_cpu;
+ struct pt_regs regs;
+ struct cpumask cpu_online_mask;
};

/* Crash memory ranges */
@@ -165,7 +207,9 @@ extern int early_init_dt_scan_fw_dump(unsigned long node,
extern int fadump_reserve_mem(void);
extern int setup_fadump(void);
extern int is_fadump_active(void);
+extern void crash_fadump(struct pt_regs *, const char *);
#else /* CONFIG_FA_DUMP */
static inline int is_fadump_active(void) { return 0; }
+static inline void crash_fadump(struct pt_regs *regs, const char *str) { }
#endif
#endif
diff --git a/arch/powerpc/kernel/fadump.c b/arch/powerpc/kernel/fadump.c
index f85a63f..cab56e7 100644
--- a/arch/powerpc/kernel/fadump.c
+++ b/arch/powerpc/kernel/fadump.c
@@ -240,6 +240,7 @@ static unsigned long get_fadump_area_size(void)
size += fw_dump.boot_memory_size;
size += sizeof(struct fadump_crash_info_header);
size += sizeof(struct elfhdr); /* ELF core header.*/
+ size += sizeof(struct elf_phdr); /* place holder for cpu notes */
/* Program headers for crash memory regions. */
size += sizeof(struct elf_phdr) * (memblock_num_regions(memory) + 2);

@@ -393,6 +394,285 @@ static void register_fw_dump(struct fadump_mem_struct *fdm)
}
}

+void crash_fadump(struct pt_regs *regs, const char *str)
+{
+ struct fadump_crash_info_header *fdh = NULL;
+
+ if (!fw_dump.dump_registered || !fw_dump.fadumphdr_addr)
+ return;
+
+ fdh = __va(fw_dump.fadumphdr_addr);
+ crashing_cpu = smp_processor_id();
+ fdh->crashing_cpu = crashing_cpu;
+ crash_save_vmcoreinfo();
+
+ if (regs)
+ fdh->regs = *regs;
+ else
+ ppc_save_regs(&fdh->regs);
+
+ fdh->cpu_online_mask = *cpu_online_mask;
+
+ /* Call ibm,os-term rtas call to trigger firmware assisted dump */
+ rtas_os_term((char *)str);
+}
+
+#define GPR_MASK 0xffffff0000000000
+static inline int fadump_gpr_index(u64 id)
+{
+ int i = -1;
+ char str[3];
+
+ if ((id & GPR_MASK) == REG_ID("GPR")) {
+ /* get the digits at the end */
+ id &= ~GPR_MASK;
+ id >>= 24;
+ str[2] = '\0';
+ str[1] = id & 0xff;
+ str[0] = (id >> 8) & 0xff;
+ sscanf(str, "%d", &i);
+ if (i > 31)
+ i = -1;
+ }
+ return i;
+}
+
+static inline void fadump_set_regval(struct pt_regs *regs, u64 reg_id,
+ u64 reg_val)
+{
+ int i;
+
+ i = fadump_gpr_index(reg_id);
+ if (i >= 0)
+ regs->gpr[i] = (unsigned long)reg_val;
+ else if (reg_id == REG_ID("NIA"))
+ regs->nip = (unsigned long)reg_val;
+ else if (reg_id == REG_ID("MSR"))
+ regs->msr = (unsigned long)reg_val;
+ else if (reg_id == REG_ID("CTR"))
+ regs->ctr = (unsigned long)reg_val;
+ else if (reg_id == REG_ID("LR"))
+ regs->link = (unsigned long)reg_val;
+ else if (reg_id == REG_ID("XER"))
+ regs->xer = (unsigned long)reg_val;
+ else if (reg_id == REG_ID("CR"))
+ regs->ccr = (unsigned long)reg_val;
+ else if (reg_id == REG_ID("DAR"))
+ regs->dar = (unsigned long)reg_val;
+ else if (reg_id == REG_ID("DSISR"))
+ regs->dsisr = (unsigned long)reg_val;
+}
+
+static struct fadump_reg_entry*
+fadump_read_registers(struct fadump_reg_entry *reg_entry, struct pt_regs *regs)
+{
+ memset(regs, 0, sizeof(struct pt_regs));
+
+ while (reg_entry->reg_id != REG_ID("CPUEND")) {
+ fadump_set_regval(regs, reg_entry->reg_id,
+ reg_entry->reg_value);
+ reg_entry++;
+ }
+ reg_entry++;
+ return reg_entry;
+}
+
+static u32 *fadump_append_elf_note(u32 *buf, char *name, unsigned type,
+ void *data, size_t data_len)
+{
+ struct elf_note note;
+
+ note.n_namesz = strlen(name) + 1;
+ note.n_descsz = data_len;
+ note.n_type = type;
+ memcpy(buf, &note, sizeof(note));
+ buf += (sizeof(note) + 3)/4;
+ memcpy(buf, name, note.n_namesz);
+ buf += (note.n_namesz + 3)/4;
+ memcpy(buf, data, note.n_descsz);
+ buf += (note.n_descsz + 3)/4;
+
+ return buf;
+}
+
+static void fadump_final_note(u32 *buf)
+{
+ struct elf_note note;
+
+ note.n_namesz = 0;
+ note.n_descsz = 0;
+ note.n_type = 0;
+ memcpy(buf, &note, sizeof(note));
+}
+
+static u32 *fadump_regs_to_elf_notes(u32 *buf, struct pt_regs *regs)
+{
+ struct elf_prstatus prstatus;
+
+ memset(&prstatus, 0, sizeof(prstatus));
+ /*
+ * FIXME: How do i get PID? Do I really need it?
+ * prstatus.pr_pid = ????
+ */
+ elf_core_copy_kernel_regs(&prstatus.pr_reg, regs);
+ buf = fadump_append_elf_note(buf, KEXEC_CORE_NOTE_NAME, NT_PRSTATUS,
+ &prstatus, sizeof(prstatus));
+ return buf;
+}
+
+static void fadump_update_elfcore_header(char *bufp)
+{
+ struct elfhdr *elf;
+ struct elf_phdr *phdr;
+
+ elf = (struct elfhdr *)bufp;
+ bufp += sizeof(struct elfhdr);
+
+ /* First note is a place holder for cpu notes info. */
+ phdr = (struct elf_phdr *)bufp;
+
+ if (phdr->p_type == PT_NOTE) {
+ phdr->p_paddr = fw_dump.cpu_notes_buf;
+ phdr->p_offset = phdr->p_paddr;
+ phdr->p_filesz = fw_dump.cpu_notes_buf_size;
+ phdr->p_memsz = fw_dump.cpu_notes_buf_size;
+ }
+ return;
+}
+
+static void *fadump_cpu_notes_buf_alloc(unsigned long size)
+{
+ void *vaddr;
+ struct page *page;
+ unsigned long order, count, i;
+
+ order = get_order(size);
+ vaddr = (void *)__get_free_pages(GFP_KERNEL|__GFP_ZERO, order);
+ if (!vaddr)
+ return NULL;
+
+ count = 1 << order;
+ page = virt_to_page(vaddr);
+ for (i = 0; i < count; i++)
+ SetPageReserved(page + i);
+ return vaddr;
+}
+
+static void fadump_cpu_notes_buf_free(unsigned long vaddr, unsigned long size)
+{
+ struct page *page;
+ unsigned long order, count, i;
+
+ order = get_order(size);
+ count = 1 << order;
+ page = virt_to_page(vaddr);
+ for (i = 0; i < count; i++)
+ ClearPageReserved(page + i);
+ __free_pages(page, order);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Read CPU state dump data and convert it into ELF notes.
+ * The CPU dump starts with magic number "REGSAVE". NumCpusOffset should be
+ * used to access the data to allow for additional fields to be added without
+ * affecting compatibility. Each list of registers for a CPU starts with
+ * "CPUSTRT" and ends with "CPUEND". Each register entry is of 16 bytes,
+ * 8 Byte ASCII identifier and 8 Byte register value. The register entry
+ * with identifier "CPUSTRT" and "CPUEND" contains 4 byte cpu id as part
+ * of register value. For more details refer to PAPR document.
+ *
+ * Only for the crashing cpu we ignore the CPU dump data and get exact
+ * state from fadump crash info structure populated by first kernel at the
+ * time of crash.
+ */
+static int __init fadump_build_cpu_notes(const struct fadump_mem_struct *fdm)
+{
+ struct fadump_reg_save_area_header *reg_header;
+ struct fadump_reg_entry *reg_entry;
+ struct fadump_crash_info_header *fdh = NULL;
+ void *vaddr;
+ unsigned long addr;
+ u32 num_cpus, *note_buf;
+ struct pt_regs regs;
+ int i, rc = 0, cpu = 0;
+
+ if (!fdm->cpu_state_data.bytes_dumped)
+ return -EINVAL;
+
+ addr = fdm->cpu_state_data.destination_address;
+ vaddr = __va(addr);
+
+ reg_header = vaddr;
+ if (reg_header->magic_number != REGSAVE_AREA_MAGIC) {
+ printk(KERN_ERR "Unable to read register save area.\n");
+ return -ENOENT;
+ }
+ pr_debug("--------CPU State Data------------\n");
+ pr_debug("Magic Number: %llx\n", reg_header->magic_number);
+ pr_debug("NumCpuOffset: %x\n", reg_header->num_cpu_offset);
+
+ vaddr += reg_header->num_cpu_offset;
+ num_cpus = *((u32 *)(vaddr));
+ pr_debug("NumCpus : %u\n", num_cpus);
+ vaddr += sizeof(u32);
+ reg_entry = (struct fadump_reg_entry *)vaddr;
+
+ /* Allocate buffer to hold cpu crash notes. */
+ fw_dump.cpu_notes_buf_size = num_cpus * sizeof(note_buf_t);
+ fw_dump.cpu_notes_buf_size = PAGE_ALIGN(fw_dump.cpu_notes_buf_size);
+ note_buf = fadump_cpu_notes_buf_alloc(fw_dump.cpu_notes_buf_size);
+ if (!note_buf) {
+ printk(KERN_ERR "Failed to allocate 0x%lx bytes for "
+ "cpu notes buffer\n", fw_dump.cpu_notes_buf_size);
+ return -ENOMEM;
+ }
+ fw_dump.cpu_notes_buf = __pa(note_buf);
+
+ pr_debug("Allocated buffer for cpu notes of size %ld at %p\n",
+ (num_cpus * sizeof(note_buf_t)), note_buf);
+
+ if (fw_dump.fadumphdr_addr)
+ fdh = __va(fw_dump.fadumphdr_addr);
+
+ for (i = 0; i < num_cpus; i++) {
+ if (reg_entry->reg_id != REG_ID("CPUSTRT")) {
+ printk(KERN_ERR "Unable to read CPU state data\n");
+ rc = -ENOENT;
+ goto error_out;
+ }
+ /* Lower 4 bytes of reg_value contains logical cpu id */
+ cpu = reg_entry->reg_value & FADUMP_CPU_ID_MASK;
+ if (!cpumask_test_cpu(cpu, &fdh->cpu_online_mask)) {
+ SKIP_TO_NEXT_CPU(reg_entry);
+ continue;
+ }
+ pr_debug("Reading register data for cpu %d...\n", cpu);
+ if (fdh && fdh->crashing_cpu == cpu) {
+ regs = fdh->regs;
+ note_buf = fadump_regs_to_elf_notes(note_buf, &regs);
+ SKIP_TO_NEXT_CPU(reg_entry);
+ } else {
+ reg_entry++;
+ reg_entry = fadump_read_registers(reg_entry, &regs);
+ note_buf = fadump_regs_to_elf_notes(note_buf, &regs);
+ }
+ }
+ fadump_final_note(note_buf);
+
+ pr_debug("Updating elfcore header (%llx) with cpu notes\n",
+ fdh->elfcorehdr_addr);
+ fadump_update_elfcore_header((char *)__va(fdh->elfcorehdr_addr));
+ return 0;
+
+error_out:
+ fadump_cpu_notes_buf_free((unsigned long)__va(fw_dump.cpu_notes_buf),
+ fw_dump.cpu_notes_buf_size);
+ fw_dump.cpu_notes_buf = 0;
+ fw_dump.cpu_notes_buf_size = 0;
+ return rc;
+
+}
+
/*
* Validate and process the dump data stored by firmware before exporting
* it through '/proc/vmcore'.
@@ -400,18 +680,21 @@ static void register_fw_dump(struct fadump_mem_struct *fdm)
static int __init process_fadump(const struct fadump_mem_struct *fdm_active)
{
struct fadump_crash_info_header *fdh;
+ int rc = 0;

if (!fdm_active || !fw_dump.fadumphdr_addr)
return -EINVAL;

/* Check if the dump data is valid. */
if ((fdm_active->header.dump_status_flag == FADUMP_ERROR_FLAG) ||
+ (fdm_active->cpu_state_data.error_flags != 0) ||
(fdm_active->rmr_region.error_flags != 0)) {
printk(KERN_ERR "Dump taken by platform is not valid\n");
return -EINVAL;
}
- if (fdm_active->rmr_region.bytes_dumped !=
- fdm_active->rmr_region.source_len) {
+ if ((fdm_active->rmr_region.bytes_dumped !=
+ fdm_active->rmr_region.source_len) ||
+ !fdm_active->cpu_state_data.bytes_dumped) {
printk(KERN_ERR "Dump taken by platform is incomplete\n");
return -EINVAL;
}
@@ -423,6 +706,10 @@ static int __init process_fadump(const struct fadump_mem_struct *fdm_active)
return -EINVAL;
}

+ rc = fadump_build_cpu_notes(fdm_active);
+ if (rc)
+ return rc;
+
/*
* We are done validating dump info and elfcore header is now ready
* to be exported. set elfcorehdr_addr so that vmcore module will
@@ -537,6 +824,27 @@ static int fadump_create_elfcore_headers(char *bufp)
elf = (struct elfhdr *)bufp;
bufp += sizeof(struct elfhdr);

+ /*
+ * setup ELF PT_NOTE, place holder for cpu notes info. The notes info
+ * will be populated during second kernel boot after crash. Hence
+ * this PT_NOTE will always be the first elf note.
+ *
+ * NOTE: Any new ELF note addition should be placed after this note.
+ */
+ phdr = (struct elf_phdr *)bufp;
+ bufp += sizeof(struct elf_phdr);
+ phdr->p_type = PT_NOTE;
+ phdr->p_flags = 0;
+ phdr->p_vaddr = 0;
+ phdr->p_align = 0;
+
+ phdr->p_offset = 0;
+ phdr->p_paddr = 0;
+ phdr->p_filesz = 0;
+ phdr->p_memsz = 0;
+
+ (elf->e_phnum)++;
+
/* setup PT_LOAD sections. */

for (i = 0; i < crash_mem_ranges; i++) {
@@ -588,6 +896,8 @@ static unsigned long init_fadump_header(unsigned long addr)
memset(fdh, 0, sizeof(struct fadump_crash_info_header));
fdh->magic_number = FADUMP_CRASH_INFO_MAGIC;
fdh->elfcorehdr_addr = addr;
+ /* We will set the crashing cpu id in crash_fadump() during crash. */
+ fdh->crashing_cpu = CPU_UNKNOWN;

return addr;
}
diff --git a/arch/powerpc/kernel/setup-common.c b/arch/powerpc/kernel/setup-common.c
index 77bb77d..4e62a56 100644
--- a/arch/powerpc/kernel/setup-common.c
+++ b/arch/powerpc/kernel/setup-common.c
@@ -61,6 +61,7 @@
#include <asm/xmon.h>
#include <asm/cputhreads.h>
#include <mm/mmu_decl.h>
+#include <asm/fadump.h>

#include "setup.h"

@@ -639,6 +640,11 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL(check_legacy_ioport);
static int ppc_panic_event(struct notifier_block *this,
unsigned long event, void *ptr)
{
+ /*
+ * If firmware-assisted dump has been registered then trigger
+ * firmware-assisted dump and let firmware handle everything else.
+ */
+ crash_fadump(NULL, ptr);
ppc_md.panic(ptr); /* May not return */
return NOTIFY_DONE;
}
diff --git a/arch/powerpc/kernel/traps.c b/arch/powerpc/kernel/traps.c
index c091527..5d40e59 100644
--- a/arch/powerpc/kernel/traps.c
+++ b/arch/powerpc/kernel/traps.c
@@ -57,6 +57,7 @@
#include <asm/kexec.h>
#include <asm/ppc-opcode.h>
#include <asm/rio.h>
+#include <asm/fadump.h>

#if defined(CONFIG_DEBUGGER) || defined(CONFIG_KEXEC)
int (*__debugger)(struct pt_regs *regs) __read_mostly;
@@ -145,6 +146,8 @@ static void __kprobes oops_end(unsigned long flags, struct pt_regs *regs,
arch_spin_unlock(&die_lock);
raw_local_irq_restore(flags);

+ crash_fadump(regs, "die oops");
+
/*
* A system reset (0x100) is a request to dump, so we always send
* it through the crashdump code.


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