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Subject[RFC][v7][PATCH 8/9]: Define clone2() syscall


Subject: [RFC][v7][PATCH 8/9]: Define clone2() syscall

Container restart requires that a task have the same pid it had when it was
checkpointed. When containers are nested the tasks within the containers
exist in multiple pid namespaces and hence have multiple pids to specify
during restart.

clone2(), intended for use during restart, is the same as clone(), except
that it takes a 'pids' paramter. This parameter lets caller choose
specific pid numbers for the child process, in the process's active and
ancestor pid namespaces. (Descendant pid namespaces in general don't matter
since processes don't have pids in them anyway, but see comments in
copy_target_pids() regarding CLONE_NEWPID).

Clone2() system call also attempts to address a second limitation of the
clone() system call. clone() is restricted to 32 clone flags and most (all ?)
of these are in use. If a new clone flag is needed, we will be forced to
define a new variant of the clone() system call.

To prevent unprivileged processes from misusing this interface, clone2()
currently needs CAP_SYS_ADMIN, when the 'pids' parameter is non-NULL.

See Documentation/clone2 in next patch for more details of clone2() and an
example of its usage.

NOTE:
System calls are restricted to 6 parameters and the number and sizes
of parameters needed for sys_clone2() exceed 6 integers. The new
prototype works around this restriction while providing some
flexibility if clone2() needs to be further extended in the future.
TODO:
- May need additional sanity checks in do_fork_with_pids().

Changelog[v7]:
- [Peter Zijlstra, Arnd Bergmann] Rename system call to clone2()
and group parameters into a new 'struct clone_struct' object.

Changelog[v6]:
- (Nathan Lynch, Arnd Bergmann, H. Peter Anvin, Linus Torvalds)
Change 'pid_set.pids' to a 'pid_t pids[]' so size of 'struct pid_set'
is constant across architectures.
- (Nathan Lynch) Change pid_set.num_pids to unsigned and remove
'unum_pids < 0' check.

Changelog[v4]:
- (Oren Laadan) rename 'struct target_pid_set' to 'struct pid_set'

Changelog[v3]:
- (Oren Laadan) Allow CLONE_NEWPID flag (by allocating an extra pid
in the target_pids[] list and setting it 0. See copy_target_pids()).
- (Oren Laadan) Specified target pids should apply only to youngest
pid-namespaces (see copy_target_pids())
- (Matt Helsley) Update patch description.

Changelog[v2]:
- Remove unnecessary printk and add a note to callers of
copy_target_pids() to free target_pids.
- (Serge Hallyn) Mention CAP_SYS_ADMIN restriction in patch description.
- (Oren Laadan) Add checks for 'num_pids < 0' (return -EINVAL) and
'num_pids == 0' (fall back to normal clone()).
- Move arch-independent code (sanity checks and copy-in of target-pids)
into kernel/fork.c and simplify sys_clone_with_pids()

Changelog[v1]:
- Fixed some compile errors (had fixed these errors earlier in my
git tree but had not refreshed patches before emailing them)

Signed-off-by: Sukadev Bhattiprolu <sukadev@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
---
arch/x86/include/asm/syscalls.h | 1
arch/x86/include/asm/unistd_32.h | 1
arch/x86/kernel/process_32.c | 31 +++++++++++
arch/x86/kernel/syscall_table_32.S | 1
include/linux/types.h | 10 +++
kernel/fork.c | 96 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-
6 files changed, 139 insertions(+), 1 deletion(-)

Index: linux-2.6/arch/x86/include/asm/syscalls.h
===================================================================
--- linux-2.6.orig/arch/x86/include/asm/syscalls.h 2009-09-18 17:39:46.000000000 -0700
+++ linux-2.6/arch/x86/include/asm/syscalls.h 2009-09-18 17:39:50.000000000 -0700
@@ -55,6 +55,7 @@ struct sel_arg_struct;
struct oldold_utsname;
struct old_utsname;

+asmlinkage long sys_clone2(struct clone_struct __user *cs, pid_t *pids);
asmlinkage long sys_mmap2(unsigned long, unsigned long, unsigned long,
unsigned long, unsigned long, unsigned long);
asmlinkage int old_mmap(struct mmap_arg_struct __user *);
Index: linux-2.6/arch/x86/include/asm/unistd_32.h
===================================================================
--- linux-2.6.orig/arch/x86/include/asm/unistd_32.h 2009-09-18 17:39:46.000000000 -0700
+++ linux-2.6/arch/x86/include/asm/unistd_32.h 2009-09-18 17:39:50.000000000 -0700
@@ -342,6 +342,7 @@
#define __NR_pwritev 334
#define __NR_rt_tgsigqueueinfo 335
#define __NR_perf_counter_open 336
+#define __NR_clone2 337

#ifdef __KERNEL__

Index: linux-2.6/arch/x86/kernel/process_32.c
===================================================================
--- linux-2.6.orig/arch/x86/kernel/process_32.c 2009-09-18 17:39:46.000000000 -0700
+++ linux-2.6/arch/x86/kernel/process_32.c 2009-09-18 17:40:05.000000000 -0700
@@ -443,6 +443,37 @@ int sys_clone(struct pt_regs *regs)
return do_fork(clone_flags, newsp, regs, 0, parent_tidptr, child_tidptr);
}

+asmlinkage long
+sys_clone2(struct clone_struct __user *ucs, pid_t __user *pids)
+{
+ int rc;
+ struct clone_struct kcs;
+ unsigned long clone_flags;
+ int __user *parent_tid_ptr;
+ int __user *child_tid_ptr;
+ unsigned long __user child_stack_base;
+ struct pt_regs *regs;
+
+ rc = copy_from_user(&ucs, &kcs, sizeof(kcs));
+ if (rc)
+ return -EFAULT;
+
+ /*
+ * TODO: Convert clone_flags to 64-bit
+ */
+ clone_flags = (unsigned long)kcs.flags;
+ child_stack_base = (unsigned long)kcs.child_stack;
+ parent_tid_ptr = &ucs.parent_tid;
+ child_tid_ptr = &ucs.child_tid;
+ regs = task_pt_regs(current);
+
+ if (!child_stack_base)
+ child_stack_base = user_stack_pointer(regs);
+
+ return do_fork_with_pids(clone_flags, child_stack_base, regs, 0,
+ parent_tid_ptr, child_tid_ptr, kcs.nr_pids, pids);
+}
+
/*
* sys_execve() executes a new program.
*/
Index: linux-2.6/arch/x86/kernel/syscall_table_32.S
===================================================================
--- linux-2.6.orig/arch/x86/kernel/syscall_table_32.S 2009-09-18 17:39:46.000000000 -0700
+++ linux-2.6/arch/x86/kernel/syscall_table_32.S 2009-09-18 17:39:50.000000000 -0700
@@ -336,3 +336,4 @@ ENTRY(sys_call_table)
.long sys_pwritev
.long sys_rt_tgsigqueueinfo /* 335 */
.long sys_perf_counter_open
+ .long sys_clone2
Index: linux-2.6/kernel/fork.c
===================================================================
--- linux-2.6.orig/kernel/fork.c 2009-09-18 17:39:50.000000000 -0700
+++ linux-2.6/kernel/fork.c 2009-09-18 17:39:50.000000000 -0700
@@ -1327,6 +1327,86 @@ struct task_struct * __cpuinit fork_idle
}

/*
+ * If user specified any 'target-pids' in @upid_setp, copy them from
+ * user and return a pointer to a local copy of the list of pids. The
+ * caller must free the list, when they are done using it.
+ *
+ * If user did not specify any target pids, return NULL (caller should
+ * treat this like normal clone).
+ *
+ * On any errors, return the error code
+ */
+static pid_t *copy_target_pids(int unum_pids, pid_t __user *upids)
+{
+ int j;
+ int rc;
+ int size;
+ int knum_pids; /* # of pids needed in kernel */
+ pid_t *target_pids;
+
+ if (!unum_pids)
+ return NULL;
+
+ knum_pids = task_pid(current)->level + 1;
+ if (unum_pids > knum_pids)
+ return ERR_PTR(-EINVAL);
+
+ /*
+ * To keep alloc_pid() simple, allocate an extra pid_t in target_pids[]
+ * and set it to 0. This last entry in target_pids[] corresponds to the
+ * (yet-to-be-created) descendant pid-namespace if CLONE_NEWPID was
+ * specified. If CLONE_NEWPID was not specified, this last entry will
+ * simply be ignored.
+ */
+ target_pids = kzalloc((knum_pids + 1) * sizeof(pid_t), GFP_KERNEL);
+ if (!target_pids)
+ return ERR_PTR(-ENOMEM);
+
+ /*
+ * A process running in a level 2 pid namespace has three pid namespaces
+ * and hence three pid numbers. If this process is checkpointed,
+ * information about these three namespaces are saved. We refer to these
+ * namespaces as 'known namespaces'.
+ *
+ * If this checkpointed process is however restarted in a level 3 pid
+ * namespace, the restarted process has an extra ancestor pid namespace
+ * (i.e 'unknown namespace') and 'knum_pids' exceeds 'unum_pids'.
+ *
+ * During restart, the process requests specific pids for its 'known
+ * namespaces' and lets kernel assign pids to its 'unknown namespaces'.
+ *
+ * Since the requested-pids correspond to 'known namespaces' and since
+ * 'known-namespaces' are younger than (i.e descendants of) 'unknown-
+ * namespaces', copy requested pids to the back-end of target_pids[]
+ * (i.e before the last entry for CLONE_NEWPID mentioned above).
+ * Any entries in target_pids[] not corresponding to a requested pid
+ * will be set to zero and kernel assigns a pid in those namespaces.
+ *
+ * NOTE: The order of pids in target_pids[] is oldest pid namespace to
+ * youngest (target_pids[0] corresponds to init_pid_ns). i.e.
+ * the order is:
+ *
+ * - pids for 'unknown-namespaces' (if any)
+ * - pids for 'known-namespaces' (requested pids)
+ * - 0 in the last entry (for CLONE_NEWPID).
+ */
+ j = knum_pids - unum_pids;
+ size = unum_pids * sizeof(pid_t);
+
+ rc = copy_from_user(&target_pids[j], upids, size);
+ if (rc) {
+ rc = -EFAULT;
+ goto out_free;
+ }
+
+ return target_pids;
+
+out_free:
+ kfree(target_pids);
+ return ERR_PTR(rc);
+}
+
+/*
* Ok, this is the main fork-routine.
*
* It copies the process, and if successful kick-starts
@@ -1344,7 +1424,7 @@ long do_fork_with_pids(unsigned long clo
struct task_struct *p;
int trace = 0;
long nr;
- pid_t *target_pids = NULL;
+ pid_t *target_pids;

/*
* Do some preliminary argument and permissions checking before we
@@ -1378,6 +1458,16 @@ long do_fork_with_pids(unsigned long clo
}
}

+ target_pids = copy_target_pids(num_pids, upids);
+ if (target_pids) {
+ if (IS_ERR(target_pids))
+ return PTR_ERR(target_pids);
+
+ nr = -EPERM;
+ if (!capable(CAP_SYS_ADMIN))
+ goto out_free;
+ }
+
/*
* When called from kernel_thread, don't do user tracing stuff.
*/
@@ -1439,6 +1529,10 @@ long do_fork_with_pids(unsigned long clo
} else {
nr = PTR_ERR(p);
}
+
+out_free:
+ kfree(target_pids);
+
return nr;
}

Index: linux-2.6/include/linux/types.h
===================================================================
--- linux-2.6.orig/include/linux/types.h 2009-09-18 17:39:46.000000000 -0700
+++ linux-2.6/include/linux/types.h 2009-09-18 17:39:50.000000000 -0700
@@ -204,6 +204,16 @@ struct ustat {
char f_fpack[6];
};

+struct clone_struct {
+ u64 flags;
+ u64 child_stack;
+ u32 nr_pids;
+ u32 parent_tid;
+ u32 child_tid;
+ u32 reserved1;
+ u64 reserved2;
+};
+
#endif /* __KERNEL__ */
#endif /* __ASSEMBLY__ */
#endif /* _LINUX_TYPES_H */

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