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Subject[PATCH v21 011/100] eclone (11/11): Document sys_eclone
Date
From: Sukadev Bhattiprolu <sukadev@linux.vnet.ibm.com>

This gives a brief overview of the eclone() system call. We should
eventually describe more details in existing clone(2) man page or in
a new man page.

Changelog[v13]:
- [Nathan Lynch, Serge Hallyn] Rename ->child_stack_base to
->child_stack and ensure ->child_stack_size is 0 on architectures
that don't need it.
- [Arnd Bergmann] Remove ->reserved1 field
- [Louis Rilling, Dave Hansen] Combine the two asm statements in the
example into one and use memory constraint to avoid unncessary copies.
Changelog[v12]:
- [Serge Hallyn] Fix/simplify stack-setup in the example code
- [Serge Hallyn, Oren Laadan] Rename syscall to eclone()

Changelog[v11]:
- [Dave Hansen] Move clone_args validation checks to arch-indpendent
code.
- [Oren Laadan] Make args_size a parameter to system call and remove
it from 'struct clone_args'
- [Oren Laadan] Fix some typos and clarify the order of pids in the
@pids parameter.

Changelog[v10]:
- Rename clone3() to clone_with_pids() and fix some typos.
- Modify example to show usage with the ptregs implementation.
Changelog[v9]:
- [Pavel Machek]: Fix an inconsistency and rename new file to
Documentation/clone3.
- [Roland McGrath, H. Peter Anvin] Updates to description and
example to reflect new prototype of clone3() and the updated/
renamed 'struct clone_args'.

Changelog[v8]:
- clone2() is already in use in IA64. Rename syscall to clone3()
- Add notes to say that we return -EINVAL if invalid clone flags
are specified or if the reserved fields are not 0.
Changelog[v7]:
- Rename clone_with_pids() to clone2()
- Changes to reflect new prototype of clone2() (using clone_struct).

Cc: linux-api@vger.kernel.org
Cc: x86@kernel.org
Cc: linux-s390@vger.kernel.org
Cc: linuxppc-dev@ozlabs.org
Signed-off-by: Sukadev Bhattiprolu <sukadev@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Acked-by: Serge E. Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com>
Acked-by: Oren Laadan <orenl@cs.columbia.edu>
---
Documentation/eclone | 348 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
1 files changed, 348 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)
create mode 100644 Documentation/eclone
diff --git a/Documentation/eclone b/Documentation/eclone
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..c2f1b4b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/eclone
@@ -0,0 +1,348 @@
+
+struct clone_args {
+ u64 clone_flags_high;
+ u64 child_stack;
+ u64 child_stack_size;
+ u64 parent_tid_ptr;
+ u64 child_tid_ptr;
+ u32 nr_pids;
+ u32 reserved0;
+};
+
+
+sys_eclone(u32 flags_low, struct clone_args * __user cargs, int cargs_size,
+ pid_t * __user pids)
+
+ In addition to doing everything that clone() system call does, the
+ eclone() system call:
+
+ - allows additional clone flags (31 of 32 bits in the flags
+ parameter to clone() are in use)
+
+ - allows user to specify a pid for the child process in its
+ active and ancestor pid namespaces.
+
+ This system call is meant to be used when restarting an application
+ from a checkpoint. Such restart requires that the processes in the
+ application have the same pids they had when the application was
+ checkpointed. When containers are nested, the processes within the
+ containers exist in multiple pid namespaces and hence have multiple
+ pids to specify during restart.
+
+ The @flags_low parameter is identical to the 'clone_flags' parameter
+ in existing clone() system call.
+
+ The fields in 'struct clone_args' are meant to be used as follows:
+
+ u64 clone_flags_high:
+
+ When eclone() supports more than 32 flags, the additional bits
+ in the clone_flags should be specified in this field. This
+ field is currently unused and must be set to 0.
+
+ u64 child_stack;
+ u64 child_stack_size;
+
+ These two fields correspond to the 'child_stack' fields in
+ clone() and clone2() (on IA64) system calls. The usage of
+ these two fields depends on the processor architecture.
+
+ Most architectures use ->child_stack to pass-in a stack-pointer
+ itself and don't need the ->child_stack_size field. On these
+ architectures the ->child_stack_size field must be 0.
+
+ Some architectures, eg IA64, use ->child_stack to pass-in the
+ base of the region allocated for stack. These architectures
+ must pass in the size of the stack-region in ->child_stack_size.
+
+ u64 parent_tid_ptr;
+ u64 child_tid_ptr;
+
+ These two fields correspond to the 'parent_tid_ptr' and
+ 'child_tid_ptr' fields in the clone() system call
+
+ u32 nr_pids;
+
+ nr_pids specifies the number of pids in the @pids array
+ parameter to eclone() (see below). nr_pids should not exceed
+ the current nesting level of the calling process (i.e if the
+ process is in init_pid_ns, nr_pids must be 1, if process is
+ in a pid namespace that is a child of init-pid-ns, nr_pids
+ cannot exceed 2, and so on).
+
+ u32 reserved0;
+ u64 reserved1;
+
+ These fields are intended to extend the functionality of the
+ eclone() in the future, while preserving backward compatibility.
+ They must be set to 0 for now.
+
+ The @cargs_size parameter specifes the sizeof(struct clone_args) and
+ is intended to enable extending this structure in the future, while
+ preserving backward compatibility. For now, this field must be set
+ to the sizeof(struct clone_args) and this size must match the kernel's
+ view of the structure.
+
+ The @pids parameter defines the set of pids that should be assigned to
+ the child process in its active and ancestor pid namespaces. The
+ descendant pid namespaces do not matter since a process does not have a
+ pid in descendant namespaces, unless the process is in a new pid
+ namespace in which case the process is a container-init (and must have
+ the pid 1 in that namespace).
+
+ See CLONE_NEWPID section of clone(2) man page for details about pid
+ namespaces.
+
+ If a pid in the @pids list is 0, the kernel will assign the next
+ available pid in the pid namespace.
+
+ If a pid in the @pids list is non-zero, the kernel tries to assign
+ the specified pid in that namespace. If that pid is already in use
+ by another process, the system call fails (see EBUSY below).
+
+ The order of pids in @pids is oldest in pids[0] to youngest pid
+ namespace in pids[nr_pids-1]. If the number of pids specified in the
+ @pids list is fewer than the nesting level of the process, the pids
+ are applied from youngest namespace. i.e if the process is nested in
+ a level-6 pid namespace and @pids only specifies 3 pids, the 3 pids
+ are applied to levels 6, 5 and 4. Levels 0 through 3 are assumed to
+ have a pid of '0' (the kernel will assign a pid in those namespaces).
+
+ On success, the system call returns the pid of the child process in
+ the parent's active pid namespace.
+
+ On failure, eclone() returns -1 and sets 'errno' to one of following
+ values (the child process is not created).
+
+ EPERM Caller does not have the CAP_SYS_ADMIN privilege needed to
+ specify the pids in this call (if pids are not specifed
+ CAP_SYS_ADMIN is not required).
+
+ EINVAL The number of pids specified in 'clone_args.nr_pids' exceeds
+ the current nesting level of parent process
+
+ EINVAL Not all specified clone-flags are valid.
+
+ EINVAL The reserved fields in the clone_args argument are not 0.
+
+ EINVAL The child_stack_size field is not 0 (on architectures that
+ pass in a stack pointer in ->child_stack field)
+
+ EBUSY A requested pid is in use by another process in that namespace.
+
+---
+/*
+ * Example eclone() usage - Create a child process with pid CHILD_TID1 in
+ * the current pid namespace. The child gets the usual "random" pid in any
+ * ancestor pid namespaces.
+ */
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <string.h>
+#include <signal.h>
+#include <errno.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+#include <wait.h>
+#include <sys/syscall.h>
+
+#define __NR_eclone 337
+#define CLONE_NEWPID 0x20000000
+#define CLONE_CHILD_SETTID 0x01000000
+#define CLONE_PARENT_SETTID 0x00100000
+#define CLONE_UNUSED 0x00001000
+
+#define STACKSIZE 8192
+
+typedef unsigned long long u64;
+typedef unsigned int u32;
+typedef int pid_t;
+struct clone_args {
+ u64 clone_flags_high;
+ u64 child_stack;
+ u64 child_stack_size;
+
+ u64 parent_tid_ptr;
+ u64 child_tid_ptr;
+
+ u32 nr_pids;
+
+ u32 reserved0;
+};
+
+#define exit _exit
+
+/*
+ * Following eclone() is based on code posted by Oren Laadan at:
+ * https://lists.linux-foundation.org/pipermail/containers/2009-June/018463.html
+ */
+#if defined(__i386__) && defined(__NR_eclone)
+
+int eclone(u32 flags_low, struct clone_args *clone_args, int args_size,
+ int *pids)
+{
+ long retval;
+
+ __asm__ __volatile__(
+ "movl %3, %%ebx\n\t" /* flags_low -> 1st (ebx) */
+ "movl %4, %%ecx\n\t" /* clone_args -> 2nd (ecx)*/
+ "movl %5, %%edx\n\t" /* args_size -> 3rd (edx) */
+ "movl %6, %%edi\n\t" /* pids -> 4th (edi)*/
+
+ "pushl %%ebp\n\t" /* save value of ebp */
+ "int $0x80\n\t" /* Linux/i386 system call */
+ "testl %0,%0\n\t" /* check return value */
+ "jne 1f\n\t" /* jump if parent */
+
+ "popl %%esi\n\t" /* get subthread function */
+ "call *%%esi\n\t" /* start subthread function */
+ "movl %2,%0\n\t"
+ "int $0x80\n" /* exit system call: exit subthread */
+ "1:\n\t"
+ "popl %%ebp\t" /* restore parent's ebp */
+
+ :"=a" (retval)
+
+ :"0" (__NR_eclone),
+ "i" (__NR_exit),
+ "m" (flags_low),
+ "m" (clone_args),
+ "m" (args_size),
+ "m" (pids)
+ );
+
+ if (retval < 0) {
+ errno = -retval;
+ retval = -1;
+ }
+ return retval;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Allocate a stack for the clone-child and arrange to have the child
+ * execute @child_fn with @child_arg as the argument.
+ */
+void *setup_stack(int (*child_fn)(void *), void *child_arg, int size)
+{
+ void *stack_base;
+ void **stack_top;
+
+ stack_base = malloc(size + size);
+ if (!stack_base) {
+ perror("malloc()");
+ exit(1);
+ }
+
+ stack_top = (void **)((char *)stack_base + (size - 4));
+ *--stack_top = child_arg;
+ *--stack_top = child_fn;
+
+ return stack_top;
+}
+#endif
+
+/* gettid() is a bit more useful than getpid() when messing with clone() */
+int gettid()
+{
+ int rc;
+
+ rc = syscall(__NR_gettid, 0, 0, 0);
+ if (rc < 0) {
+ printf("rc %d, errno %d\n", rc, errno);
+ exit(1);
+ }
+ return rc;
+}
+
+#define CHILD_TID1 377
+#define CHILD_TID2 1177
+#define CHILD_TID3 2799
+
+struct clone_args clone_args;
+void *child_arg = &clone_args;
+int child_tid;
+
+int do_child(void *arg)
+{
+ struct clone_args *cs = (struct clone_args *)arg;
+ int ctid;
+
+ /* Verify we pushed the arguments correctly on the stack... */
+ if (arg != child_arg) {
+ printf("Child: Incorrect child arg pointer, expected %p,"
+ "actual %p\n", child_arg, arg);
+ exit(1);
+ }
+
+ /* ... and that we got the thread-id we expected */
+ ctid = *((int *)(unsigned long)cs->child_tid_ptr);
+ if (ctid != CHILD_TID1) {
+ printf("Child: Incorrect child tid, expected %d, actual %d\n",
+ CHILD_TID1, ctid);
+ exit(1);
+ } else {
+ printf("Child got the expected tid, %d\n", gettid());
+ }
+ sleep(2);
+
+ printf("[%d, %d]: Child exiting\n", getpid(), ctid);
+ exit(0);
+}
+
+static int do_clone(int (*child_fn)(void *), void *child_arg,
+ unsigned int flags_low, int nr_pids, pid_t *pids_list)
+{
+ int rc;
+ void *stack;
+ struct clone_args *ca = &clone_args;
+ int args_size;
+
+ stack = setup_stack(child_fn, child_arg, STACKSIZE);
+
+ memset(ca, 0, sizeof(*ca));
+
+ ca->child_stack = (u64)(unsigned long)stack;
+ ca->child_stack_size = (u64)0;
+ ca->child_tid_ptr = (u64)(unsigned long)&child_tid;
+ ca->nr_pids = nr_pids;
+
+ args_size = sizeof(struct clone_args);
+ rc = eclone(flags_low, ca, args_size, pids_list);
+
+ printf("[%d, %d]: eclone() returned %d, error %d\n", getpid(), gettid(),
+ rc, errno);
+ return rc;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Multiple pid_t pid_t values in pids_list[] here are just for illustration.
+ * The test case creates a child in the current pid namespace and uses only
+ * the first value, CHILD_TID1.
+ */
+pid_t pids_list[] = { CHILD_TID1, CHILD_TID2, CHILD_TID3 };
+int main()
+{
+ int rc, pid, status;
+ unsigned long flags;
+ int nr_pids = 1;
+
+ flags = SIGCHLD|CLONE_CHILD_SETTID;
+
+ pid = do_clone(do_child, &clone_args, flags, nr_pids, pids_list);
+
+ printf("[%d, %d]: Parent waiting for %d\n", getpid(), gettid(), pid);
+
+ rc = waitpid(pid, &status, __WALL);
+ if (rc < 0) {
+ printf("waitpid(): rc %d, error %d\n", rc, errno);
+ } else {
+ printf("[%d, %d]: child %d:\n\t wait-status 0x%x\n", getpid(),
+ gettid(), rc, status);
+
+ if (WIFEXITED(status)) {
+ printf("\t EXITED, %d\n", WEXITSTATUS(status));
+ } else if (WIFSIGNALED(status)) {
+ printf("\t SIGNALED, %d\n", WTERMSIG(status));
+ }
+ }
+ return 0;
+}
--
1.6.3.3


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