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Subject[PATCH 3/5 v1] PM / Domains: Rework locking
Date
From: Rafael J. Wysocki <rjw@sisk.pl>

CUrrently, the .start_device() and .stop_device() callbacks from
struct generic_pm_domain() as well as the device drivers' runtime PM
callbacks used by the generic PM domains code are executed under
the generic PM domain lock. This, unfortunately, is prone to
deadlocks, for example if a device and its parent are boths members
of the same PM domain. For this reason, it would be better if the
PM domains code didn't execute device callbacks under the lock.

Rework the locking in the generic PM domains code so that the lock
is dropped for the execution of device callbacks. To this end,
introduce PM domains states reflecting the current status of a PM
domain and such that the PM domain lock cannot be acquired if the
status is GPD_STATE_BUSY. Make threads attempting to acquire a PM
domain's lock wait until the status changes to either
GPD_STATE_ACTIVE or GPD_STATE_POWER_OFF.

This change by itself doesn't fix the deadlock problem mentioned
above, but the mechanism introduced by it will be used for for this
purpose by a subsequent patch.

Signed-off-by: Rafael J. Wysocki <rjw@sisk.pl>
---
drivers/base/power/domain.c | 249 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++--------------
include/linux/pm_domain.h | 10 +
2 files changed, 181 insertions(+), 78 deletions(-)
Index: linux-2.6/include/linux/pm_domain.h
===================================================================
--- linux-2.6.orig/include/linux/pm_domain.h
+++ linux-2.6/include/linux/pm_domain.h
@@ -11,8 +11,11 @@

#include <linux/device.h>

-#define GPD_IN_SUSPEND 1
-#define GPD_POWER_OFF 2
+enum gpd_status {
+ GPD_STATE_ACTIVE = 0, /* PM domain is active */
+ GPD_STATE_BUSY, /* Something is happening to the PM domain */
+ GPD_STATE_POWER_OFF, /* PM domain is off */
+};

struct dev_power_governor {
bool (*power_down_ok)(struct dev_pm_domain *domain);
@@ -29,7 +32,8 @@ struct generic_pm_domain {
struct work_struct power_off_work;
unsigned int in_progress; /* Number of devices being suspended now */
unsigned int sd_count; /* Number of subdomains with power "on" */
- bool power_is_off; /* Whether or not power has been removed */
+ enum gpd_status status; /* Current state of the domain */
+ wait_queue_head_t status_wait_queue;
unsigned int device_count; /* Number of devices */
unsigned int suspended_count; /* System suspend device counter */
unsigned int prepared_count; /* Suspend counter of prepared devices */
Index: linux-2.6/drivers/base/power/domain.c
===================================================================
--- linux-2.6.orig/drivers/base/power/domain.c
+++ linux-2.6/drivers/base/power/domain.c
@@ -13,6 +13,8 @@
#include <linux/pm_domain.h>
#include <linux/slab.h>
#include <linux/err.h>
+#include <linux/sched.h>
+#include <linux/suspend.h>

#ifdef CONFIG_PM

@@ -30,6 +32,34 @@ static void genpd_sd_counter_dec(struct
genpd->sd_count--;
}

+static void genpd_acquire_lock(struct generic_pm_domain *genpd)
+{
+ DEFINE_WAIT(wait);
+
+ mutex_lock(&genpd->lock);
+ /*
+ * Wait for the domain to transition into either the active,
+ * or the power off state.
+ */
+ for (;;) {
+ prepare_to_wait(&genpd->status_wait_queue, &wait,
+ TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE);
+ if (genpd->status != GPD_STATE_BUSY)
+ break;
+ mutex_unlock(&genpd->lock);
+
+ schedule();
+
+ mutex_lock(&genpd->lock);
+ }
+ finish_wait(&genpd->status_wait_queue, &wait);
+}
+
+static void genpd_release_lock(struct generic_pm_domain *genpd)
+{
+ mutex_unlock(&genpd->lock);
+}
+
/**
* pm_genpd_poweron - Restore power to a given PM domain and its parents.
* @genpd: PM domain to power up.
@@ -39,22 +69,50 @@ static void genpd_sd_counter_dec(struct
*/
static int pm_genpd_poweron(struct generic_pm_domain *genpd)
{
+ struct generic_pm_domain *parent = genpd->parent;
+ DEFINE_WAIT(wait);
int ret = 0;

start:
- if (genpd->parent)
- mutex_lock(&genpd->parent->lock);
- mutex_lock_nested(&genpd->lock, SINGLE_DEPTH_NESTING);
+ if (parent) {
+ mutex_lock(&parent->lock);
+ mutex_lock_nested(&genpd->lock, SINGLE_DEPTH_NESTING);
+ } else {
+ mutex_lock(&genpd->lock);
+ }
+ /*
+ * Wait for the domain to transition into either the active,
+ * or the power off state.
+ */
+ for (;;) {
+ prepare_to_wait(&genpd->status_wait_queue, &wait,
+ TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE);
+ if (genpd->status != GPD_STATE_BUSY)
+ break;
+ mutex_unlock(&genpd->lock);
+ if (parent)
+ mutex_unlock(&parent->lock);

- if (!genpd->power_is_off
+ schedule();
+
+ if (parent) {
+ mutex_lock(&parent->lock);
+ mutex_lock_nested(&genpd->lock, SINGLE_DEPTH_NESTING);
+ } else {
+ mutex_lock(&genpd->lock);
+ }
+ }
+ finish_wait(&genpd->status_wait_queue, &wait);
+
+ if (genpd->status == GPD_STATE_ACTIVE
|| (genpd->prepared_count > 0 && genpd->suspend_power_off))
goto out;

- if (genpd->parent && genpd->parent->power_is_off) {
+ if (parent && parent->status != GPD_STATE_ACTIVE) {
mutex_unlock(&genpd->lock);
- mutex_unlock(&genpd->parent->lock);
+ mutex_unlock(&parent->lock);

- ret = pm_genpd_poweron(genpd->parent);
+ ret = pm_genpd_poweron(parent);
if (ret)
return ret;

@@ -67,14 +125,14 @@ static int pm_genpd_poweron(struct gener
goto out;
}

- genpd->power_is_off = false;
- if (genpd->parent)
- genpd->parent->sd_count++;
+ genpd->status = GPD_STATE_ACTIVE;
+ if (parent)
+ parent->sd_count++;

out:
mutex_unlock(&genpd->lock);
- if (genpd->parent)
- mutex_unlock(&genpd->parent->lock);
+ if (parent)
+ mutex_unlock(&parent->lock);

return ret;
}
@@ -90,6 +148,7 @@ static int pm_genpd_poweron(struct gener
*/
static int __pm_genpd_save_device(struct dev_list_entry *dle,
struct generic_pm_domain *genpd)
+ __releases(&genpd->lock) __acquires(&genpd->lock)
{
struct device *dev = dle->dev;
struct device_driver *drv = dev->driver;
@@ -98,6 +157,8 @@ static int __pm_genpd_save_device(struct
if (dle->need_restore)
return 0;

+ mutex_unlock(&genpd->lock);
+
if (drv && drv->pm && drv->pm->runtime_suspend) {
if (genpd->start_device)
genpd->start_device(dev);
@@ -108,6 +169,8 @@ static int __pm_genpd_save_device(struct
genpd->stop_device(dev);
}

+ mutex_lock(&genpd->lock);
+
if (!ret)
dle->need_restore = true;

@@ -121,6 +184,7 @@ static int __pm_genpd_save_device(struct
*/
static void __pm_genpd_restore_device(struct dev_list_entry *dle,
struct generic_pm_domain *genpd)
+ __releases(&genpd->lock) __acquires(&genpd->lock)
{
struct device *dev = dle->dev;
struct device_driver *drv = dev->driver;
@@ -128,6 +192,8 @@ static void __pm_genpd_restore_device(st
if (!dle->need_restore)
return;

+ mutex_unlock(&genpd->lock);
+
if (drv && drv->pm && drv->pm->runtime_resume) {
if (genpd->start_device)
genpd->start_device(dev);
@@ -138,6 +204,8 @@ static void __pm_genpd_restore_device(st
genpd->stop_device(dev);
}

+ mutex_lock(&genpd->lock);
+
dle->need_restore = false;
}

@@ -150,13 +218,14 @@ static void __pm_genpd_restore_device(st
* the @genpd's devices' drivers and remove power from @genpd.
*/
static int pm_genpd_poweroff(struct generic_pm_domain *genpd)
+ __releases(&genpd->lock) __acquires(&genpd->lock)
{
struct generic_pm_domain *parent;
struct dev_list_entry *dle;
unsigned int not_suspended;
int ret;

- if (genpd->power_is_off || genpd->prepared_count > 0)
+ if (genpd->status == GPD_STATE_POWER_OFF || genpd->prepared_count > 0)
return 0;

if (genpd->sd_count > 0)
@@ -175,22 +244,36 @@ static int pm_genpd_poweroff(struct gene
return -EAGAIN;
}

+ genpd->status = GPD_STATE_BUSY;
+
list_for_each_entry_reverse(dle, &genpd->dev_list, node) {
ret = __pm_genpd_save_device(dle, genpd);
if (ret)
goto err_dev;
}

+ mutex_unlock(&genpd->lock);
+
+ parent = genpd->parent;
+ if (parent) {
+ genpd_acquire_lock(parent);
+ mutex_lock_nested(&genpd->lock, SINGLE_DEPTH_NESTING);
+ } else {
+ mutex_lock(&genpd->lock);
+ }
+
if (genpd->power_off)
genpd->power_off(genpd);

- genpd->power_is_off = true;
+ genpd->status = GPD_STATE_POWER_OFF;
+ wake_up_all(&genpd->status_wait_queue);

- parent = genpd->parent;
if (parent) {
genpd_sd_counter_dec(parent);
if (parent->sd_count == 0)
queue_work(pm_wq, &parent->power_off_work);
+
+ genpd_release_lock(parent);
}

return 0;
@@ -199,6 +282,9 @@ static int pm_genpd_poweroff(struct gene
list_for_each_entry_continue(dle, &genpd->dev_list, node)
__pm_genpd_restore_device(dle, genpd);

+ genpd->status = GPD_STATE_ACTIVE;
+ wake_up_all(&genpd->status_wait_queue);
+
return ret;
}

@@ -212,13 +298,9 @@ static void genpd_power_off_work_fn(stru

genpd = container_of(work, struct generic_pm_domain, power_off_work);

- if (genpd->parent)
- mutex_lock(&genpd->parent->lock);
- mutex_lock_nested(&genpd->lock, SINGLE_DEPTH_NESTING);
+ genpd_acquire_lock(genpd);
pm_genpd_poweroff(genpd);
- mutex_unlock(&genpd->lock);
- if (genpd->parent)
- mutex_unlock(&genpd->parent->lock);
+ genpd_release_lock(genpd);
}

/**
@@ -239,23 +321,17 @@ static int pm_genpd_runtime_suspend(stru
if (IS_ERR(genpd))
return -EINVAL;

- if (genpd->parent)
- mutex_lock(&genpd->parent->lock);
- mutex_lock_nested(&genpd->lock, SINGLE_DEPTH_NESTING);
-
if (genpd->stop_device) {
int ret = genpd->stop_device(dev);
if (ret)
- goto out;
+ return ret;
}
+
+ genpd_acquire_lock(genpd);
genpd->in_progress++;
pm_genpd_poweroff(genpd);
genpd->in_progress--;
-
- out:
- mutex_unlock(&genpd->lock);
- if (genpd->parent)
- mutex_unlock(&genpd->parent->lock);
+ genpd_release_lock(genpd);

return 0;
}
@@ -276,9 +352,6 @@ static void __pm_genpd_runtime_resume(st
break;
}
}
-
- if (genpd->start_device)
- genpd->start_device(dev);
}

/**
@@ -304,9 +377,15 @@ static int pm_genpd_runtime_resume(struc
if (ret)
return ret;

- mutex_lock(&genpd->lock);
+ genpd_acquire_lock(genpd);
+ genpd->status = GPD_STATE_BUSY;
__pm_genpd_runtime_resume(dev, genpd);
- mutex_unlock(&genpd->lock);
+ genpd->status = GPD_STATE_ACTIVE;
+ wake_up_all(&genpd->status_wait_queue);
+ genpd_release_lock(genpd);
+
+ if (genpd->start_device)
+ genpd->start_device(dev);

return 0;
}
@@ -339,7 +418,7 @@ static void pm_genpd_sync_poweroff(struc
{
struct generic_pm_domain *parent = genpd->parent;

- if (genpd->power_is_off)
+ if (genpd->status == GPD_STATE_POWER_OFF)
return;

if (genpd->suspended_count != genpd->device_count || genpd->sd_count > 0)
@@ -348,7 +427,7 @@ static void pm_genpd_sync_poweroff(struc
if (genpd->power_off)
genpd->power_off(genpd);

- genpd->power_is_off = true;
+ genpd->status = GPD_STATE_POWER_OFF;
if (parent) {
genpd_sd_counter_dec(parent);
pm_genpd_sync_poweroff(parent);
@@ -375,33 +454,35 @@ static int pm_genpd_prepare(struct devic
if (IS_ERR(genpd))
return -EINVAL;

- mutex_lock(&genpd->lock);
+ genpd_acquire_lock(genpd);

if (genpd->prepared_count++ == 0)
- genpd->suspend_power_off = genpd->power_is_off;
+ genpd->suspend_power_off = genpd->status == GPD_STATE_POWER_OFF;

- if (genpd->suspend_power_off) {
- mutex_unlock(&genpd->lock);
- return 0;
- }
+ genpd_release_lock(genpd);

- /*
- * If the device is in the (runtime) "suspended" state, call
- * .start_device() for it, if defined.
- */
- if (pm_runtime_suspended(dev))
- __pm_genpd_runtime_resume(dev, genpd);
+ if (genpd->suspend_power_off)
+ return 0;

/*
- * Do not check if runtime resume is pending at this point, because it
- * has been taken care of already and if pm_genpd_poweron() ran at this
- * point as a result of the check, it would deadlock.
+ * The PM domain must be in the GPD_STATE_ACTIVE state at this point,
+ * so pm_genpd_poweron() will return immediately, but if the device
+ * is suspended (e.g. it's been stopped by .stop_device()), we need
+ * to make it operational. However, we need to prevent already
+ * received wakeup events from being lost too.
*/
- __pm_runtime_disable(dev, false);
+ pm_runtime_get_noresume(dev);
+ if (pm_runtime_barrier(dev) && device_may_wakeup(dev))
+ pm_wakeup_event(dev, 0);
+
+ if (pm_wakeup_pending()) {
+ ret = -EBUSY;
+ } else {
+ pm_runtime_resume(dev);
+ __pm_runtime_disable(dev, false);

- mutex_unlock(&genpd->lock);
-
- ret = pm_generic_prepare(dev);
+ ret = pm_generic_prepare(dev);
+ }
if (ret) {
mutex_lock(&genpd->lock);

@@ -410,6 +491,8 @@ static int pm_genpd_prepare(struct devic

mutex_unlock(&genpd->lock);
}
+
+ pm_runtime_put_sync(dev);
return ret;
}

@@ -726,7 +809,7 @@ static int pm_genpd_restore_noirq(struct
* guaranteed that this function will never run twice in parallel for
* the same PM domain, so it is not necessary to use locking here.
*/
- genpd->power_is_off = true;
+ genpd->status = GPD_STATE_POWER_OFF;
if (genpd->suspend_power_off) {
/*
* The boot kernel might put the domain into the power on state,
@@ -836,9 +919,9 @@ int pm_genpd_add_device(struct generic_p
if (IS_ERR_OR_NULL(genpd) || IS_ERR_OR_NULL(dev))
return -EINVAL;

- mutex_lock(&genpd->lock);
+ genpd_acquire_lock(genpd);

- if (genpd->power_is_off) {
+ if (genpd->status == GPD_STATE_POWER_OFF) {
ret = -EINVAL;
goto out;
}
@@ -870,7 +953,7 @@ int pm_genpd_add_device(struct generic_p
spin_unlock_irq(&dev->power.lock);

out:
- mutex_unlock(&genpd->lock);
+ genpd_release_lock(genpd);

return ret;
}
@@ -891,7 +974,7 @@ int pm_genpd_remove_device(struct generi
if (IS_ERR_OR_NULL(genpd) || IS_ERR_OR_NULL(dev))
return -EINVAL;

- mutex_lock(&genpd->lock);
+ genpd_acquire_lock(genpd);

if (genpd->prepared_count > 0) {
ret = -EAGAIN;
@@ -915,7 +998,7 @@ int pm_genpd_remove_device(struct generi
}

out:
- mutex_unlock(&genpd->lock);
+ genpd_release_lock(genpd);

return ret;
}
@@ -934,9 +1017,19 @@ int pm_genpd_add_subdomain(struct generi
if (IS_ERR_OR_NULL(genpd) || IS_ERR_OR_NULL(new_subdomain))
return -EINVAL;

- mutex_lock(&genpd->lock);
+ start:
+ genpd_acquire_lock(genpd);
+ mutex_lock_nested(&new_subdomain->lock, SINGLE_DEPTH_NESTING);
+
+ if (new_subdomain->status != GPD_STATE_POWER_OFF
+ && new_subdomain->status != GPD_STATE_ACTIVE) {
+ mutex_unlock(&new_subdomain->lock);
+ genpd_release_lock(genpd);
+ goto start;
+ }

- if (genpd->power_is_off && !new_subdomain->power_is_off) {
+ if (genpd->status == GPD_STATE_POWER_OFF
+ && new_subdomain->status != GPD_STATE_POWER_OFF) {
ret = -EINVAL;
goto out;
}
@@ -948,17 +1041,14 @@ int pm_genpd_add_subdomain(struct generi
}
}

- mutex_lock_nested(&new_subdomain->lock, SINGLE_DEPTH_NESTING);
-
list_add_tail(&new_subdomain->sd_node, &genpd->sd_list);
new_subdomain->parent = genpd;
- if (!subdomain->power_is_off)
+ if (subdomain->status != GPD_STATE_POWER_OFF)
genpd->sd_count++;

- mutex_unlock(&new_subdomain->lock);
-
out:
- mutex_unlock(&genpd->lock);
+ mutex_unlock(&new_subdomain->lock);
+ genpd_release_lock(genpd);

return ret;
}
@@ -977,7 +1067,8 @@ int pm_genpd_remove_subdomain(struct gen
if (IS_ERR_OR_NULL(genpd) || IS_ERR_OR_NULL(target))
return -EINVAL;

- mutex_lock(&genpd->lock);
+ start:
+ genpd_acquire_lock(genpd);

list_for_each_entry(subdomain, &genpd->sd_list, sd_node) {
if (subdomain != target)
@@ -985,9 +1076,16 @@ int pm_genpd_remove_subdomain(struct gen

mutex_lock_nested(&subdomain->lock, SINGLE_DEPTH_NESTING);

+ if (subdomain->status != GPD_STATE_POWER_OFF
+ && subdomain->status != GPD_STATE_ACTIVE) {
+ mutex_unlock(&subdomain->lock);
+ genpd_release_lock(genpd);
+ goto start;
+ }
+
list_del(&subdomain->sd_node);
subdomain->parent = NULL;
- if (!subdomain->power_is_off)
+ if (subdomain->status != GPD_STATE_POWER_OFF)
genpd_sd_counter_dec(genpd);

mutex_unlock(&subdomain->lock);
@@ -996,7 +1094,7 @@ int pm_genpd_remove_subdomain(struct gen
break;
}

- mutex_unlock(&genpd->lock);
+ genpd_release_lock(genpd);

return ret;
}
@@ -1022,7 +1120,8 @@ void pm_genpd_init(struct generic_pm_dom
INIT_WORK(&genpd->power_off_work, genpd_power_off_work_fn);
genpd->in_progress = 0;
genpd->sd_count = 0;
- genpd->power_is_off = is_off;
+ genpd->status = is_off ? GPD_STATE_POWER_OFF : GPD_STATE_ACTIVE;
+ init_waitqueue_head(&genpd->status_wait_queue);
genpd->device_count = 0;
genpd->suspended_count = 0;
genpd->domain.ops.runtime_suspend = pm_genpd_runtime_suspend;


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