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    Subject[PATCH v4] tools: create power/x86/turbostat
    From: Len Brown <len.brown@intel.com>

    turbostat is a tool to help verify proper operation
    of processor power management states on modern x86.

    Signed-off-by: Len Brown <len.brown@intel.com>
    ---
    v4: fix open file descriptor leak, reported by David C. Wong

    tools/power/x86/turbostat/Makefile | 8 +
    tools/power/x86/turbostat/turbostat.8 | 172 ++++++
    tools/power/x86/turbostat/turbostat.c | 1048 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
    3 files changed, 1228 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)

    diff --git a/tools/power/x86/turbostat/Makefile b/tools/power/x86/turbostat/Makefile
    new file mode 100644
    index 0000000..fd8e1f1
    --- /dev/null
    +++ b/tools/power/x86/turbostat/Makefile
    @@ -0,0 +1,8 @@
    +turbostat : turbostat.c
    +
    +clean :
    + rm -f turbostat
    +
    +install :
    + install turbostat /usr/bin/turbostat
    + install turbostat.8 /usr/share/man/man8
    diff --git a/tools/power/x86/turbostat/turbostat.8 b/tools/power/x86/turbostat/turbostat.8
    new file mode 100644
    index 0000000..ff75125
    --- /dev/null
    +++ b/tools/power/x86/turbostat/turbostat.8
    @@ -0,0 +1,172 @@
    +.TH TURBOSTAT 8
    +.SH NAME
    +turbostat \- Report processor frequency and idle statistics
    +.SH SYNOPSIS
    +.ft B
    +.B turbostat
    +.RB [ "\-v" ]
    +.RB [ "\-M MSR#" ]
    +.RB command
    +.br
    +.B turbostat
    +.RB [ "\-v" ]
    +.RB [ "\-M MSR#" ]
    +.RB [ "\-i interval_sec" ]
    +.SH DESCRIPTION
    +\fBturbostat \fP reports processor topology, frequency
    +and idle power state statistics on modern X86 processors.
    +Either \fBcommand\fP is forked and statistics are printed
    +upon its completion, or statistics are printed periodically.
    +
    +\fBturbostat \fP
    +requires that the processor
    +supports an "invariant" TSC, plus the APERF and MPERF MSRs.
    +\fBturbostat \fP will report idle cpu power state residency
    +on processors that additionally support C-state residency counters.
    +
    +.SS Options
    +The \fB-v\fP option increases verbosity.
    +.PP
    +The \fB-M MSR#\fP option dumps the specified MSR,
    +in addition to the usual frequency and idle statistics.
    +.PP
    +The \fB-i interval_sec\fP option prints statistics every \fiinterval_sec\fP seconds.
    +The default is 5 seconds.
    +.PP
    +The \fBcommand\fP parameter forks \fBcommand\fP and upon its exit,
    +displays the statistics gathered since it was forked.
    +.PP
    +.SH FIELD DESCRIPTIONS
    +.nf
    +\fBpkg\fP processor package number.
    +\fBcore\fP processor core number.
    +\fBCPU\fP Linux CPU (logical processor) number.
    +\fB%c0\fP percent of the interval that the CPU retired instructions.
    +\fBGHz\fP average clock rate while the CPU was in c0 state.
    +\fBTSC\fP average GHz that the TSC ran during the entire interval.
    +\fB%c1, %c3, %c6\fP show the percentage residency in hardware core idle states.
    +\fB%pc3, %pc6\fP percentage residency in hardware package idle states.
    +.fi
    +.PP
    +.SH EXAMPLE
    +Without any parameters, turbostat prints out counters ever 5 seconds.
    +(override interval with "-i sec" option, or specify a command
    +for turbostat to fork).
    +
    +The first row of statistics reflect the average for the entire system.
    +Subsequent rows show per-CPU statistics.
    +
    +.nf
    +[root@x980]# ./turbostat
    +core CPU %c0 GHz TSC %c1 %c3 %c6 %pc3 %pc6
    + 0.04 1.62 3.38 0.11 0.00 99.85 0.00 95.07
    + 0 0 0.04 1.62 3.38 0.06 0.00 99.90 0.00 95.07
    + 0 6 0.02 1.62 3.38 0.08 0.00 99.90 0.00 95.07
    + 1 2 0.10 1.62 3.38 0.29 0.00 99.61 0.00 95.07
    + 1 8 0.11 1.62 3.38 0.28 0.00 99.61 0.00 95.07
    + 2 4 0.01 1.62 3.38 0.01 0.00 99.98 0.00 95.07
    + 2 10 0.01 1.61 3.38 0.02 0.00 99.98 0.00 95.07
    + 8 1 0.07 1.62 3.38 0.15 0.00 99.78 0.00 95.07
    + 8 7 0.03 1.62 3.38 0.19 0.00 99.78 0.00 95.07
    + 9 3 0.01 1.62 3.38 0.02 0.00 99.98 0.00 95.07
    + 9 9 0.01 1.62 3.38 0.02 0.00 99.98 0.00 95.07
    + 10 5 0.01 1.62 3.38 0.13 0.00 99.86 0.00 95.07
    + 10 11 0.08 1.62 3.38 0.05 0.00 99.86 0.00 95.07
    +.fi
    +.SH VERBOSE EXAMPLE
    +The "-v" option adds verbosity to the output:
    +
    +.nf
    +GenuineIntel 11 CPUID levels; family:model:stepping 0x6:2c:2 (6:44:2)
    +12 * 133 = 1600 MHz max efficiency
    +25 * 133 = 3333 MHz TSC frequency
    +26 * 133 = 3467 MHz max turbo 4 active cores
    +26 * 133 = 3467 MHz max turbo 3 active cores
    +27 * 133 = 3600 MHz max turbo 2 active cores
    +27 * 133 = 3600 MHz max turbo 1 active cores
    +
    +.fi
    +The \fBmax efficiency\fP frequency, a.k.a. Low Frequency Mode, is the frequency
    +available at the minimum package voltage. The \fBTSC frequency\fP is the nominal
    +maximum frequency of the processor if turbo-mode were not available. This frequency
    +should be sustainable on all CPUs indefinitely, given nominal power and cooling.
    +The remaining rows show what maximum turbo frequency is possible
    +depending on the number of idle cores. Note that this information is
    +not available on all processors.
    +.SH FORK EXAMPLE
    +If turbostat is invoked with a command, it will fork that command
    +and output the statistics gathered when the command exits.
    +eg. Here a cycle soaker is run on 1 CPU (see %c0) for a few seconds
    +until ^C while the other CPUs are mostly idle:
    +
    +.nf
    +[root@x980 lenb]# ./turbostat cat /dev/zero > /dev/null
    +
    +^Ccore CPU %c0 GHz TSC %c1 %c3 %c6 %pc3 %pc6
    + 8.49 3.63 3.38 16.23 0.66 74.63 0.00 0.00
    + 0 0 1.22 3.62 3.38 32.18 0.00 66.60 0.00 0.00
    + 0 6 0.40 3.61 3.38 33.00 0.00 66.60 0.00 0.00
    + 1 2 0.11 3.14 3.38 0.19 3.95 95.75 0.00 0.00
    + 1 8 0.05 2.88 3.38 0.25 3.95 95.75 0.00 0.00
    + 2 4 0.00 3.13 3.38 0.02 0.00 99.98 0.00 0.00
    + 2 10 0.00 3.09 3.38 0.02 0.00 99.98 0.00 0.00
    + 8 1 0.04 3.50 3.38 14.43 0.00 85.54 0.00 0.00
    + 8 7 0.03 2.98 3.38 14.43 0.00 85.54 0.00 0.00
    + 9 3 0.00 3.16 3.38 100.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
    + 9 9 99.93 3.63 3.38 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
    + 10 5 0.01 2.82 3.38 0.08 0.00 99.91 0.00 0.00
    + 10 11 0.02 3.36 3.38 0.06 0.00 99.91 0.00 0.00
    +6.950866 sec
    +
    +.fi
    +Above the cycle soaker drives cpu9 up 3.6 Ghz turbo limit
    +while the other processors are generally in various states of idle.
    +
    +Note that cpu3 is an HT sibling sharing core9
    +with cpu9, and thus it is unable to get to an idle state
    +deeper than c1 while cpu9 is busy.
    +
    +Note that turbostat reports average GHz of 3.61, while
    +the arithmetic average of the GHz column above is 3.24.
    +This is a weighted average, where the weight is %c0. ie. it is the total number of
    +un-halted cycles elapsed per time divided by the number of CPUs.
    +.SH NOTES
    +
    +.B "turbostat "
    +must be run as root.
    +
    +.B "turbostat "
    +reads hardware counters, but doesn't write them.
    +So it will not interfere with the OS or other programs, including
    +multiple invocations of itself.
    +
    +\fBturbostat \fP
    +may work poorly on Linux-2.6.20 through 2.6.29,
    +as \fBacpi-cpufreq \fPperiodically cleared the APERF and MPERF
    +in those kernels.
    +
    +The APERF, MPERF MSRs are defined to count non-halted cycles.
    +Although it is not guaranteed by the architecture, turbostat assumes
    +that they count at TSC rate, which is true on all processors tested to date.
    +
    +.SH REFERENCES
    +"Intel® Turbo Boost Technology
    +in Intel® Core™ Microarchitecture (Nehalem) Based Processors"
    +http://download.intel.com/design/processor/applnots/320354.pdf
    +
    +"Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer's Manual
    +Volume 3B: System Programming Guide"
    +http://www.intel.com/products/processor/manuals/
    +
    +.SH FILES
    +.ta
    +.nf
    +/dev/cpu/*/msr
    +.fi
    +
    +.SH "SEE ALSO"
    +msr(4), vmstat(8)
    +.PP
    +.SH AUTHORS
    +.nf
    +Written by Len Brown <len.brown@intel.com>
    diff --git a/tools/power/x86/turbostat/turbostat.c b/tools/power/x86/turbostat/turbostat.c
    new file mode 100644
    index 0000000..4c6983d
    --- /dev/null
    +++ b/tools/power/x86/turbostat/turbostat.c
    @@ -0,0 +1,1048 @@
    +/*
    + * turbostat -- show CPU frequency and C-state residency
    + * on modern Intel turbo-capable processors.
    + *
    + * Copyright (c) 2010, Intel Corporation.
    + * Len Brown <len.brown@intel.com>
    + *
    + * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
    + * under the terms and conditions of the GNU General Public License,
    + * version 2, as published by the Free Software Foundation.
    + *
    + * This program is distributed in the hope it will be useful, but WITHOUT
    + * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
    + * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for
    + * more details.
    + *
    + * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with
    + * this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
    + * 51 Franklin St - Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
    + */
    +
    +#include <stdio.h>
    +#include <unistd.h>
    +#include <sys/types.h>
    +#include <sys/wait.h>
    +#include <sys/stat.h>
    +#include <sys/resource.h>
    +#include <fcntl.h>
    +#include <signal.h>
    +#include <sys/time.h>
    +#include <stdlib.h>
    +#include <dirent.h>
    +#include <string.h>
    +#include <ctype.h>
    +
    +#define MSR_TSC 0x10
    +#define MSR_NEHALEM_PLATFORM_INFO 0xCE
    +#define MSR_NEHALEM_TURBO_RATIO_LIMIT 0x1AD
    +#define MSR_APERF 0xE8
    +#define MSR_MPERF 0xE7
    +#define MSR_PKG_C2_RESIDENCY 0x60D /* SNB only */
    +#define MSR_PKG_C3_RESIDENCY 0x3F8
    +#define MSR_PKG_C6_RESIDENCY 0x3F9
    +#define MSR_PKG_C7_RESIDENCY 0x3FA /* SNB only */
    +#define MSR_CORE_C3_RESIDENCY 0x3FC
    +#define MSR_CORE_C6_RESIDENCY 0x3FD
    +#define MSR_CORE_C7_RESIDENCY 0x3FE /* SNB only */
    +
    +char *proc_stat = "/proc/stat";
    +unsigned int interval_sec = 5; /* set with -i interval_sec */
    +unsigned int verbose; /* set with -v */
    +unsigned int skip_c0;
    +unsigned int skip_c1;
    +unsigned int do_nhm_cstates;
    +unsigned int do_snb_cstates;
    +unsigned int has_aperf;
    +unsigned int units = 1000000000; /* Ghz etc */
    +unsigned int genuine_intel;
    +unsigned int has_invariant_tsc;
    +unsigned int do_nehalem_platform_info;
    +unsigned int do_nehalem_turbo_ratio_limit;
    +unsigned int extra_msr_offset;
    +double bclk;
    +unsigned int show_pkg;
    +unsigned int show_core;
    +unsigned int show_cpu;
    +
    +int aperf_mperf_unstable;
    +int backwards_count;
    +char *progname;
    +int need_reinitialize;
    +
    +int num_cpus;
    +
    +typedef struct per_cpu_counters {
    + unsigned long long tsc; /* per thread */
    + unsigned long long aperf; /* per thread */
    + unsigned long long mperf; /* per thread */
    + unsigned long long c1; /* per thread (calculated) */
    + unsigned long long c3; /* per core */
    + unsigned long long c6; /* per core */
    + unsigned long long c7; /* per core */
    + unsigned long long pc2; /* per package */
    + unsigned long long pc3; /* per package */
    + unsigned long long pc6; /* per package */
    + unsigned long long pc7; /* per package */
    + unsigned long long extra_msr; /* per thread */
    + int pkg;
    + int core;
    + int cpu;
    + struct per_cpu_counters *next;
    +} PCC;
    +
    +PCC *pcc_even;
    +PCC *pcc_odd;
    +PCC *pcc_delta;
    +PCC *pcc_average;
    +struct timeval tv_even;
    +struct timeval tv_odd;
    +struct timeval tv_delta;
    +
    +unsigned long long get_msr(int cpu, off_t offset)
    +{
    + ssize_t retval;
    + unsigned long long msr;
    + char pathname[32];
    + int fd;
    +
    + sprintf(pathname, "/dev/cpu/%d/msr", cpu);
    + fd = open(pathname, O_RDONLY);
    + if (fd < 0) {
    + perror(pathname);
    + need_reinitialize = 1;
    + return 0;
    + }
    +
    + retval = pread(fd, &msr, sizeof msr, offset);
    + if (retval != sizeof msr) {
    + fprintf(stderr, "cpu%d pread(..., 0x%zx) = %jd\n",
    + cpu, offset, retval);
    + exit(-2);
    + }
    +
    + close(fd);
    + return msr;
    +}
    +
    +void print_header()
    +{
    + if (show_pkg)
    + fprintf(stderr, "pkg ");
    + if (show_core)
    + fprintf(stderr, "core");
    + if (show_cpu)
    + fprintf(stderr, " CPU");
    + if (do_nhm_cstates)
    + fprintf(stderr, " %%c0 ");
    + if (has_aperf)
    + fprintf(stderr, " GHz");
    + fprintf(stderr, " TSC");
    + if (do_nhm_cstates)
    + fprintf(stderr, " %%c1 ");
    + if (do_nhm_cstates)
    + fprintf(stderr, " %%c3 ");
    + if (do_nhm_cstates)
    + fprintf(stderr, " %%c6 ");
    + if (do_snb_cstates)
    + fprintf(stderr, " %%c7 ");
    + if (do_snb_cstates)
    + fprintf(stderr, " %%pc2 ");
    + if (do_nhm_cstates)
    + fprintf(stderr, " %%pc3 ");
    + if (do_nhm_cstates)
    + fprintf(stderr, " %%pc6 ");
    + if (do_snb_cstates)
    + fprintf(stderr, " %%pc7 ");
    + if (extra_msr_offset)
    + fprintf(stderr, " MSR 0x%x ", extra_msr_offset);
    +
    + putc('\n', stderr);
    +}
    +
    +void dump_pcc(PCC *pcc)
    +{
    + fprintf(stderr, "package: %d ", pcc->pkg);
    + fprintf(stderr, "core:: %d ", pcc->core);
    + fprintf(stderr, "CPU: %d ", pcc->cpu);
    + fprintf(stderr, "TSC: %016llX\n", pcc->tsc);
    + fprintf(stderr, "c3: %016llX\n", pcc->c3);
    + fprintf(stderr, "c6: %016llX\n", pcc->c6);
    + fprintf(stderr, "c7: %016llX\n", pcc->c7);
    + fprintf(stderr, "aperf: %016llX\n", pcc->aperf);
    + fprintf(stderr, "pc2: %016llX\n", pcc->pc2);
    + fprintf(stderr, "pc3: %016llX\n", pcc->pc3);
    + fprintf(stderr, "pc6: %016llX\n", pcc->pc6);
    + fprintf(stderr, "pc7: %016llX\n", pcc->pc7);
    + fprintf(stderr, "msr0x%x: %016llX\n", extra_msr_offset, pcc->extra_msr);
    +}
    +
    +void dump_list(PCC *pcc)
    +{
    + printf("dump_list 0x%p\n", pcc);
    +
    + for (; pcc; pcc = pcc->next)
    + dump_pcc(pcc);
    +}
    +
    +void print_pcc(PCC *p)
    +{
    + double interval_float;
    +
    + interval_float = tv_delta.tv_sec + tv_delta.tv_usec/1000000.0;
    +
    + /* topology columns, print blanks on 1st (average) line */
    + if (p == pcc_average) {
    + if (show_pkg)
    + fprintf(stderr, " ");
    + if (show_core)
    + fprintf(stderr, " ");
    + if (show_cpu)
    + fprintf(stderr, " ");
    + } else {
    + if (show_pkg)
    + fprintf(stderr, "%4d", p->pkg);
    + if (show_core)
    + fprintf(stderr, "%4d", p->core);
    + if (show_cpu)
    + fprintf(stderr, "%4d", p->cpu);
    + }
    +
    + /* %c0 */
    + if (do_nhm_cstates) {
    + if (!skip_c0)
    + fprintf(stderr, "%7.2f", 100.0 * p->mperf/p->tsc);
    + else
    + fprintf(stderr, " ****");
    + }
    +
    + /* GHz */
    + if (has_aperf) {
    + if (!aperf_mperf_unstable) {
    + fprintf(stderr, "%5.2f",
    + 1.0 * p->tsc / units * p->aperf /
    + p->mperf / interval_float);
    + } else {
    + if (p->aperf > p->tsc || p->mperf > p->tsc) {
    + fprintf(stderr, " ****");
    + } else {
    + fprintf(stderr, "%4.1f*",
    + 1.0 * p->tsc /
    + units * p->aperf /
    + p->mperf / interval_float);
    + }
    + }
    + }
    +
    + /* TSC */
    + fprintf(stderr, "%5.2f", 1.0 * p->tsc/units/interval_float);
    +
    + if (do_nhm_cstates) {
    + if (!skip_c1)
    + fprintf(stderr, "%7.2f", 100.0 * p->c1/p->tsc);
    + else
    + fprintf(stderr, " ****");
    + }
    + if (do_nhm_cstates)
    + fprintf(stderr, "%7.2f", 100.0 * p->c3/p->tsc);
    + if (do_nhm_cstates)
    + fprintf(stderr, "%7.2f", 100.0 * p->c6/p->tsc);
    + if (do_snb_cstates)
    + fprintf(stderr, "%7.2f", 100.0 * p->c7/p->tsc);
    + if (do_snb_cstates)
    + fprintf(stderr, "%7.2f", 100.0 * p->pc2/p->tsc);
    + if (do_nhm_cstates)
    + fprintf(stderr, "%7.2f", 100.0 * p->pc3/p->tsc);
    + if (do_nhm_cstates)
    + fprintf(stderr, "%7.2f", 100.0 * p->pc6/p->tsc);
    + if (do_snb_cstates)
    + fprintf(stderr, "%7.2f", 100.0 * p->pc7/p->tsc);
    + if (extra_msr_offset)
    + fprintf(stderr, " 0x%016llx", p->extra_msr);
    + putc('\n', stderr);
    +}
    +
    +void print_counters(PCC *cnt)
    +{
    + PCC *pcc;
    +
    + print_header();
    +
    + if (num_cpus > 1)
    + print_pcc(pcc_average);
    +
    + for (pcc = cnt; pcc != NULL; pcc = pcc->next)
    + print_pcc(pcc);
    +
    +}
    +
    +#define SUBTRACT_COUNTER(after, before, delta) (delta = (after - before), (before > after))
    +
    +
    +int compute_delta(PCC *after, PCC *before, PCC *delta)
    +{
    + int errors = 0;
    + int perf_err = 0;
    +
    + skip_c0 = skip_c1 = 0;
    +
    + for ( ; after && before && delta;
    + after = after->next, before = before->next, delta = delta->next) {
    + if (before->cpu != after->cpu) {
    + printf("cpu configuration changed: %d != %d\n",
    + before->cpu, after->cpu);
    + return -1;
    + }
    +
    + if (SUBTRACT_COUNTER(after->tsc, before->tsc, delta->tsc)) {
    + fprintf(stderr, "cpu%d TSC went backwards %llX to %llX\n",
    + before->cpu, before->tsc, after->tsc);
    + errors++;
    + }
    + /* check for TSC < 1 Mcycles over interval */
    + if (delta->tsc < (1000 * 1000)) {
    + fprintf(stderr, "Insanely slow TSC rate,"
    + " TSC stops in idle?\n");
    + fprintf(stderr, "You can disable all c-states"
    + " by booting with \"idle=poll\"\n");
    + fprintf(stderr, "or just the deep ones with"
    + " \"processor.max_cstate=1\"\n");
    + exit(-3);
    + }
    + if (SUBTRACT_COUNTER(after->c3, before->c3, delta->c3)) {
    + fprintf(stderr, "cpu%d c3 counter went backwards %llX to %llX\n",
    + before->cpu, before->c3, after->c3);
    + errors++;
    + }
    + if (SUBTRACT_COUNTER(after->c6, before->c6, delta->c6)) {
    + fprintf(stderr, "cpu%d c6 counter went backwards %llX to %llX\n",
    + before->cpu, before->c6, after->c6);
    + errors++;
    + }
    + if (SUBTRACT_COUNTER(after->c7, before->c7, delta->c7)) {
    + fprintf(stderr, "cpu%d c7 counter went backwards %llX to %llX\n",
    + before->cpu, before->c7, after->c7);
    + errors++;
    + }
    + if (SUBTRACT_COUNTER(after->pc2, before->pc2, delta->pc2)) {
    + fprintf(stderr, "cpu%d pc2 counter went backwards %llX to %llX\n",
    + before->cpu, before->pc2, after->pc2);
    + errors++;
    + }
    + if (SUBTRACT_COUNTER(after->pc3, before->pc3, delta->pc3)) {
    + fprintf(stderr, "cpu%d pc3 counter went backwards %llX to %llX\n",
    + before->cpu, before->pc3, after->pc3);
    + errors++;
    + }
    + if (SUBTRACT_COUNTER(after->pc6, before->pc6, delta->pc6)) {
    + fprintf(stderr, "cpu%d pc6 counter went backwards %llX to %llX\n",
    + before->cpu, before->pc6, after->pc6);
    + errors++;
    + }
    + if (SUBTRACT_COUNTER(after->pc7, before->pc7, delta->pc7)) {
    + fprintf(stderr, "cpu%d pc7 counter went backwards %llX to %llX\n",
    + before->cpu, before->pc7, after->pc7);
    + errors++;
    + }
    +
    + perf_err = SUBTRACT_COUNTER(after->aperf, before->aperf, delta->aperf);
    + if (perf_err) {
    + fprintf(stderr, "cpu%d aperf counter went backwards %llX to %llX\n",
    + before->cpu, before->aperf, after->aperf);
    + }
    + perf_err |= SUBTRACT_COUNTER(after->mperf, before->mperf, delta->mperf);
    + if (perf_err) {
    + fprintf(stderr, "cpu%d mperf counter went backwards %llX to %llX\n",
    + before->cpu, before->mperf, after->mperf);
    + }
    + if (perf_err) {
    + if (!aperf_mperf_unstable) {
    + fprintf(stderr, "%s: APERF or MPERF went backwards *\n", progname);
    + fprintf(stderr, "* Frequency results do not cover entire interval *\n");
    + fprintf(stderr, "* fix this by running Linux-2.6.30 or later *\n");
    +
    + aperf_mperf_unstable = 1;
    + }
    + /*
    + * mperf delta is likely a huge "positive" number
    + * can not use it for calculating c0 time
    + */
    + skip_c0 = 1;
    + skip_c1 = 1;
    + }
    +
    + /*
    + * As mperf and tsc collection are not atomic,
    + * it is possible for mperf's non-halted cycles
    + * to exceed TSC's all cycles: show c1 = 0% in that case.
    + */
    + if (delta->mperf > delta->tsc)
    + delta->c1 = 0;
    + else /* normal case, derive c1 */
    + delta->c1 = delta->tsc - delta->mperf
    + - delta->c3 - delta->c6 - delta->c7;
    +
    + if (delta->mperf == 0)
    + delta->mperf = 1; /* divide by 0 protection */
    +
    + /*
    + * for "extra msr", just copy the latest w/o subtracting
    + */
    + delta->extra_msr = after->extra_msr;
    + if (errors) {
    + fprintf(stderr, "ERROR cpu%d before:\n", before->cpu);
    + dump_pcc(before);
    + fprintf(stderr, "ERROR cpu%d after:\n", before->cpu);
    + dump_pcc(after);
    + errors = 0;
    + }
    + }
    + return 0;
    +}
    +
    +void compute_average(PCC *delta, PCC *avg)
    +{
    + PCC *sum;
    +
    + sum = calloc(1, sizeof(PCC));
    + if (sum == NULL) {
    + perror("calloc sum");
    + exit(1);
    + }
    +
    + for (; delta; delta = delta->next) {
    + sum->tsc += delta->tsc;
    + sum->c1 += delta->c1;
    + sum->c3 += delta->c3;
    + sum->c6 += delta->c6;
    + sum->c7 += delta->c7;
    + sum->aperf += delta->aperf;
    + sum->mperf += delta->mperf;
    + sum->pc2 += delta->pc2;
    + sum->pc3 += delta->pc3;
    + sum->pc6 += delta->pc6;
    + sum->pc7 += delta->pc7;
    + }
    + avg->tsc = sum->tsc/num_cpus;
    + avg->c1 = sum->c1/num_cpus;
    + avg->c3 = sum->c3/num_cpus;
    + avg->c6 = sum->c6/num_cpus;
    + avg->c7 = sum->c7/num_cpus;
    + avg->aperf = sum->aperf/num_cpus;
    + avg->mperf = sum->mperf/num_cpus;
    + avg->pc2 = sum->pc2/num_cpus;
    + avg->pc3 = sum->pc3/num_cpus;
    + avg->pc6 = sum->pc6/num_cpus;
    + avg->pc7 = sum->pc7/num_cpus;
    +
    + free(sum);
    +}
    +
    +void get_counters(PCC *pcc)
    +{
    + for ( ; pcc; pcc = pcc->next) {
    + pcc->tsc = get_msr(pcc->cpu, MSR_TSC);
    + if (do_nhm_cstates)
    + pcc->c3 = get_msr(pcc->cpu, MSR_CORE_C3_RESIDENCY);
    + if (do_nhm_cstates)
    + pcc->c6 = get_msr(pcc->cpu, MSR_CORE_C6_RESIDENCY);
    + if (do_snb_cstates)
    + pcc->c7 = get_msr(pcc->cpu, MSR_CORE_C7_RESIDENCY);
    + if (has_aperf)
    + pcc->aperf = get_msr(pcc->cpu, MSR_APERF);
    + if (has_aperf)
    + pcc->mperf = get_msr(pcc->cpu, MSR_MPERF);
    + if (do_snb_cstates)
    + pcc->pc2 = get_msr(pcc->cpu, MSR_PKG_C2_RESIDENCY);
    + if (do_nhm_cstates)
    + pcc->pc3 = get_msr(pcc->cpu, MSR_PKG_C3_RESIDENCY);
    + if (do_nhm_cstates)
    + pcc->pc6 = get_msr(pcc->cpu, MSR_PKG_C6_RESIDENCY);
    + if (do_snb_cstates)
    + pcc->pc7 = get_msr(pcc->cpu, MSR_PKG_C7_RESIDENCY);
    + if (extra_msr_offset)
    + pcc->extra_msr = get_msr(pcc->cpu, extra_msr_offset);
    + }
    +}
    +
    +
    +void print_nehalem_info()
    +{
    + unsigned long long msr;
    + unsigned int ratio;
    +
    + if (!do_nehalem_platform_info)
    + return;
    +
    + msr = get_msr(0, MSR_NEHALEM_PLATFORM_INFO);
    +
    + ratio = (msr >> 40) & 0xFF;
    + fprintf(stderr, "%d * %.0f = %.0f MHz max efficiency\n",
    + ratio, bclk, ratio * bclk);
    +
    + ratio = (msr >> 8) & 0xFF;
    + fprintf(stderr, "%d * %.0f = %.0f MHz TSC frequency\n",
    + ratio, bclk, ratio * bclk);
    +
    + if (verbose > 1)
    + fprintf(stderr, "MSR_NEHALEM_PLATFORM_INFO: 0x%llx\n", msr);
    +
    + if (!do_nehalem_turbo_ratio_limit)
    + return;
    +
    + msr = get_msr(0, MSR_NEHALEM_TURBO_RATIO_LIMIT);
    +
    + ratio = (msr >> 24) & 0xFF;
    + if (ratio)
    + fprintf(stderr, "%d * %.0f = %.0f MHz max turbo 4 active cores\n",
    + ratio, bclk, ratio * bclk);
    +
    + ratio = (msr >> 16) & 0xFF;
    + if (ratio)
    + fprintf(stderr, "%d * %.0f = %.0f MHz max turbo 3 active cores\n",
    + ratio, bclk, ratio * bclk);
    +
    + ratio = (msr >> 8) & 0xFF;
    + if (ratio)
    + fprintf(stderr, "%d * %.0f = %.0f MHz max turbo 2 active cores\n",
    + ratio, bclk, ratio * bclk);
    +
    + ratio = (msr >> 0) & 0xFF;
    + if (ratio)
    + fprintf(stderr, "%d * %.0f = %.0f MHz max turbo 1 active cores\n",
    + ratio, bclk, ratio * bclk);
    +
    +}
    +
    +void free_counter_list(PCC *list)
    +{
    + PCC *p;
    +
    + for (p = list; p; ) {
    + PCC *free_me;
    +
    + free_me = p;
    + p = p->next;
    + free(free_me);
    + }
    + return;
    +}
    +
    +void free_all_counters(void)
    +{
    + free_counter_list(pcc_even);
    + pcc_even = NULL;
    +
    + free_counter_list(pcc_odd);
    + pcc_odd = NULL;
    +
    + free_counter_list(pcc_delta);
    + pcc_delta = NULL;
    +
    + free_counter_list(pcc_average);
    + pcc_average = NULL;
    +}
    +
    +void insert_cpu_counters(PCC **list, PCC *new)
    +{
    + PCC *prev;
    +
    + /*
    + * list was empty
    + */
    + if (*list == NULL) {
    + new->next = *list;
    + *list = new;
    + return;
    + }
    +
    + show_cpu = 1; /* there is more than one CPU */
    +
    + /*
    + * insert on front of list.
    + * It is sorted by ascending package#, core#, cpu#
    + */
    + if (((*list)->pkg > new->pkg) ||
    + (((*list)->pkg == new->pkg) && ((*list)->core > new->core)) ||
    + (((*list)->pkg == new->pkg) && ((*list)->core == new->core) && ((*list)->cpu > new->cpu))) {
    + new->next = *list;
    + *list = new;
    + return;
    + }
    +
    + prev = *list;
    +
    + while (prev->next && (prev->next->pkg < new->pkg)) {
    + prev = prev->next;
    + show_pkg = 1; /* there is more than 1 package */
    + }
    +
    + while (prev->next && (prev->next->pkg == new->pkg)
    + && (prev->next->core < new->core)) {
    + prev = prev->next;
    + show_core = 1; /* there is more than 1 core */
    + }
    +
    + while (prev->next && (prev->next->pkg == new->pkg)
    + && (prev->next->core == new->core)
    + && (prev->next->cpu < new->cpu)) {
    + prev = prev->next;
    + }
    +
    + /*
    + * insert after "prev"
    + */
    + new->next = prev->next;
    + prev->next = new;
    +
    + return;
    +}
    +
    +void alloc_new_cpu_counters(int pkg, int core, int cpu)
    +{
    + PCC *new;
    +
    + if (verbose > 1)
    + printf("pkg%d core%d, cpu%d\n", pkg, core, cpu);
    +
    + new = (PCC *)calloc(1, sizeof(PCC));
    + if (new == NULL) {
    + perror("calloc");
    + exit(1);
    + }
    + new->pkg = pkg;
    + new->core = core;
    + new->cpu = cpu;
    + insert_cpu_counters(&pcc_odd, new);
    +
    + new = (PCC *)calloc(1, sizeof(PCC));
    + if (new == NULL) {
    + perror("calloc");
    + exit(1);
    + }
    + new->pkg = pkg;
    + new->core = core;
    + new->cpu = cpu;
    + insert_cpu_counters(&pcc_even, new);
    +
    + new = (PCC *)calloc(1, sizeof(PCC));
    + if (new == NULL) {
    + perror("calloc");
    + exit(1);
    + }
    + new->pkg = pkg;
    + new->core = core;
    + new->cpu = cpu;
    + insert_cpu_counters(&pcc_delta, new);
    +
    + new = (PCC *)calloc(1, sizeof(PCC));
    + if (new == NULL) {
    + perror("calloc");
    + exit(1);
    + }
    + new->pkg = pkg;
    + new->core = core;
    + new->cpu = cpu;
    + pcc_average = new;
    +}
    +
    +int get_physical_package_id(int cpu)
    +{
    + char path[64];
    + FILE *filep;
    + int pkg;
    +
    + sprintf(path, "/sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu%d/topology/physical_package_id", cpu);
    + filep = fopen(path, "r");
    + if (filep == NULL) {
    + perror(path);
    + exit(1);
    + }
    + fscanf(filep, "%d", &pkg);
    + fclose(filep);
    + return pkg;
    +}
    +
    +int get_core_id(int cpu)
    +{
    + char path[64];
    + FILE *filep;
    + int core;
    +
    + sprintf(path, "/sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu%d/topology/core_id", cpu);
    + filep = fopen(path, "r");
    + if (filep == NULL) {
    + perror(path);
    + exit(1);
    + }
    + fscanf(filep, "%d", &core);
    + fclose(filep);
    + return core;
    +}
    +
    +/*
    + * run func(index, cpu) on every cpu in /proc/stat
    + */
    +
    +int for_all_cpus(void (func)(int, int, int))
    +{
    + FILE *fp;
    + int cpu_count;
    + int retval;
    +
    + fp = fopen(proc_stat, "r");
    + if (fp == NULL) {
    + perror(proc_stat);
    + exit(1);
    + }
    +
    + retval = fscanf(fp, "cpu %*d %*d %*d %*d %*d %*d %*d %*d %*d %*d\n");
    + if (retval != 0) {
    + perror("/proc/stat format");
    + exit(1);
    + }
    +
    + for (cpu_count = 0; ; cpu_count++) {
    + int cpu;
    +
    + retval = fscanf(fp, "cpu%u %*d %*d %*d %*d %*d %*d %*d %*d %*d %*d\n", &cpu);
    + if (retval != 1)
    + break;
    +
    + func(get_physical_package_id(cpu), get_core_id(cpu), cpu);
    + }
    + fclose(fp);
    + return cpu_count;
    +}
    +
    +void re_initialize(void)
    +{
    + printf("turbostat: topology changed, re-initializing.\n");
    + free_all_counters();
    + num_cpus = for_all_cpus(alloc_new_cpu_counters);
    + need_reinitialize = 0;
    + printf("num_cpus is now %d\n", num_cpus);
    +}
    +
    +void dummy(int pkg, int core, int cpu) { return; }
    +/*
    + * check to see if a cpu came on-line
    + */
    +void verify_num_cpus()
    +{
    + int new_num_cpus;
    +
    + new_num_cpus = for_all_cpus(dummy);
    +
    + if (new_num_cpus != num_cpus) {
    + if (verbose)
    + printf("num_cpus was %d, is now %d\n",
    + num_cpus, new_num_cpus);
    + need_reinitialize = 1;
    + }
    +
    + return;
    +}
    +
    +void turbostat_loop()
    +{
    +restart:
    + get_counters(pcc_even);
    + gettimeofday(&tv_even, (struct timezone *)NULL);
    +
    + while (1) {
    + verify_num_cpus();
    + if (need_reinitialize) {
    + re_initialize();
    + goto restart;
    + }
    + sleep(interval_sec);
    + get_counters(pcc_odd);
    + gettimeofday(&tv_odd, (struct timezone *)NULL);
    +
    + compute_delta(pcc_odd, pcc_even, pcc_delta);
    + timersub(&tv_odd, &tv_even, &tv_delta);
    + compute_average(pcc_delta, pcc_average);
    + print_counters(pcc_delta);
    + if (need_reinitialize) {
    + re_initialize();
    + goto restart;
    + }
    + sleep(interval_sec);
    + get_counters(pcc_even);
    + gettimeofday(&tv_even, (struct timezone *)NULL);
    + compute_delta(pcc_even, pcc_odd, pcc_delta);
    + timersub(&tv_even, &tv_odd, &tv_delta);
    + compute_average(pcc_delta, pcc_average);
    + print_counters(pcc_delta);
    + }
    +}
    +
    +void check_dev_msr()
    +{
    + struct stat sb;
    +
    + if (stat("/dev/cpu/0/msr", &sb)) {
    + fprintf(stderr, "no /dev/cpu/0/msr\n");
    + fprintf(stderr, "Try \"# modprobe msr\"\n");
    + exit(-5);
    + }
    +}
    +
    +void check_super_user()
    +{
    + if (getuid() != 0) {
    + fprintf(stderr, "must be root\n");
    + exit(-6);
    + }
    +}
    +
    +int has_nehalem_turbo_ratio_limit(unsigned int family, unsigned int model)
    +{
    + if (!genuine_intel)
    + return 0;
    +
    + if (family != 6)
    + return 0;
    +
    + switch (model) {
    + case 0x1A: /* Core i7, Xeon 5500 series - Bloomfield, Gainstown NHM-EP */
    + case 0x1E: /* Core i7 and i5 Processor - Clarksfield, Lynnfield, Jasper Forest */
    + case 0x1F: /* Core i7 and i5 Processor - Nehalem */
    + case 0x25: /* Westmere Client - Clarkdale, Arrandale */
    + case 0x2C: /* Westmere EP - Gulftown */
    + case 0x2A: /* SNB */
    + case 0x2D: /* SNB Xeon */
    + return 1;
    + case 0x2E: /* Nehalem-EX Xeon - Beckton */
    + case 0x2F: /* Westmere-EX Xeon - Eagleton */
    + default:
    + return 0;
    + }
    +}
    +
    +int is_snb(unsigned int family, unsigned int model)
    +{
    + if (!genuine_intel)
    + return 0;
    +
    + switch (model) {
    + case 0x2A:
    + case 0x2D:
    + return 1;
    + }
    + return 0;
    +}
    +
    +double discover_bclk(unsigned int family, unsigned int model)
    +{
    + if (is_snb(family, model))
    + return 100.00;
    + else
    + return 133.33;
    +}
    +
    +void check_cpuid()
    +{
    + unsigned int eax, ebx, ecx, edx, max_level;
    + unsigned int fms, family, model, stepping;
    +
    + eax = ebx = ecx = edx = 0;
    +
    + asm("cpuid" : "=a" (max_level), "=b" (ebx), "=c" (ecx), "=d" (edx) : "a" (0));
    +
    + if (ebx == 0x756e6547 && edx == 0x49656e69 && ecx == 0x6c65746e)
    + genuine_intel = 1;
    +
    + if (verbose)
    + fprintf(stderr, "%.4s%.4s%.4s ",
    + (char *)&ebx, (char *)&edx, (char *)&ecx);
    +
    + asm("cpuid" : "=a" (fms), "=c" (ecx), "=d" (edx) : "a" (1) : "ebx");
    + family = (fms >> 8) & 0xf;
    + model = (fms >> 4) & 0xf;
    + stepping = fms & 0xf;
    + if (family == 6 || family == 0xf)
    + model += ((fms >> 16) & 0xf) << 4;
    +
    + if (verbose)
    + fprintf(stderr, "%d CPUID levels; family:model:stepping 0x%x:%x:%x (%d:%d:%d)\n",
    + max_level, family, model, stepping, family, model, stepping);
    +
    + if (!(edx & (1 << 5))) {
    + fprintf(stderr, "CPUID: no MSR\n");
    + exit(1);
    + }
    +
    + /*
    + * check max extended function levels of CPUID.
    + * This is needed to check for invariant TSC.
    + * This check is valid for both Intel and AMD.
    + */
    + ebx = ecx = edx = 0;
    + asm("cpuid" : "=a" (max_level), "=b" (ebx), "=c" (ecx), "=d" (edx) : "a" (0x80000000));
    +
    + if (max_level < 0x80000007) {
    + fprintf(stderr, "CPUID: no invariant TSC (max_level 0x%x)\n", max_level);
    + exit(1);
    + }
    +
    + /*
    + * Non-Stop TSC is advertised by CPUID.EAX=0x80000007: EDX.bit8
    + * this check is valid for both Intel and AMD
    + */
    + asm("cpuid" : "=a" (eax), "=b" (ebx), "=c" (ecx), "=d" (edx) : "a" (0x80000007));
    + has_invariant_tsc = edx && (1 << 8);
    +
    + if (!has_invariant_tsc) {
    + fprintf(stderr, "No invariant TSC\n");
    + exit(1);
    + }
    +
    + /*
    + * APERF/MPERF is advertised by CPUID.EAX=0x6: ECX.bit0
    + * this check is valid for both Intel and AMD
    + */
    +
    + asm("cpuid" : "=a" (eax), "=b" (ebx), "=c" (ecx), "=d" (edx) : "a" (0x6));
    + has_aperf = ecx && (1 << 0);
    + if (!has_aperf) {
    + fprintf(stderr, "No APERF MSR\n");
    + exit(1);
    + }
    +
    + do_nehalem_platform_info = genuine_intel && has_invariant_tsc;
    + do_nhm_cstates = genuine_intel; /* all Intel w/ non-stop TSC have NHM counters */
    + do_snb_cstates = is_snb(family, model);
    + bclk = discover_bclk(family, model);
    +
    + do_nehalem_turbo_ratio_limit = has_nehalem_turbo_ratio_limit(family, model);
    +}
    +
    +
    +void usage()
    +{
    + fprintf(stderr, "%s: [-v] [-M MSR#] [-i interval_sec | command ...]\n",
    + progname);
    + exit(1);
    +}
    +
    +
    +/*
    + * in /dev/cpu/ return success for names that are numbers
    + * ie. filter out ".", "..", "microcode".
    + */
    +int dir_filter(const struct dirent *dirp)
    +{
    + if (isdigit(dirp->d_name[0]))
    + return 1;
    + else
    + return 0;
    +}
    +
    +int open_dev_cpu_msr(int dummy1)
    +{
    + return 0;
    +}
    +
    +void turbostat_init()
    +{
    + check_cpuid();
    +
    + check_dev_msr();
    + check_super_user();
    +
    + num_cpus = for_all_cpus(alloc_new_cpu_counters);
    +
    + if (verbose)
    + print_nehalem_info();
    +}
    +
    +int fork_it(char **argv)
    +{
    + int retval;
    + pid_t child_pid;
    + get_counters(pcc_even);
    + gettimeofday(&tv_even, (struct timezone *)NULL);
    +
    + child_pid = fork();
    + if (!child_pid) {
    + /* child */
    + execvp(argv[0], argv);
    + } else {
    + int status;
    +
    + /* parent */
    + if (child_pid == -1) {
    + perror("fork");
    + exit(1);
    + }
    +
    + signal(SIGINT, SIG_IGN);
    + signal(SIGQUIT, SIG_IGN);
    + if (waitpid(child_pid, &status, 0) == -1) {
    + perror("wait");
    + exit(1);
    + }
    + }
    + get_counters(pcc_odd);
    + gettimeofday(&tv_odd, (struct timezone *)NULL);
    + retval = compute_delta(pcc_odd, pcc_even, pcc_delta);
    +
    + timersub(&tv_odd, &tv_even, &tv_delta);
    + compute_average(pcc_delta, pcc_average);
    + if (!retval)
    + print_counters(pcc_delta);
    +
    + fprintf(stderr, "%.6f sec\n", tv_delta.tv_sec + tv_delta.tv_usec/1000000.0);;
    +
    + return 0;
    +}
    +
    +void cmdline(int argc, char **argv)
    +{
    + int opt;
    +
    + progname = argv[0];
    +
    + while ((opt = getopt(argc, argv, "+vi:M:")) != -1) {
    + switch (opt) {
    + case 'v':
    + verbose++;
    + break;
    + case 'i':
    + interval_sec = atoi(optarg);
    + break;
    + case 'M':
    + sscanf(optarg, "%x", &extra_msr_offset);
    + if (verbose > 1)
    + fprintf(stderr, "MSR 0x%X\n", extra_msr_offset);
    + break;
    + default:
    + usage();
    + }
    + }
    +}
    +
    +int main(int argc, char **argv)
    +{
    + cmdline(argc, argv);
    +
    + if (verbose > 1)
    + fprintf(stderr, "turbostat Dec 6, 2010"
    + " - Len Brown <lenb@kernel.org>\n");
    + if (verbose > 1)
    + fprintf(stderr, "http://userweb.kernel.org/~lenb/acpi/utils/pmtools/turbostat/\n");
    +
    + turbostat_init();
    +
    + /*
    + * if any params left, it must be a command to fork
    + */
    + if (argc - optind)
    + return fork_it(argv + optind);
    + else
    + turbostat_loop();
    +
    + return 0;
    +}
    \
     
     \ /
      Last update: 2010-12-07 07:03    [W:0.091 / U:0.324 seconds]
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