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Subject[PATCH] KVM: Add wrapper script around QEMU to test kernels
Date
On LinuxCon I had a nice chat with Linus on what he thinks kvm-tool
would be doing and what he expects from it. Basically he wants a
small and simple tool he and other developers can run to try out and
see if the kernel they just built actually works.

Fortunately, QEMU can do that today already! The only piece that was
missing was the "simple" piece of the equation, so here is a script
that wraps around QEMU and executes a kernel you just built.

If you do have KVM around and are not cross-compiling, it will use
KVM. But if you don't, you can still fall back to emulation mode and
at least check if your kernel still does what you expect. I only
implemented support for s390x and ppc there, but it's easily extensible
to more platforms, as QEMU can emulate (and virtualize) pretty much
any platform out there.

If you don't have qemu installed, please do so before using this script. Your
distro should provide a package for it (might even call it "kvm"). If not,
just compile it from source - it's not hard!

To quickly get going, just execute the following as user:

$ ./Documentation/run-qemu.sh -r / -a init=/bin/bash

This will drop you into a shell on your rootfs.

Happy hacking!

Signed-off-by: Alexander Graf <agraf@suse.de>

---
v1 -> v2:

- fix naming of QEMU
- use grep -q for has_config
- support multiple -a args
- spawn gdb on execution
- pass through qemu options
- dont use qemu-system-x86_64 on i386
- add funny sentence to startup text
- more helpful error messages

v2 -> v3:

- move to tools/testing
- fix running: message

( sorry for sending this version so late - I got caught up in
random other stuff )

---
tools/testing/run-qemu/run-qemu.sh | 338 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
1 files changed, 338 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)
create mode 100755 tools/testing/run-qemu/run-qemu.sh
diff --git a/tools/testing/run-qemu/run-qemu.sh b/tools/testing/run-qemu/run-qemu.sh
new file mode 100755
index 0000000..70f194f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/tools/testing/run-qemu/run-qemu.sh
@@ -0,0 +1,338 @@
+#!/bin/bash
+#
+# QEMU Launcher
+#
+# This script enables simple use of the KVM and QEMU tool stack for
+# easy kernel testing. It allows to pass either a host directory to
+# the guest or a disk image. Example usage:
+#
+# Run the host root fs inside a VM:
+#
+# $ ./scripts/run-qemu.sh -r /
+#
+# Run the same with SDL:
+#
+# $ ./scripts/run-qemu.sh -r / --sdl
+#
+# Or with a PPC build:
+#
+# $ ARCH=ppc ./scripts/run-qemu.sh -r /
+#
+# PPC with a mac99 model by passing options to QEMU:
+#
+# $ ARCH=ppc ./scripts/run-qemu.sh -r / -- -M mac99
+#
+
+USE_SDL=
+USE_VNC=
+USE_GDB=1
+KERNEL_BIN=arch/x86/boot/bzImage
+MON_STDIO=
+KERNEL_APPEND2=
+SERIAL=ttyS0
+SERIAL_KCONFIG=SERIAL_8250
+BASENAME=$(basename "$0")
+
+function usage() {
+ echo "
+$BASENAME allows you to execute a virtual machine with the Linux kernel
+that you just built. To only execute a simple VM, you can just run it
+on your root fs with \"-r / -a init=/bin/bash\"
+
+ -a, --append parameters
+ Append the given parameters to the kernel command line.
+
+ -d, --disk image
+ Add the image file as disk into the VM.
+
+ -D, --no-gdb
+ Don't run an xterm with gdb attached to the guest.
+
+ -r, --root directory
+ Use the specified directory as root directory inside the guest.
+
+ -s, --sdl
+ Enable SDL graphical output.
+
+ -S, --smp cpus
+ Set number of virtual CPUs.
+
+ -v, --vnc
+ Enable VNC graphical output.
+
+Examples:
+
+ Run the host root fs inside a VM:
+ $ ./scripts/run-qemu.sh -r /
+
+ Run the same with SDL:
+ $ ./scripts/run-qemu.sh -r / --sdl
+
+ Or with a PPC build:
+ $ ARCH=ppc ./scripts/run-qemu.sh -r /
+
+ PPC with a mac99 model by passing options to QEMU:
+ $ ARCH=ppc ./scripts/run-qemu.sh -r / -- -M mac99
+"
+}
+
+function require_config() {
+ if [ "$(grep CONFIG_$1=y .config)" ]; then
+ return
+ fi
+
+ echo "You need to enable CONFIG_$1 for run-qemu to work properly"
+ exit 1
+}
+
+function has_config() {
+ grep -q "CONFIG_$1=y" .config
+}
+
+function drive_if() {
+ if has_config VIRTIO_BLK; then
+ echo virtio
+ elif has_config ATA_PIIX; then
+ echo ide
+ else
+ echo "\
+Your kernel must have either VIRTIO_BLK or ATA_PIIX
+enabled for block device assignment" >&2
+ exit 1
+ fi
+}
+
+GETOPT=`getopt -o a:d:Dhr:sS:v --long append,disk:,no-gdb,help,root:,sdl,smp:,vnc \
+ -n "$(basename \"$0\")" -- "$@"`
+
+if [ $? != 0 ]; then
+ echo "Terminating..." >&2
+ exit 1
+fi
+
+eval set -- "$GETOPT"
+
+while true; do
+ case "$1" in
+ -a|--append)
+ KERNEL_APPEND2="$KERNEL_APPEND2 $KERNEL_APPEND2"
+ shift
+ ;;
+ -d|--disk)
+ QEMU_OPTIONS="$QEMU_OPTIONS -drive \
+ file=$2,if=$(drive_if),cache=unsafe"
+ USE_DISK=1
+ shift
+ ;;
+ -D|--no-gdb)
+ USE_GDB=
+ ;;
+ -h|--help)
+ usage
+ exit 0
+ ;;
+ -r|--root)
+ ROOTFS="$2"
+ shift
+ ;;
+ -s|--sdl)
+ USE_SDL=1
+ ;;
+ -S|--smp)
+ SMP="$2"
+ shift
+ ;;
+ -v|--vnc)
+ USE_VNC=1
+ ;;
+ --)
+ shift
+ break
+ ;;
+ *)
+ echo "Could not parse option: $1" >&2
+ exit 1
+ ;;
+ esac
+ shift
+done
+
+if [ ! "$ROOTFS" -a ! "$USE_DISK" ]; then
+ echo "\
+Error: Please specify at least -r or -d with a target \
+FS to run off of" >&2
+ exit 1
+fi
+
+# Try to find the KVM accelerated QEMU binary
+
+[ "$ARCH" ] || ARCH=$(uname -m)
+case $ARCH in
+x86_64)
+ KERNEL_BIN=arch/x86/boot/bzImage
+ # SUSE and Red Hat call the binary qemu-kvm
+ [ "$QEMU_BIN" ] || QEMU_BIN=$(which qemu-kvm 2>/dev/null)
+
+ # Debian and Gentoo call it kvm
+ [ "$QEMU_BIN" ] || QEMU_BIN=$(which kvm 2>/dev/null)
+
+ # QEMU's own build system calls it qemu-system-x86_64
+ [ "$QEMU_BIN" ] || QEMU_BIN=$(which qemu-system-x86_64 2>/dev/null)
+ ;;
+i*86)
+ KERNEL_BIN=arch/x86/boot/bzImage
+ # SUSE and Red Hat call the binary qemu-kvm
+ [ "$QEMU_BIN" ] || QEMU_BIN=$(which qemu-kvm 2>/dev/null)
+
+ # Debian and Gentoo call it kvm
+ [ "$QEMU_BIN" ] || QEMU_BIN=$(which kvm 2>/dev/null)
+
+ KERNEL_BIN=arch/x86/boot/bzImage
+ # i386 version of QEMU
+ [ "$QEMU_BIN" ] || QEMU_BIN=$(which qemu 2>/dev/null)
+ ;;
+s390*)
+ KERNEL_BIN=arch/s390/boot/image
+ [ "$QEMU_BIN" ] || QEMU_BIN=$(which qemu-system-s390x 2>/dev/null)
+ ;;
+ppc*)
+ KERNEL_BIN=vmlinux
+
+ IS_64BIT=
+ has_config PPC64 && IS_64BIT=64
+ if has_config PPC_85xx; then
+ QEMU_OPTIONS="$QEMU_OPTIONS -M mpc8544ds"
+ elif has_config PPC_PSERIES; then
+ QEMU_OPTIONS="$QEMU_OPTIONS -M pseries"
+ SERIAL=hvc0
+ SERIAL_KCONFIG=HVC_CONSOLE
+ elif has_config PPC_PMAC; then
+ has_config SERIAL_PMACZILOG_TTYS || SERIAL=ttyPZ0
+ SERIAL_KCONFIG=SERIAL_PMACZILOG
+ else
+ echo "Unknown PPC board" >&2
+ exit 1
+ fi
+
+ [ "$QEMU_BIN" ] || QEMU_BIN=$(which qemu-system-ppc${IS_64BIT} 2>/dev/null)
+ ;;
+esac
+
+if [ ! -e "$QEMU_BIN" ]; then
+ echo "\
+Could not find a usable QEMU binary. Please install one from \
+your distro or from source code using:
+
+ $ git clone git://git.qemu.org/qemu.git
+ $ cd qemu
+ $ ./configure
+ $ make -j
+ $ sudo make install
+" >&2
+ exit 1
+fi
+
+# The binaries without kvm in their name can be too old to support KVM, so
+# check for that before the user gets confused
+if [ ! "$(echo $QEMU_BIN | grep kvm)" -a \
+ ! "$($QEMU_BIN --help | egrep '^-machine')" ]; then
+ echo "Your QEMU binary is too old, please update to at least 0.15." >&2
+ exit 1
+fi
+QEMU_OPTIONS="$QEMU_OPTIONS -machine accel=kvm:tcg"
+
+# We need to check some .config variables to make sure we actually work
+# on the respective kernel.
+if [ ! -e .config ]; then
+ echo "\
+Please run this script on a fully compiled and configured
+Linux kernel build directory" >&2
+ exit 1
+fi
+
+if [ ! -e "$KERNEL_BIN" ]; then
+ echo "Could not find kernel binary: $KERNEL_BIN" >&2
+ exit 1
+fi
+
+QEMU_OPTIONS="$QEMU_OPTIONS -kernel $KERNEL_BIN"
+
+if [ "$USE_SDL" ]; then
+ # SDL is the default, so nothing to do
+ :
+elif [ "$USE_VNC" ]; then
+ QEMU_OPTIONS="$QEMU_OPTIONS -vnc :5"
+else
+ # When emulating a serial console, tell the kernel to use it as well
+ QEMU_OPTIONS="$QEMU_OPTIONS -nographic"
+ KERNEL_APPEND="$KERNEL_APPEND console=$SERIAL earlyprintk=serial"
+ MON_STDIO=1
+ require_config "$SERIAL_KCONFIG"
+fi
+
+if [ "$ROOTFS" ]; then
+ # Using rootfs with 9p
+ require_config "NET_9P_VIRTIO"
+ KERNEL_APPEND="$KERNEL_APPEND \
+root=/dev/root rootflags=rw,trans=virtio,version=9p2000.L rootfstype=9p"
+
+#Usage: -virtfs fstype,path=/share_path/,security_model=[mapped|passthrough|none],mount_tag=tag.
+
+
+ QEMU_OPTIONS="$QEMU_OPTIONS \
+-virtfs local,id=root,path=$ROOTFS,mount_tag=root,security_model=passthrough \
+-device virtio-9p-pci,fsdev=root,mount_tag=/dev/root"
+fi
+
+[ "$SMP" ] || SMP=1
+
+# User append args come last
+KERNEL_APPEND="$KERNEL_APPEND $KERNEL_APPEND2"
+
+############### Execution #################
+
+QEMU_OPTIONS="$QEMU_OPTIONS -smp $SMP"
+
+echo "
+ ################# Linux QEMU launcher #################
+
+This script executes your currently built Linux kernel using QEMU. If KVM is
+available, it will also use KVM for fast virtualization of your guest.
+
+The intent is to make it very easy to run your kernel. If you need to do more
+advanced things, such as passing through real devices, please use QEMU command
+line options and add them to the $BASENAME command line using --.
+
+This tool is for simplicity, not world dominating functionality coverage.
+(just a hobby, won't be big and professional like libvirt)
+
+"
+
+if [ "$MON_STDIO" ]; then
+ echo "\
+### Your guest is bound to the current foreground shell. To quit the guest, ###
+### please use Ctrl-A x ###
+"
+fi
+
+echo -n " Executing: $QEMU_BIN $QEMU_OPTIONS -append \"$KERNEL_APPEND\" "
+for i in "$@"; do
+ echo -n "\"$i\" "
+done
+echo
+echo
+
+GDB_PID=
+if [ "$USE_GDB" -a "$DISPLAY" -a -x "$(which xterm)" -a -e "$(which gdb)" ]; then
+ # Run a gdb console in parallel to the kernel
+
+ # XXX find out if port is in use
+ PORT=$(( $$ + 1024 ))
+ xterm -T "$BASENAME" -e "sleep 2; gdb vmlinux -ex 'target remote localhost:$PORT' -ex c" &
+ GDB_PID=$!
+ QEMU_OPTIONS="$QEMU_OPTIONS -gdb tcp::$PORT"
+fi
+
+$QEMU_BIN $QEMU_OPTIONS -append "$KERNEL_APPEND" "$@"
+wait $GDB_PID &>/dev/null
+
--
1.6.0.2


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