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SubjectRe: [RFC] IO scheduler based IO controller V7
Vivek Goyal wrote:
> On Tue, Aug 04, 2009 at 08:48:00AM +0800, Gui Jianfeng wrote:
>> Vivek, Here are some test results with and without CONFIG_TRACK_ASYNC_CONTEXT for V7
>>
>> Mode Normal read | Random read | Normal write | Random write | Direct read | Direct Write
>>
>> CONFIG_TRACK_ASYNC_CONTEXT=y 70,540KiB/s 3,551KiB/s 64,548KiB/s 9,677KiB/s 53,530KiB/s 54,145KiB/s
>>
>> CONFIG_TRACK_ASYNC_CONTEXT=n 71,082KiB/s 3,564KiB/s 66,720KiB/s 9,887KiB/s 51,401KiB/s 55,210KiB/s
>>
>> Performance +0.7% +0.3% +3.3% +2.1% -4.0% +2.0%
>>
>>
>
> Strange. Disabling async context tracking should not impact read
> performance as reads are always sync and don't take async tracking path
> even if it is enabled. We are instead seeing -4% in direct reads if track
> async context is disabled.
>
> I would recommend that there can be lot of variance between multiple runs.
> We should probably run each test 3 times and take some average of that.

Sorry for the late reply.

I tried to test direct reads for 5 times when CONFIG_TRACK_ASYNC_CONTEXT=n and y.
I got the following results, and still had the performance variance.

For V7.
1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th avg

CONFIG_TRACK_ASYNC_CONTEXT=y 58,391KiB/s 58,861KiB/s 58,685KiB/s 59,020KiB/s 58,883KiB/s 58,786KiB/s

CONFIG_TRACK_ASYNC_CONTEXT=n 57,045KiB/s 57,827KiB/s 57,744KiB/s 56,884KiB/s 57,821KiB/s 57,619KiB/s

Performance -2.3% -1.7% -1.6% -3.6% -1.8% -2.0%

>
> Thanks
> Vivek
>
>> Vivek Goyal wrote:
>>> On Fri, Jul 31, 2009 at 01:21:51PM +0800, Gui Jianfeng wrote:
>>>> Hi Vivek,
>>>>
>>>> Here are some test results for normal reads and write for IO Controller V7 by fio.
>>>> Tested with "fairness == 0". It seems performance gets better comparing with V6.
>>>>
>>>> Mode Normal read | Random read | Normal write | Random write | Direct read | Direct Write
>>>>
>>>> 2.6.31-rc1 71,613KiB/s 3,606KiB/s 66,250KiB/s 9,420KiB/s 51,535KiB/s 55,752KiB/s
>>>>
>>>> V7 70,540KiB/s 3,551KiB/s 64,548KiB/s 9,677KiB/s 53,530KiB/s 54,145KiB/s
>>>>
>>>> Performance -1.5% -1.5% -2.6% +2.7% +3.9% -2.9%
>>>>
>>> Thanks Gui. Can you also try V7 with CONFIG_TRACK_ASYNC_CONTEXT=n. I tried
>>> that and I got better results for buffered writes.
>>>
>>> In my testing I still see some performance regression for buffered writes
>>> which goes away if I disable group io scheduling and just use flat mode.
>>>
>>> I will spend more time to find out where it is coming from.
>>>
>>> Thanks
>>> Vivek
>>>
>>>
>>>> Vivek Goyal wrote:
>>>>> Hi All,
>>>>>
>>>>> Here is the V7 of the IO controller patches generated on top of 2.6.31-rc4.
>>>>>
>>>>> For ease of patching, a consolidated patch is available here.
>>>>>
>>>>> http://people.redhat.com/~vgoyal/io-controller/io-scheduler-based-io-controller-v7.patch
>>>>>
>>>>> Previous versions of the patches was posted here.
>>>>>
>>>>> (V1) http://lkml.org/lkml/2009/3/11/486
>>>>> (V2) http://lkml.org/lkml/2009/5/5/275
>>>>> (V3) http://lkml.org/lkml/2009/5/26/472
>>>>> (V4) http://lkml.org/lkml/2009/6/8/580
>>>>> (V5) http://lkml.org/lkml/2009/6/19/279
>>>>> (V6) http://lkml.org/lkml/2009/7/2/369
>>>>>
>>>>> Changes from V6
>>>>> ===============
>>>>> - Introduced the notion of group_idling where we idle for next request to
>>>>> come from the same group before we expire it. It is along the lines of
>>>>> cfq's slice_idle thing to provide fairness. Switching to group idling
>>>>> now helps in the sense that we don't have to rely whether queue idling
>>>>> was turned on or not by CFQ. It becomes too much of debugging pain with
>>>>> different work loads and different kind of storage media. Introduction
>>>>> of group_idle should help.
>>>>>
>>>>> - Moved some of the code like dynamic queue idling update, arming queue
>>>>> idling timer, keeping track of average think time etc back to CFQ. With
>>>>> group idling we don't need it now. Reduce the amount of change.
>>>>>
>>>>> - Enabled cfq's close cooperator functionality in groups. So far this worked
>>>>> only in root group. Now it should work in non-root groups also.
>>>>>
>>>>> - Got rid of the patch where we calculated disk time based on average disk
>>>>> rate in some circumstances. It was giving bad numbers in early queue
>>>>> deletion cases. Also did not think that it was helping a lot. Remvoed it
>>>>> for the time being.
>>>>>
>>>>> - Added an experimental patch to map sync requests using bio tracking info and
>>>>> not task context. This is only for noop, deadline and AS.
>>>>>
>>>>> - Got rid of experimental patch of idling for async queues. Don't think it
>>>>> was helping.
>>>>>
>>>>> - Got rid of wait_busy and wait_busy_done logic from queue. Instead
>>>>> implemented it for groups.
>>>>>
>>>>> - Introduced oom_ioq to accomodate oom_cfqq change recently.
>>>>>
>>>>> - Broke-up elv_init_ioq() fn into smaller functions. It had 7 arguments and
>>>>> looked complicated.
>>>>>
>>>>> - Fixed a bug in blk_queue_io_group_congested(). Thanks to Munehiro Ikeda.
>>>>>
>>>>> - Merged gui's patch to fix the cgroup file format issue.
>>>>>
>>>>> - Merged gui's patch to update per group congestion limit when
>>>>> q->nr_group_requests is updated.
>>>>>
>>>>> - Fixed a bug where close cooperation will not work if we wait for all the
>>>>> requests to finish from previous queue.
>>>>>
>>>>> - Fixed group deletion accouting where deletion from idle tree were also
>>>>> appearing in the log.
>>>>>
>>>>> - Got rid of busy_rt_queues infrastructure.
>>>>>
>>>>> - Got rid of elv_ioq_request_dispatched(). An helper function just to
>>>>> increment a variable.
>>>>>
>>>>> Limitations
>>>>> ===========
>>>>>
>>>>> - This IO controller provides the bandwidth control at the IO scheduler
>>>>> level (leaf node in stacked hiearchy of logical devices). So there can
>>>>> be cases (depending on configuration) where application does not see
>>>>> proportional BW division at higher logical level device.
>>>>>
>>>>> LWN has written an article about the issue here.
>>>>>
>>>>> http://lwn.net/Articles/332839/
>>>>>
>>>>> How to solve the issue of fairness at higher level logical devices
>>>>> ==================================================================
>>>>> (Do we really need it? That's not where the contention for resources is.)
>>>>>
>>>>> Couple of suggestions have come forward.
>>>>>
>>>>> - Implement IO control at IO scheduler layer and then with the help of
>>>>> some daemon, adjust the weight on underlying devices dynamiclly, depending
>>>>> on what kind of BW gurantees are to be achieved at higher level logical
>>>>> block devices.
>>>>>
>>>>> - Also implement a higher level IO controller along with IO scheduler
>>>>> based controller and let user choose one depending on his needs.
>>>>>
>>>>> A higher level controller does not know about the assumptions/policies
>>>>> of unerldying IO scheduler, hence it has the potential to break down
>>>>> the IO scheduler's policy with-in cgroup. A lower level controller
>>>>> can work with IO scheduler much more closely and efficiently.
>>>>>
>>>>> Other active IO controller developments
>>>>> =======================================
>>>>>
>>>>> IO throttling
>>>>> -------------
>>>>>
>>>>> This is a max bandwidth controller and not the proportional one. Secondly
>>>>> it is a second level controller which can break the IO scheduler's
>>>>> policy/assumtions with-in cgroup.
>>>>>
>>>>> dm-ioband
>>>>> ---------
>>>>>
>>>>> This is a proportional bandwidth controller implemented as device mapper
>>>>> driver. It is also a second level controller which can break the
>>>>> IO scheduler's policy/assumptions with-in cgroup.
>>>>>
>>>>> TODO
>>>>> ====
>>>>> - code cleanups, testing, bug fixing, optimizations, benchmarking etc...
>>>>>
>>>>> Testing
>>>>> =======
>>>>>
>>>>> I have been able to do some testing as follows. All my testing is with ext3
>>>>> file system with a SATA drive which supports queue depth of 31.
>>>>>
>>>>> Test1 (Isolation between two KVM virtual machines)
>>>>> ==================================================
>>>>> Created two KVM virtual machines. Partitioned a disk on host in two partitions
>>>>> and gave one partition to each virtual machine. Put both the virtual machines
>>>>> in two different cgroup of weight 1000 and 500 each. Virtual machines created
>>>>> ext3 file system on the partitions exported from host and did buffered writes.
>>>>> Host seems writes as synchronous and virtual machine with higher weight gets
>>>>> double the disk time of virtual machine of lower weight. Used deadline
>>>>> scheduler in this test case.
>>>>>
>>>>> Some more details about configuration are in documentation patch.
>>>>>
>>>>> Test2 (Fairness for synchronous reads)
>>>>> ======================================
>>>>> - Two dd in two cgroups with cgrop weights 1000 and 500. Ran two "dd" in those
>>>>> cgroups (With CFQ scheduler and /sys/block/<device>/queue/fairness = 1)
>>>>>
>>>>> Higher weight dd finishes first and at that point of time my script takes
>>>>> care of reading cgroup files io.disk_time and io.disk_sectors for both the
>>>>> groups and display the results.
>>>>>
>>>>> dd if=/mnt/$BLOCKDEV/zerofile1 of=/dev/null &
>>>>> dd if=/mnt/$BLOCKDEV/zerofile2 of=/dev/null &
>>>>>
>>>>> 234179072 bytes (234 MB) copied, 3.9065 s, 59.9 MB/s
>>>>> 234179072 bytes (234 MB) copied, 5.19232 s, 45.1 MB/s
>>>>>
>>>>> group1 time=8 16 2471 group1 sectors=8 16 457840
>>>>> group2 time=8 16 1220 group2 sectors=8 16 225736
>>>>>
>>>>> First two fields in time and sectors statistics represent major and minor
>>>>> number of the device. Third field represents disk time in milliseconds and
>>>>> number of sectors transferred respectively.
>>>>>
>>>>> This patchset tries to provide fairness in terms of disk time received. group1
>>>>> got almost double of group2 disk time (At the time of first dd finish). These
>>>>> time and sectors statistics can be read using io.disk_time and io.disk_sector
>>>>> files in cgroup. More about it in documentation file.
>>>>>
>>>>> Test3 (Reader Vs Buffered Writes)
>>>>> ================================
>>>>> Buffered writes can be problematic and can overwhelm readers, especially with
>>>>> noop and deadline. IO controller can provide isolation between readers and
>>>>> buffered (async) writers.
>>>>>
>>>>> First I ran the test without io controller to see the severity of the issue.
>>>>> Ran a hostile writer and then after 10 seconds started a reader and then
>>>>> monitored the completion time of reader. Reader reads a 256 MB file. Tested
>>>>> this with noop scheduler.
>>>>>
>>>>> sample script
>>>>> ------------
>>>>> sync
>>>>> echo 3 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches
>>>>> time dd if=/dev/zero of=/mnt/sdb/reader-writer-zerofile bs=4K count=2097152
>>>>> conv=fdatasync &
>>>>> sleep 10
>>>>> time dd if=/mnt/sdb/256M-file of=/dev/null &
>>>>>
>>>>> Results
>>>>> -------
>>>>> 8589934592 bytes (8.6 GB) copied, 106.045 s, 81.0 MB/s (Writer)
>>>>> 268435456 bytes (268 MB) copied, 96.5237 s, 2.8 MB/s (Reader)
>>>>>
>>>>> Now it was time to test io controller whether it can provide isolation between
>>>>> readers and writers with noop. I created two cgroups of weight 1000 each and
>>>>> put reader in group1 and writer in group 2 and ran the test again. Upon
>>>>> comletion of reader, my scripts read io.dis_time and io.disk_group cgroup
>>>>> files to get an estimate how much disk time each group got and how many
>>>>> sectors each group did IO for.
>>>>>
>>>>> For more accurate accounting of disk time for buffered writes with queuing
>>>>> hardware I had to set /sys/block/<disk>/queue/iosched/fairness to "1".
>>>>>
>>>>> sample script
>>>>> -------------
>>>>> echo $$ > /cgroup/bfqio/test2/tasks
>>>>> dd if=/dev/zero of=/mnt/$BLOCKDEV/testzerofile bs=4K count=2097152 &
>>>>> sleep 10
>>>>> echo noop > /sys/block/$BLOCKDEV/queue/scheduler
>>>>> echo 1 > /sys/block/$BLOCKDEV/queue/iosched/fairness
>>>>> echo $$ > /cgroup/bfqio/test1/tasks
>>>>> dd if=/mnt/$BLOCKDEV/256M-file of=/dev/null &
>>>>> wait $!
>>>>> # Some code for reading cgroup files upon completion of reader.
>>>>> -------------------------
>>>>>
>>>>> Results
>>>>> =======
>>>>> 268435456 bytes (268 MB) copied, 6.65819 s, 40.3 MB/s (Reader)
>>>>>
>>>>> group1 time=8 16 3063 group1 sectors=8 16 524808
>>>>> group2 time=8 16 3071 group2 sectors=8 16 441752
>>>>>
>>>>> Note, reader finishes now much lesser time and both group1 and group2
>>>>> got almost 3 seconds of disk time. Hence io-controller provides isolation
>>>>> from buffered writes.
>>>>>
>>>>> Test4 (AIO)
>>>>> ===========
>>>>>
>>>>> AIO reads
>>>>> -----------
>>>>> Set up two fio, AIO read jobs in two cgroup with weight 1000 and 500
>>>>> respectively. I am using cfq scheduler. Following are some lines from my test
>>>>> script.
>>>>>
>>>>> ---------------------------------------------------------------
>>>>> echo 1000 > /cgroup/bfqio/test1/io.weight
>>>>> echo 500 > /cgroup/bfqio/test2/io.weight
>>>>>
>>>>> fio_args="--ioengine=libaio --rw=read --size=512M --direct=1"
>>>>> echo 1 > /sys/block/$BLOCKDEV/queue/iosched/fairness
>>>>>
>>>>> echo $$ > /cgroup/bfqio/test1/tasks
>>>>> fio $fio_args --name=test1 --directory=/mnt/$BLOCKDEV/fio1/
>>>>> --output=/mnt/$BLOCKDEV/fio1/test1.log
>>>>> --exec_postrun="../read-and-display-group-stats.sh $maj_dev $minor_dev" &
>>>>>
>>>>> echo $$ > /cgroup/bfqio/test2/tasks
>>>>> fio $fio_args --name=test2 --directory=/mnt/$BLOCKDEV/fio2/
>>>>> --output=/mnt/$BLOCKDEV/fio2/test2.log &
>>>>> ----------------------------------------------------------------
>>>>>
>>>>> test1 and test2 are two groups with weight 1000 and 500 respectively.
>>>>> "read-and-display-group-stats.sh" is one small script which reads the
>>>>> test1 and test2 cgroup files to determine how much disk time each group
>>>>> got till first fio job finished.
>>>>>
>>>>> Results
>>>>> ------
>>>>> test1 statistics: time=8 16 22403 sectors=8 16 1049640
>>>>> test2 statistics: time=8 16 11400 sectors=8 16 552864
>>>>>
>>>>> Above shows that by the time first fio (higher weight), finished, group
>>>>> test1 got 22403 ms of disk time and group test2 got 11400 ms of disk time.
>>>>> similarly the statistics for number of sectors transferred are also shown.
>>>>>
>>>>> Note that disk time given to group test1 is almost double of group2 disk
>>>>> time.
>>>>>
>>>>> AIO writes
>>>>> ----------
>>>>> Set up two fio, AIO direct write jobs in two cgroup with weight 1000 and 500
>>>>> respectively. I am using cfq scheduler. Following are some lines from my test
>>>>> script.
>>>>>
>>>>> ------------------------------------------------
>>>>> echo 1000 > /cgroup/bfqio/test1/io.weight
>>>>> echo 500 > /cgroup/bfqio/test2/io.weight
>>>>> fio_args="--ioengine=libaio --rw=write --size=512M --direct=1"
>>>>>
>>>>> echo 1 > /sys/block/$BLOCKDEV/queue/iosched/fairness
>>>>>
>>>>> echo $$ > /cgroup/bfqio/test1/tasks
>>>>> fio $fio_args --name=test1 --directory=/mnt/$BLOCKDEV/fio1/
>>>>> --output=/mnt/$BLOCKDEV/fio1/test1.log
>>>>> --exec_postrun="../read-and-display-group-stats.sh $maj_dev $minor_dev" &
>>>>>
>>>>> echo $$ > /cgroup/bfqio/test2/tasks
>>>>> fio $fio_args --name=test2 --directory=/mnt/$BLOCKDEV/fio2/
>>>>> --output=/mnt/$BLOCKDEV/fio2/test2.log &
>>>>> -------------------------------------------------
>>>>>
>>>>> test1 and test2 are two groups with weight 1000 and 500 respectively.
>>>>> "read-and-display-group-stats.sh" is one small script which reads the
>>>>> test1 and test2 cgroup files to determine how much disk time each group
>>>>> got till first fio job finished.
>>>>>
>>>>> Following are the results.
>>>>>
>>>>> test1 statistics: time=8 16 29085 sectors=8 16 1049656
>>>>> test2 statistics: time=8 16 14652 sectors=8 16 516728
>>>>>
>>>>> Above shows that by the time first fio (higher weight), finished, group
>>>>> test1 got 28085 ms of disk time and group test2 got 14652 ms of disk time.
>>>>> similarly the statistics for number of sectors transferred are also shown.
>>>>>
>>>>> Note that disk time given to group test1 is almost double of group2 disk
>>>>> time.
>>>>>
>>>>> Test5 (Fairness for async writes, Buffered Write Vs Buffered Write)
>>>>> ===================================================================
>>>>> Fairness for async writes is tricky and biggest reason is that async writes
>>>>> are cached in higher layers (page cahe) as well as possibly in file system
>>>>> layer also (btrfs, xfs etc), and are dispatched to lower layers not necessarily
>>>>> in proportional manner.
>>>>>
>>>>> For example, consider two dd threads reading /dev/zero as input file and doing
>>>>> writes of huge files. Very soon we will cross vm_dirty_ratio and dd thread will
>>>>> be forced to write out some pages to disk before more pages can be dirtied. But
>>>>> not necessarily dirty pages of same thread are picked. It can very well pick
>>>>> the inode of lesser priority dd thread and do some writeout. So effectively
>>>>> higher weight dd is doing writeouts of lower weight dd pages and we don't see
>>>>> service differentation.
>>>>>
>>>>> IOW, the core problem with async write fairness is that higher weight thread
>>>>> does not throw enought IO traffic at IO controller to keep the queue
>>>>> continuously backlogged. In my testing, there are many .2 to .8 second
>>>>> intervals where higher weight queue is empty and in that duration lower weight
>>>>> queue get lots of job done giving the impression that there was no service
>>>>> differentiation.
>>>>>
>>>>> In summary, from IO controller point of view async writes support is there.
>>>>> Because page cache has not been designed in such a manner that higher
>>>>> prio/weight writer can do more write out as compared to lower prio/weight
>>>>> writer, gettting service differentiation is hard and it is visible in some
>>>>> cases and not visible in some cases.
>>>>>
>>>>> Do we really care that much for fairness among two writer cgroups? One can
>>>>> choose to do direct writes or sync writes if fairness for writes really
>>>>> matters for him.
>>>>>
>>>>> Following is the only case where it is hard to ensure fairness between cgroups.
>>>>>
>>>>> - Buffered writes Vs Buffered Writes.
>>>>>
>>>>> So to test async writes I created two partitions on a disk and created ext3
>>>>> file systems on both the partitions. Also created two cgroups and generated
>>>>> lots of write traffic in two cgroups (50 fio threads) and watched the disk
>>>>> time statistics in respective cgroups at the interval of 2 seconds. Thanks to
>>>>> ryo tsuruta for the test case.
>>>>>
>>>>> *****************************************************************
>>>>> sync
>>>>> echo 3 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches
>>>>>
>>>>> fio_args="--size=64m --rw=write --numjobs=50 --group_reporting"
>>>>>
>>>>> echo $$ > /cgroup/bfqio/test1/tasks
>>>>> fio $fio_args --name=test1 --directory=/mnt/sdd1/fio/ --output=/mnt/sdd1/fio/test1.log &
>>>>>
>>>>> echo $$ > /cgroup/bfqio/test2/tasks
>>>>> fio $fio_args --name=test2 --directory=/mnt/sdd2/fio/ --output=/mnt/sdd2/fio/test2.log &
>>>>> ***********************************************************************
>>>>>
>>>>> And watched the disk time and sector statistics for the both the cgroups
>>>>> every 2 seconds using a script. How is snippet from output.
>>>>>
>>>>> test1 statistics: time=8 48 1315 sectors=8 48 55776 dq=8 48 1
>>>>> test2 statistics: time=8 48 633 sectors=8 48 14720 dq=8 48 2
>>>>>
>>>>> test1 statistics: time=8 48 5586 sectors=8 48 339064 dq=8 48 2
>>>>> test2 statistics: time=8 48 2985 sectors=8 48 146656 dq=8 48 3
>>>>>
>>>>> test1 statistics: time=8 48 9935 sectors=8 48 628728 dq=8 48 3
>>>>> test2 statistics: time=8 48 5265 sectors=8 48 278688 dq=8 48 4
>>>>>
>>>>> test1 statistics: time=8 48 14156 sectors=8 48 932488 dq=8 48 6
>>>>> test2 statistics: time=8 48 7646 sectors=8 48 412704 dq=8 48 7
>>>>>
>>>>> test1 statistics: time=8 48 18141 sectors=8 48 1231488 dq=8 48 10
>>>>> test2 statistics: time=8 48 9820 sectors=8 48 548400 dq=8 48 8
>>>>>
>>>>> test1 statistics: time=8 48 21953 sectors=8 48 1485632 dq=8 48 13
>>>>> test2 statistics: time=8 48 12394 sectors=8 48 698288 dq=8 48 10
>>>>>
>>>>> test1 statistics: time=8 48 25167 sectors=8 48 1705264 dq=8 48 13
>>>>> test2 statistics: time=8 48 14042 sectors=8 48 817808 dq=8 48 10
>>>>>
>>>>> First two fields in time and sectors statistics represent major and minor
>>>>> number of the device. Third field represents disk time in milliseconds and
>>>>> number of sectors transferred respectively.
>>>>>
>>>>> So disk time consumed by group1 is almost double of group2 in this case.
>>>>>
>>>>> Your feedback is welcome.
>>>>>
>>>>> Thanks
>>>>> Vivek
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>> --
>>>> Regards
>>>> Gui Jianfeng
>>>
>>>
>> --
>> Regards
>> Gui Jianfeng
>>
>
>
>

--
Regards
Gui Jianfeng





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