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SubjectRe: [KVM-RFC PATCH 2/2] kvm: use POLLHUP to close an irqfd instead of an explicit ioctl
Paul E. McKenney wrote:
> On Tue, Jun 02, 2009 at 02:23:14PM -0400, Gregory Haskins wrote:
>
>> Paul E. McKenney wrote:
>>
>>> On Tue, Jun 02, 2009 at 11:15:38AM -0400, Gregory Haskins wrote:
>>>
>>>
>>>> Assigning an irqfd object to a kvm object creates a relationship that we
>>>> currently manage by having the kvm oject acquire/hold a file* reference to
>>>> the underlying eventfd. The lifetime of these objects is properly maintained
>>>> by decoupling the two objects whenever the irqfd is closed or kvm is closed,
>>>> whichever comes first.
>>>>
>>>> However, the irqfd "close" method is less than ideal since it requires two
>>>> system calls to complete (one for ioctl(kvmfd, IRQFD_DEASSIGN), the other for
>>>> close(eventfd)). This dual-call approach was utilized because there was no
>>>> notification mechanism on the eventfd side at the time irqfd was implemented.
>>>>
>>>> Recently, Davide proposed a patch to send a POLLHUP wakeup whenever an
>>>> eventfd is about to close. So we eliminate the IRQFD_DEASSIGN ioctl (*)
>>>> vector in favor of sensing the desassign automatically when the fd is closed.
>>>> The resulting code is slightly more complex as a result since we need to
>>>> allow either side to sever the relationship independently. We utilize SRCU
>>>> to guarantee stable concurrent access to the KVM pointer without adding
>>>> additional atomic operations in the fast path.
>>>>
>>>> At minimum, this design should be acked by both Davide and Paul (cc'd).
>>>>
>>>> (*) The irqfd patch does not exist in any released tree, so the understanding
>>>> is that we can alter the irqfd specific ABI without taking the normal
>>>> precautions, such as CAP bits.
>>>>
>>>>
>>> A few questions and suggestions interspersed below.
>>>
>>> Thanx, Paul
>>>
>>>
>> Thanks for the review, Paul.
>>
>
> Some questions, clarifications, and mea culpas below.
>
> Thanx, Paul
>
>
>> (FYI: This isn't quite what I was asking you about on IRC yesterday, but
>> it's related...and the SRCU portion of the conversation *did* inspire me
>> here. Just note that the stuff I was asking about is still forthcoming)
>>
>
> ;-)
>
>
>>>> Signed-off-by: Gregory Haskins <ghaskins@novell.com>
>>>> CC: Davide Libenzi <davidel@xmailserver.org>
>>>> CC: Michael S. Tsirkin <mst@redhat.com>
>>>> CC: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
>>>> ---
>>>>
>>>> include/linux/kvm.h | 2 -
>>>> virt/kvm/eventfd.c | 177 +++++++++++++++++++++++----------------------------
>>>> virt/kvm/kvm_main.c | 3 +
>>>> 3 files changed, 81 insertions(+), 101 deletions(-)
>>>>
>>>> diff --git a/include/linux/kvm.h b/include/linux/kvm.h
>>>> index 632a856..29b62cc 100644
>>>> --- a/include/linux/kvm.h
>>>> +++ b/include/linux/kvm.h
>>>> @@ -482,8 +482,6 @@ struct kvm_x86_mce {
>>>> };
>>>> #endif
>>>>
>>>> -#define KVM_IRQFD_FLAG_DEASSIGN (1 << 0)
>>>> -
>>>> struct kvm_irqfd {
>>>> __u32 fd;
>>>> __u32 gsi;
>>>> diff --git a/virt/kvm/eventfd.c b/virt/kvm/eventfd.c
>>>> index f3f2ea1..6ed62e2 100644
>>>> --- a/virt/kvm/eventfd.c
>>>> +++ b/virt/kvm/eventfd.c
>>>> @@ -37,26 +37,63 @@
>>>> * --------------------------------------------------------------------
>>>> */
>>>> struct _irqfd {
>>>> + struct mutex lock;
>>>> + struct srcu_struct srcu;
>>>> struct kvm *kvm;
>>>> int gsi;
>>>> - struct file *file;
>>>> struct list_head list;
>>>> poll_table pt;
>>>> wait_queue_head_t *wqh;
>>>> wait_queue_t wait;
>>>> - struct work_struct work;
>>>> + struct work_struct inject;
>>>> };
>>>>
>>>> static void
>>>> irqfd_inject(struct work_struct *work)
>>>> {
>>>> - struct _irqfd *irqfd = container_of(work, struct _irqfd, work);
>>>> - struct kvm *kvm = irqfd->kvm;
>>>> + struct _irqfd *irqfd = container_of(work, struct _irqfd, inject);
>>>> + struct kvm *kvm;
>>>> + int idx;
>>>> +
>>>> + idx = srcu_read_lock(&irqfd->srcu);
>>>> +
>>>> + kvm = rcu_dereference(irqfd->kvm);
>>>>

[4]

>>>> + if (kvm) {
>>>> + mutex_lock(&kvm->lock);
>>>> + kvm_set_irq(kvm, KVM_USERSPACE_IRQ_SOURCE_ID, irqfd->gsi, 1);
>>>> + kvm_set_irq(kvm, KVM_USERSPACE_IRQ_SOURCE_ID, irqfd->gsi, 0);
>>>> + mutex_unlock(&kvm->lock);
>>>> + }
>>>> +
>>>> + srcu_read_unlock(&irqfd->srcu, idx);
>>>> +}
>>>>
>>>>
>> [1]
>>
>>
>>>> +
>>>> +static void
>>>> +irqfd_disconnect(struct _irqfd *irqfd)
>>>> +{
>>>> + struct kvm *kvm;
>>>> +
>>>> + mutex_lock(&irqfd->lock);
>>>> +
>>>> + kvm = rcu_dereference(irqfd->kvm);
>>>> + rcu_assign_pointer(irqfd->kvm, NULL);
>>>> +
>>>> + mutex_unlock(&irqfd->lock);
>>>>
>>>>
>> [2]
>>
>>
>>>> +
>>>> + if (!kvm)
>>>> + return;
>>>>
>>>> mutex_lock(&kvm->lock);
>>>> - kvm_set_irq(kvm, KVM_USERSPACE_IRQ_SOURCE_ID, irqfd->gsi, 1);
>>>> - kvm_set_irq(kvm, KVM_USERSPACE_IRQ_SOURCE_ID, irqfd->gsi, 0);
>>>> + list_del(&irqfd->list);
>>>> mutex_unlock(&kvm->lock);
>>>> +
>>>> + /*
>>>> + * It is important to not drop the kvm reference until the next grace
>>>> + * period because there might be lockless references in flight up
>>>> + * until then
>>>> + */
>>>>
>>>>
>>> The lockless references are all harmless even if carried out after the
>>> kvm structure has been removed?
>>>
>> No, but all ([1]) references to my knowledge occur within an srcu
>> read-side CS, and we only drop the object reference ([3]) outside of
>> that CS by virtue of the synchronize_srcu() barrier below. The one
>> notable exception is [2], which I don't declare as a read-side CS since
>> I hold the mutex during the swap.
>>
>> OTOH, this is really my _intention_, not _reality_ per se. ;) E.g. I
>> may have completely flubbed up the design, so I'm glad you are looking
>> at it.
>>
>
> Looks good in general -- my question is about the window of time
> between when the object is removed from the list (and might still have
> readers referencing it) and when the object is freed (and, courtesy of
> synchronize_srcu(), can no longer be referenced by readers).
>
> In other words, the following sequence of events:
>
> o CPU 0 picks up a pointer to the object.
>
> o CPU 1 removes that same object from the list, and invokes
> synchronize_srcu(), which cannot return yet due to CPU 0
> being in an SRCU read-side critical section.
>
> o CPU 0 acquires the lock and invokes the pair of kvm_set_irq()
> calls, releases the lock and exits the SRCU read-side critical
> section.
>
> o CPU 1's synchronize_srcu() can now return, and does.
>
> o CPU 1 frees the object.
>
> I honestly don't know enough about KVM to say whether or not this is a
> problem, but thought I should ask. ;-)
>

Right, ok. What you outline is consistent with my expectations. That
is, I need to make sure that it is not possible to have any concurrent
code call kvm_put_cpu between [4] and [1] against the same pointer. It
is, of course, ok if some other code path enters irqfd_inject() _after_
[2] because I would have already swapped the pointer with NULL and it
will simply bail out on the conditional right after [4].
>
>>> Or does there need to be a ->deleted
>>> field that allows the lockless references to ignore a kvm structure that
>>> has already been deleted?
>>>
>> I guess you could say that the "rcu_assign_pointer(NULL)" is my
>> "deleted" field. The reader-side code in question should check for that
>> condition before proceeding.
>>
>
> Fair enough! But please keep in mind that the pointer could be assigned
> to NULL just after we dereference it, especially if we are interrupted
> or preempted or something.

Right, and that should be ok IIUC as long as I can be guaranteed to
never call kvm_put_kvm() before the dereferencer calls
srcu_read_unlock(). I currently believe this guarantee is provided by
the synchronize_srcu() at [3], but please straighten me out if that is a
naive assumption.

> Or is the idea to re-check the pointer under some lock?
>
>
I do not currently believe I need to worry about that case, but as
always, straighten me out if that is wrong. ;)

>>> On the other hand, if it really is somehow OK for kvm_set_irq() to be
>>> called on an already-deleted kvm structure, then this code would be OK
>>> as is.
>>>
>> Definitely not, so if you think that can happen please raise the flag.
>>
>
> Apologies, I was being a bit sloppy. Instead of "already-deleted",
> I should have said something like "already removed from the list but
> not yet freed".
>

Ah, ok. The answer in that case would be "yes". It's ok to call
kvm_set_irq() while the irqfd->kvm pointer is NULL, but it is not ok to
call it after or during kvm_put_kvm() has been invoked. Technically the
first safe point is right after the last mutex_unlock(&kvm->lock)
completes (right before [1]), and is officially annotated with the
subsequent srcu_read_unlock().
>
>>>> + synchronize_srcu(&irqfd->srcu);
>>>> + kvm_put_kvm(kvm);
>>>>
>>>>
>> [3]
>>
>>
>>>> }
>>>>
>>>> static int
>>>> @@ -64,12 +101,28 @@ irqfd_wakeup(wait_queue_t *wait, unsigned mode, int sync, void *key)
>>>> {
>>>> struct _irqfd *irqfd = container_of(wait, struct _irqfd, wait);
>>>>
>>>> - /*
>>>> - * The wake_up is called with interrupts disabled. Therefore we need
>>>> - * to defer the IRQ injection until later since we need to acquire the
>>>> - * kvm->lock to do so.
>>>> - */
>>>> - schedule_work(&irqfd->work);
>>>> + switch ((unsigned long)key) {
>>>> + case POLLIN:
>>>> + /*
>>>> + * The POLLIN wake_up is called with interrupts disabled.
>>>> + * Therefore we need to defer the IRQ injection until later
>>>> + * since we need to acquire the kvm->lock to do so.
>>>> + */
>>>> + schedule_work(&irqfd->inject);
>>>> + break;
>>>> + case POLLHUP:
>>>> + /*
>>>> + * The POLLHUP is called unlocked, so it theoretically should
>>>> + * be safe to remove ourselves from the wqh
>>>> + */
>>>> + remove_wait_queue(irqfd->wqh, &irqfd->wait);
>>>> + flush_work(&irqfd->inject);
>>>> + irqfd_disconnect(irqfd);
>>>>
>>>>
>>> Good. The fact that irqfd_disconnect() does a synchronize_srcu()
>>> prevents any readers from trying to do an SRCU operation on an already
>>> cleaned-up srcu_struct, so this does look safe to me.
>>>
>> As an additional data point, we can guarantee that we will never be
>> called again since we synchronously unhook from the wqh and kvm->irqfds
>> list, and the POLLHUP is called from f_ops->release().
>>
>
> So the window is short, but still exists, correct?
>

Can you elaborate?


>
>>>> + cleanup_srcu_struct(&irqfd->srcu);
>>>> + kfree(irqfd);
>>>> + break;
>>>> + }
>>>>
>>>> return 0;
>>>> }
>>>> @@ -84,8 +137,8 @@ irqfd_ptable_queue_proc(struct file *file, wait_queue_head_t *wqh,
>>>> add_wait_queue(wqh, &irqfd->wait);
>>>> }
>>>>
>>>> -static int
>>>> -kvm_assign_irqfd(struct kvm *kvm, int fd, int gsi)
>>>> +int
>>>> +kvm_irqfd(struct kvm *kvm, int fd, int gsi, int flags)
>>>> {
>>>> struct _irqfd *irqfd;
>>>> struct file *file = NULL;
>>>> @@ -95,10 +148,12 @@ kvm_assign_irqfd(struct kvm *kvm, int fd, int gsi)
>>>> if (!irqfd)
>>>> return -ENOMEM;
>>>>
>>>> + mutex_init(&irqfd->lock);
>>>> + init_srcu_struct(&irqfd->srcu);
>>>> irqfd->kvm = kvm;
>>>> irqfd->gsi = gsi;
>>>> INIT_LIST_HEAD(&irqfd->list);
>>>> - INIT_WORK(&irqfd->work, irqfd_inject);
>>>> + INIT_WORK(&irqfd->inject, irqfd_inject);
>>>>
>>>> /*
>>>> * Embed the file* lifetime in the irqfd.
>>>> @@ -120,12 +175,18 @@ kvm_assign_irqfd(struct kvm *kvm, int fd, int gsi)
>>>> if (ret < 0)
>>>> goto fail;
>>>>
>>>> - irqfd->file = file;
>>>> + kvm_get_kvm(kvm);
>>>>
>>>> mutex_lock(&kvm->lock);
>>>> list_add_tail(&irqfd->list, &kvm->irqfds);
>>>>
>>>>
>>> Doesn't the above need to be list_add_tail_rcu()? Unless I am confused,
>>> this is the point at which the new SRCU-protected structure is first
>>> made public. If so, you really do need list_add_tail_rcu() to make sure
>>> that concurrent readers don't see pre-initialized values in the structure.
>>>
>> I *think* this is ok as a traditional list, because the only paths that
>> touch this list are guarded by the kvm->lock mutex. Let me know if you
>> see otherwise or if that is not enough.
>>
>
> My mistake, you are using rcu_assign_pointer() and rcu_dereference()
> instead of the list primitives. Never mind!!!
>

Yeah, and note that we actually have two types of objects and their
references floating around:

*) We have "struct irqfd" which can be thought of as an extension of
eventfd. It holds exactly one (or zero) references to kvm via the
irqfd->kvm pointer, and as you note above I use rcu_XX() macros and srcu
to manage it.

*) Conversely, we have "struct kvm" which may have a 1:N relationship
with many irqfds, which I manage with a standard list at kvm->irqfds
protected by kvm->lock.

So the code that uses the rcu_dereference/rcu_assign_pointer is actually
different than the code mentioned above that is manipulating the
kvm->irqfds list with list_add_tail(). The latter isn't directly RCU
related and is why you see the non-rcu variants of the list functions in
use.
That said, if you still see a hole in that approach, do not be shy in
pointing it out ;)

Thanks again for taking to time to go over all this, Paul. I know you
are very busy, and its very much appreciated!

-Greg

>
>>>> mutex_unlock(&kvm->lock);
>>>>
>>>> + /*
>>>> + * do not drop the file until the irqfd is fully initialized, otherwise
>>>> + * we might race against the POLLHUP
>>>> + */
>>>> + fput(file);
>>>> +
>>>> return 0;
>>>>
>>>> fail:
>>>> @@ -139,97 +200,17 @@ fail:
>>>> return ret;
>>>> }
>>>>
>>>> -static void
>>>> -irqfd_release(struct _irqfd *irqfd)
>>>> -{
>>>> - /*
>>>> - * The ordering is important. We must remove ourselves from the wqh
>>>> - * first to ensure no more event callbacks are issued, and then flush
>>>> - * any previously scheduled work prior to freeing the memory
>>>> - */
>>>> - remove_wait_queue(irqfd->wqh, &irqfd->wait);
>>>> -
>>>> - flush_work(&irqfd->work);
>>>> -
>>>> - fput(irqfd->file);
>>>> - kfree(irqfd);
>>>> -}
>>>> -
>>>> -static struct _irqfd *
>>>> -irqfd_remove(struct kvm *kvm, struct file *file, int gsi)
>>>> -{
>>>> - struct _irqfd *irqfd;
>>>> -
>>>> - mutex_lock(&kvm->lock);
>>>> -
>>>> - /*
>>>> - * linear search isn't brilliant, but this should be an infrequent
>>>> - * slow-path operation, and the list should not grow very large
>>>> - */
>>>> - list_for_each_entry(irqfd, &kvm->irqfds, list) {
>>>> - if (irqfd->file != file || irqfd->gsi != gsi)
>>>> - continue;
>>>> -
>>>> - list_del(&irqfd->list);
>>>> - mutex_unlock(&kvm->lock);
>>>> -
>>>> - return irqfd;
>>>> - }
>>>> -
>>>> - mutex_unlock(&kvm->lock);
>>>> -
>>>> - return NULL;
>>>> -}
>>>> -
>>>> -static int
>>>> -kvm_deassign_irqfd(struct kvm *kvm, int fd, int gsi)
>>>> -{
>>>> - struct _irqfd *irqfd;
>>>> - struct file *file;
>>>> - int count = 0;
>>>> -
>>>> - file = fget(fd);
>>>> - if (IS_ERR(file))
>>>> - return PTR_ERR(file);
>>>> -
>>>> - while ((irqfd = irqfd_remove(kvm, file, gsi))) {
>>>> - /*
>>>> - * We remove the item from the list under the lock, but we
>>>> - * free it outside the lock to avoid deadlocking with the
>>>> - * flush_work and the work_item taking the lock
>>>> - */
>>>> - irqfd_release(irqfd);
>>>> - count++;
>>>> - }
>>>> -
>>>> - fput(file);
>>>> -
>>>> - return count ? count : -ENOENT;
>>>> -}
>>>> -
>>>> void
>>>> kvm_irqfd_init(struct kvm *kvm)
>>>> {
>>>> INIT_LIST_HEAD(&kvm->irqfds);
>>>> }
>>>>
>>>> -int
>>>> -kvm_irqfd(struct kvm *kvm, int fd, int gsi, int flags)
>>>> -{
>>>> - if (flags & KVM_IRQFD_FLAG_DEASSIGN)
>>>> - return kvm_deassign_irqfd(kvm, fd, gsi);
>>>> -
>>>> - return kvm_assign_irqfd(kvm, fd, gsi);
>>>> -}
>>>> -
>>>> void
>>>> kvm_irqfd_release(struct kvm *kvm)
>>>> {
>>>> struct _irqfd *irqfd, *tmp;
>>>>
>>>> - /* don't bother with the lock..we are shutting down */
>>>> - list_for_each_entry_safe(irqfd, tmp, &kvm->irqfds, list) {
>>>> - list_del(&irqfd->list);
>>>> - irqfd_release(irqfd);
>>>> - }
>>>> + list_for_each_entry_safe(irqfd, tmp, &kvm->irqfds, list)
>>>> + irqfd_disconnect(irqfd);
>>>> }
>>>> diff --git a/virt/kvm/kvm_main.c b/virt/kvm/kvm_main.c
>>>> index 902fed9..a9f62bb 100644
>>>> --- a/virt/kvm/kvm_main.c
>>>> +++ b/virt/kvm/kvm_main.c
>>>> @@ -1029,7 +1029,6 @@ static void kvm_destroy_vm(struct kvm *kvm)
>>>> spin_lock(&kvm_lock);
>>>> list_del(&kvm->vm_list);
>>>> spin_unlock(&kvm_lock);
>>>> - kvm_irqfd_release(kvm);
>>>> kvm_free_irq_routing(kvm);
>>>> kvm_io_bus_destroy(&kvm->pio_bus);
>>>> kvm_io_bus_destroy(&kvm->mmio_bus);
>>>> @@ -1064,6 +1063,8 @@ static int kvm_vm_release(struct inode *inode, struct file *filp)
>>>> {
>>>> struct kvm *kvm = filp->private_data;
>>>>
>>>> + kvm_irqfd_release(kvm);
>>>> +
>>>> kvm_put_kvm(kvm);
>>>> return 0;
>>>> }
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>> --
>>> To unsubscribe from this list: send the line "unsubscribe kvm" in
>>> the body of a message to majordomo@vger.kernel.org
>>> More majordomo info at http://vger.kernel.org/majordomo-info.html
>>>
>>>
>>
>
>
>



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