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    Subject[PATCH v3 2/5] Documentation: common clk API
    Provide documentation for the common clk structures and APIs.  This code
    can be found in drivers/clk/ and include/linux/clk.h.

    Signed-off-by: Mike Turquette <>
    Documentation/clk.txt | 312 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
    1 files changed, 312 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)
    create mode 100644 Documentation/clk.txt

    diff --git a/Documentation/clk.txt b/Documentation/clk.txt
    new file mode 100644
    index 0000000..ef4333d
    --- /dev/null
    +++ b/Documentation/clk.txt
    @@ -0,0 +1,312 @@
    + The Common Clk Framework
    + Mike Turquette <>
    + Part 1 - common data structures and API
    +The common clk framework is a combination of a common definition of
    +struct clk which can be used across most platforms as well as a set of
    +driver-facing APIs which operate on those clks. Platforms can enable it
    +by selecting CONFIG_GENERIC_CLK.
    +Below is the common struct clk definition from include/linux.clk.h. It
    +is modified slightly for brevity:
    +struct clk {
    + const char *name;
    + const struct clk_hw_ops *ops;
    + struct clk *parent;
    + unsigned long rate;
    + unsigned long flags;
    + unsigned int enable_count;
    + unsigned int prepare_count;
    + struct hlist_head children;
    + struct hlist_node child_node;
    +The .name, .parent and .children members make up the core of the clk
    +tree topology which can be visualized by enabling
    +CONFIG_COMMON_CLK_SYSFS. The ops member points to an instance of struct
    + struct clk_hw_ops {
    + int (*prepare)(struct clk *clk);
    + void (*unprepare)(struct clk *clk);
    + int (*enable)(struct clk *clk);
    + void (*disable)(struct clk *clk);
    + unsigned long (*recalc_rate)(struct clk *clk);
    + long (*round_rate)(struct clk *clk, unsigned long,
    + unsigned long *);
    + int (*set_parent)(struct clk *clk, struct clk *);
    + struct clk * (*get_parent)(struct clk *clk);
    + int (*set_rate)(struct clk *clk, unsigned long);
    + };
    +These callbacks correspond to the clk API that has existed in
    +include/linux/clk.h for a while. Below is a quick summary of the
    +operations in that header, as implemented in drivers/clk/clk.c. These
    +comprise the driver-facing API:
    +clk_prepare - does everything needed to get a clock ready to generate a
    +proper signal which may include ungating the clk and actually generating
    +that signal. clk_prepare MUST be called before clk_enable. This call
    +holds the global prepare_mutex, which also prevents clk rates and
    +topology from changing while held. This API is meant to be the "slow"
    +part of a clk enable sequence, if applicable. This function must not be
    +called in an interrupt context.
    +clk_unprepare - the opposite of clk_prepare: does everything needed to
    +make a clk no longer ready to generate a proper signal, which may
    +include gating an active clk. clk_disable must be called before
    +clk_unprepare. All of the same rules for clk_prepare apply.
    +clk_enable - ungate a clock and immediately start generating a valid clk
    +signal. This is the "fast" part of a clk enable sequence, and maybe the
    +only functional part of that sequence. Regardless clk_prepare must be
    +called BEFORE clk_enable. The enable_spinlock is held across this call,
    +which means that clk_enable must not sleep.
    +clk_disable - the opposite of clk_enable: gates a clock immediately.
    +clk_disable must be called before calling clk_unprepare. All of the
    +same rules for clk_enable apply.
    +clk_get_rate - Returns the cached rate for the clk. Does NOT query the
    +hardware state. No lock is held.
    +clk_get_parent - Returns the cached parent for the clk. Does NOT query
    +the hardware state. No lock is held.
    +clk_set_rate - Attempts to change the clk rate to the one specified.
    +Depending on a variety of common flags it may fail to maintain system
    +stability or result in a variety of other clk rates changing. Holds the
    +same prepare_mutex held by clk_prepare/clk_unprepare and clk_set_parent.
    +clk_set_parent - Switches the input source for a clk. This only applies
    +to mux clks with multiple parents. Holds the same prepare_mutex held by
    +clk_prepare/clk_unprepare and clk_set_rate.
    + Part 2 - hardware clk implementations
    +The strength of the common struct clk comes from its .ops pointer and
    +the ability for platform and driver code to wrap the struct clk instance
    +with hardware-specific data which the operations in the .ops pointer
    +have knowledge of. To illustrate consider the simple gateable clk
    +implementation in drivers/clk/clk-basic.c:
    +struct clk_hw_gate {
    + struct clk clk;
    + struct clk *fixed_parent;
    + void __iomem *reg;
    + u8 bit_idx;
    +struct clk_hw_gate contains the clk as well as hardware-specific
    +knowledge about which register and bit controls this clk's gating. The
    +fixed-parent member is also there as a way to initialize the topology.
    +Let's walk through enabling this clk from driver code:
    + struct clk *clk;
    + clk = clk_get(NULL, "my_gateable_clk");
    + clk_prepare(clk);
    + clk_enable(clk);
    +Note that clk_prepare MUST be called before clk_enable even if
    +clk_prepare does nothing (which in this case is true).
    +The call graph for clk_enable is very simple:
    + clk->enable(clk);
    + clk_hw_gate_enable_set(clk);
    + clk_hw_gate_set_bit(clk);
    +And the definition of clk_hw_gate_set_bit:
    +static void clk_hw_gate_set_bit(struct clk *clk)
    + struct clk_hw_gate *gate = to_clk_hw_gate(clk);
    + u32 reg;
    + reg = __raw_readl(gate->reg);
    + reg |= BIT(gate->bit_idx);
    + __raw_writel(reg, gate->reg);
    +Note that in the final call to clk_hw_gate_set_bit there is use of
    +to_clk_hw_gate, which is defined as:
    +#define to_clk_hw_gate(ck) container_of(ck, struct clk_hw_gate, clk)
    +This simple abstration is what allows the common clk framework to scale
    +across many platforms. The struct clk definition remains the same while
    +the hardware operations in the .ops pointer know the details of the clk
    +hardware. A little pointer arithmetic to get to the data is all that
    +the ops need.
    + Part 3 - Supporting your own clk hardware
    +To construct a clk hardware structure for your platform you simply need
    +to define the following:
    +struct clk_hw_your_clk {
    + struct clk;
    + unsigned long some_data;
    + struct your_struct *some_more_data;
    +To take advantage of your data you'll need to support valid operations
    +for your clk:
    +struct clk_hw_ops clk_hw_ops_your_clk {
    + .enable = &clk_hw_your_clk_enable;
    + .disable = &clk_hw_your_clk_disable;
    +Implement the above functions using container_of:
    +int clk_hw_your_clk_enable(struct clk *clk)
    + struct clk_hw_your_clk *yclk;
    + yclk = container_of(clk, struct clk_hw_your_clk, clk);
    + magic(yclk);
    +If you are statically allocating all of your clk_hw_your_clk instances
    +then you will still need to initialize some stuff in struct clk with the
    +clk_init function from include/linux/clk.h:
    +If you are dynamically creating clks or using device tree then you might
    +want a hardware-specific register function:
    +int clk_hw_your_clk_register(const char *name, unsigned long flags,
    + unsigned long some_data,
    + struct your_struct *some_more_data)
    + struct clk_hw_your_clk *yclk;
    + yclk = kmalloc(sizeof(struct clk_hw_your_clk), GFP_KERNEL);
    + yclk->some_data = some_data;
    + yclk->some_more_data = some_more_data;
    + yclk-> = name;
    + yclk->clk.flags = flags;
    + clk_init(&yclk->clk);
    + return 0;
    + Part 4 - clk_set_rate
    +clk_set_rate deserves a special mention because it is more complex than
    +the other operations. There are three key concepts to the common
    +clk_set_rate implementation:
    +1) recursively traversing up the clk tree and changing clk rates, one
    +parent at a time, if each clk allows it
    +2) failing to change rate if the clk is enabled and must only change
    +rates while disabled
    +2) using clk rate change notifiers to allow devices to handle dynamic
    +rate changes for clks which do support changing rates while enabled
    +For the simple, non-recursive case the call graph looks like:
    +clk_set_rate(clk, rate);
    + __clk_set_rate(clk, rate);
    + clk->round_rate(clk, rate *parent_rate);
    + clk->set_rate(clk, rate);
    +You might be wondering what that third paramater in .round_rate is. If
    +a clk supports the CLK_PARENT_SET_RATE flag then that enables it's
    +hardware-specific .round_rate function to provide a new rate that the
    +parent should transition to. For example, imagine a rate-adjustable clk
    +A that is the parent of clk B, which has a fixed divider of 2.
    + clk A (rate = 10MHz) (possible rates = 5MHz, 10MHz, 20MHz)
    + |
    + |
    + |
    + clk B (rate = 5MHz) (fixed divider of 2)
    +In the above scenario clk B will always have half the rate of clk A. If
    +clk B is to generate a 10MHz clk then clk A must generate 20MHz in turn.
    +The driver writer could hack in knowledge of clk A, but in reality clk B
    +drives the devices operation and the driver shouldn't know the details
    +of the clk tree topology. In this case it would be nice for clk B to
    +propagate it's request up to clk A.
    +Here the call graph for our above example:
    +clk_set_rate(clk, rate);
    + __clk_set_rate(clk, rate);
    + clk->round_rate(clk, rate *parent_rate);
    + clk->set_rate(clk, rate);
    + __clk_set_rate(clk->parent, parent_rate);
    + clk->round_rate(clk, rate *parent_rate);
    + clk->set_rate(clk, rate);
    +Note that the burden of figuring out whether to recurse upwards falls on
    +the hardware-specific .round_rate function. The common clk framework
    +does not have the context to make such complicated decisions in a
    +generic way for all platforms.
    +Another caveat is that child clks might run at weird intermediate
    +frequencies during a complex upwards propagation, as illustrated below:
    + clk A (pll 100MHz - 300MHz) (currently locked at 200MHz)
    + |
    + |
    + |
    + clk B (divide by 1 or 2) (currently divide by 2, 100MHz)
    + |
    + |
    + |
    + clk C (divide by 1 or 2) (currently divide by 1, 100MHz)
    +The call graph below, with some bracketed annotations, describes how
    +this might work with some clever .round_rate callbacks when trying to
    +set clk C to run at 26MHz:
    +clk_set_rate(C, 26MHz);
    + __clk_set_rate(C, 26MHz);
    + clk->round_rate(C, 26MHz, *parent_rate);
    + [ round_rate returns 50MHz ]
    + [ &parent_rate is 52MHz ]
    + clk->set_rate(C, 50Mhz);
    + [ clk C is set to 50MHz, which sets divider to 2 ]
    + __clk_set_rate(clk->parent, parent_rate);
    + clk->round_rate(B, 52MHz, *parent_rate);
    + [ round_rate returns 100MHz ]
    + [ &parent_rate is 104MHz ]
    + clk->set_rate(B, 100MHz);
    + [ clk B stays at 100MHz, divider stays at 2 ]
    + __clk_set_rate(clk->parent, parent_rate);
    + [ round_rate returns 104MHz ]
    + [ &parent_rate is ignored ]
    + clk->set_rate(A, 104MHz);
    + [ clk A is set to 104MHz]
    +The end result is that clk C runs at 26MHz. Each .set_rate callback
    +actually sets the intermediate rate, which nicely reflects reality.
    +Once clk rate change notifiers are supported then it is expected that
    +PRECHANGE notifiers will "stack" in situations with recursive
    +clk_set_rate calls.
    +Thus a driver X which subcribes to rate-change notifers for clk C would
    +have received 2 PRECHANGE notifiers in the above example. The first
    +would have notified the driver that clk C was changing from 100MHz to
    +50MHz. The second PRECHANGE notifier would have told driver X that clk
    +C had changed from 50MHz to 26MHz. There would not be a PRECHANGE
    +notifier corresponding to __clk_set_rate(B, 50MHz) since B is already
    +running at that rate and the notification would be unnecessary.
    +clk_set_rate is written in such a way that POSTCHANGE notifiers and
    +ABORTCHANGE notifiers will only be sent once. Each will start
    +propagation from the highest point in the tree which was affected by the

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      Last update: 2011-11-22 02:47    [W:0.038 / U:2.372 seconds]
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