lkml.org 
[lkml]   [2010]   [Jan]   [6]   [last100]   RSS Feed
Views: [wrap][no wrap]   [headers]  [forward] 
 
Messages in this thread
Patch in this message
/
Date
From
Subject[RFC PATCH] introduce sys_membarrier(): process-wide memory barrier
Here is an implementation of a new system call, sys_membarrier(), which
executes a memory barrier on all threads of the current process.

It aims at greatly simplifying and enhancing the current signal-based
liburcu userspace RCU synchronize_rcu() implementation.
(found at http://lttng.org/urcu)

Both the signal-based and the sys_membarrier userspace RCU schemes
permit us to remove the memory barrier from the userspace RCU
rcu_read_lock() and rcu_read_unlock() primitives, thus significantly
accelerating them. These memory barriers are replaced by compiler
barriers on the read-side, and all matching memory barriers on the
write-side are turned into an invokation of a memory barrier on all
active threads in the process. By letting the kernel perform this
synchronization rather than dumbly sending a signal to every process
threads (as we currently do), we diminish the number of unnecessary wake
ups and only issue the memory barriers on active threads. Non-running
threads do not need to execute such barrier anyway, because these are
implied by the scheduler context switches.

To explain the benefit of this scheme, let's introduce two example threads:

Thread A (non-frequent, e.g. executing liburcu synchronize_rcu())
Thread B (frequent, e.g. executing liburcu rcu_read_lock()/rcu_read_unlock())

In a scheme where all smp_mb() in thread A synchronize_rcu() are
ordering memory accesses with respect to smp_mb() present in
rcu_read_lock/unlock(), we can change all smp_mb() from
synchronize_rcu() into calls to sys_membarrier() and all smp_mb() from
rcu_read_lock/unlock() into compiler barriers "barrier()".

Before the change, we had, for each smp_mb() pairs:

Thread A Thread B
prev mem accesses prev mem accesses
smp_mb() smp_mb()
follow mem accesses follow mem accesses

After the change, these pairs become:

Thread A Thread B
prev mem accesses prev mem accesses
sys_membarrier() barrier()
follow mem accesses follow mem accesses

As we can see, there are two possible scenarios: either Thread B memory
accesses do not happen concurrently with Thread A accesses (1), or they
do (2).

1) Non-concurrent Thread A vs Thread B accesses:

Thread A Thread B
prev mem accesses
sys_membarrier()
follow mem accesses
prev mem accesses
barrier()
follow mem accesses

In this case, thread B accesses will be weakly ordered. This is OK,
because at that point, thread A is not particularly interested in
ordering them with respect to its own accesses.

2) Concurrent Thread A vs Thread B accesses

Thread A Thread B
prev mem accesses prev mem accesses
sys_membarrier() barrier()
follow mem accesses follow mem accesses

In this case, thread B accesses, which are ensured to be in program
order thanks to the compiler barrier, will be "upgraded" to full
smp_mb() thanks to the IPIs executing memory barriers on each active
system threads. Each non-running process threads are intrinsically
serialized by the scheduler.

The current implementation simply executes a memory barrier in an IPI
handler on each active cpu. Going through the hassle of taking run queue
locks and checking if the thread running on each online CPU belongs to
the current thread seems more heavyweight than the cost of the IPI
itself (not measured though).

The system call number is only assigned for x86_64 in this RFC patch.

Signed-off-by: Mathieu Desnoyers <mathieu.desnoyers@polymtl.ca>
CC: "Paul E. McKenney" <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
CC: mingo@elte.hu
CC: laijs@cn.fujitsu.com
CC: dipankar@in.ibm.com
CC: akpm@linux-foundation.org
CC: josh@joshtriplett.org
CC: dvhltc@us.ibm.com
CC: niv@us.ibm.com
CC: tglx@linutronix.de
CC: peterz@infradead.org
CC: rostedt@goodmis.org
CC: Valdis.Kletnieks@vt.edu
CC: dhowells@redhat.com
---
arch/x86/include/asm/unistd_64.h | 2 ++
kernel/sched.c | 30 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
2 files changed, 32 insertions(+)

Index: linux-2.6-lttng/arch/x86/include/asm/unistd_64.h
===================================================================
--- linux-2.6-lttng.orig/arch/x86/include/asm/unistd_64.h 2010-01-06 22:11:32.000000000 -0500
+++ linux-2.6-lttng/arch/x86/include/asm/unistd_64.h 2010-01-06 22:11:50.000000000 -0500
@@ -661,6 +661,8 @@ __SYSCALL(__NR_pwritev, sys_pwritev)
__SYSCALL(__NR_rt_tgsigqueueinfo, sys_rt_tgsigqueueinfo)
#define __NR_perf_event_open 298
__SYSCALL(__NR_perf_event_open, sys_perf_event_open)
+#define __NR_membarrier 299
+__SYSCALL(__NR_membarrier, sys_membarrier)

#ifndef __NO_STUBS
#define __ARCH_WANT_OLD_READDIR
Index: linux-2.6-lttng/kernel/sched.c
===================================================================
--- linux-2.6-lttng.orig/kernel/sched.c 2010-01-06 22:11:32.000000000 -0500
+++ linux-2.6-lttng/kernel/sched.c 2010-01-06 23:20:42.000000000 -0500
@@ -10822,6 +10822,36 @@ struct cgroup_subsys cpuacct_subsys = {
};
#endif /* CONFIG_CGROUP_CPUACCT */

+/*
+ * Execute a memory barrier on all CPUs on SMP systems.
+ * Do not rely on implicit barriers in smp_call_function(), just in case they
+ * are ever relaxed in the future.
+ */
+static void membarrier_ipi(void *unused)
+{
+ smp_mb();
+}
+
+/*
+ * sys_membarrier - issue memory barrier on current process running threads
+ *
+ * Execute a memory barrier on all running threads of the current process.
+ * Upon completion, the caller thread is ensured that all process threads
+ * have passed through a state where memory accesses match program order.
+ * (non-running threads are de facto in such a state)
+ *
+ * The current implementation simply executes a memory barrier in an IPI handler
+ * on each active cpu. Going through the hassle of taking run queue locks and
+ * checking if the thread running on each online CPU belongs to the current
+ * thread seems more heavyweight than the cost of the IPI itself.
+ */
+SYSCALL_DEFINE0(membarrier)
+{
+ on_each_cpu(membarrier_ipi, NULL, 1);
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
#ifndef CONFIG_SMP

int rcu_expedited_torture_stats(char *page)
--
Mathieu Desnoyers
OpenPGP key fingerprint: 8CD5 52C3 8E3C 4140 715F BA06 3F25 A8FE 3BAE 9A68


\
 
 \ /
  Last update: 2010-01-07 05:43    [W:0.166 / U:5.544 seconds]
©2003-2018 Jasper Spaans|hosted at Digital Ocean and TransIP|Read the blog|Advertise on this site