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Subject[PATCH 2/2 v2] ftrace: document basic ftracer/ftracer graph needs
Date
While implementing ftracer and ftracer graph support, I found the exact
arch implementation details to be a bit lacking (and my x86 foo ain't
great). So after pounding out support for the Blackfin arch, start
documenting the requirements/details.

Signed-off-by: Mike Frysinger <vapier@gentoo.org>
---
v2
- move to Documentation/ and add a lot more details
note: yes, i think every kconfig option that is documented should point to
the relevant text file as this helps in the case of people who use kconfig's
search function to look for things

Documentation/trace/ftrace-implementation.txt | 223 +++++++++++++++++++++++++
Documentation/trace/ftrace.txt | 6 +
kernel/trace/Kconfig | 16 ++-
3 files changed, 242 insertions(+), 3 deletions(-)
create mode 100644 Documentation/trace/ftrace-implementation.txt
diff --git a/Documentation/trace/ftrace-implementation.txt b/Documentation/trace/ftrace-implementation.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..cba63b9
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/trace/ftrace-implementation.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,223 @@
+ ftrace guts
+ ===========
+
+Introduction
+------------
+
+Here we will cover the architecture pieces that the common ftrace code relies
+on for proper functioning. Things are broken down into increasing complexity
+so that you can start at the top and get at least basic functionality.
+
+Note that this focuses on architecture implementation details only. If you
+want more explanation of a feature in terms of common code, review the common
+ftrace.txt file.
+
+
+Prerequisites
+-------------
+
+Ftrace relies on these features being implemented:
+ STACKTRACE_SUPPORT - implement save_stack_trace()
+ TRACE_IRQFLAGS_SUPPORT - implement include/asm/irqflags.h
+
+
+HAVE_FUNCTION_GRAPH_TRACER
+--------------------------
+
+You will need to implement the mcount and the ftrace_stub functions.
+
+The exact mcount symbol name will depend on your toolchain. Some call it
+"mcount", "_mcount", or even "__mcount". You can probably figure it out by
+running something like:
+ $ echo 'm(){}' | gcc -x c -S -o - - -pg | grep mcount
+ call mcount
+
+Keep in mind that the ABI that is in effect inside of the mcount function is
+*highly* architecture/toolchain specific. We cannot help you in this regard,
+sorry. Dig up some old documentation and/or find someone more familiar than
+you to bang ideas off of. Typically, register usage/clobbering is a major
+problem here. You might also want to look at how glibc has implemented the
+mcount function for your architecture. It might be (semi-)relevant.
+
+The mcount function should check the function pointer ftrace_trace_function
+to see if it is set to ftrace_stub. If it is, there is nothing for you to do,
+so return immediately. If it isn't, then call that function in the same way
+the mcount function normally calls __mcount_internal -- the first argument is
+the "frompc" while the second argument is the "selfpc" (adjusted to remove the
+size of the mcount call that is embedded in the function).
+
+For example, if the function foo() calls bar(), when the bar() function calls
+mcount(), the arguments mcount() will pass to the tracer are:
+ "frompc" - the address bar() will use to return to foo()
+ "selfpc" - the address bar() (with _mcount() size adjustment)
+
+Also keep in mind that this mcount function will be called *a lot*, so
+optimizing for the default case of no tracer will help the smooth running of
+your system when tracing is disabled. So the start of the mcount function is
+typically the bare min with checking things before returning. That also means
+the code flow should usually kept linear (i.e. no branching in the nop case).
+This is of course an optimization and not a hard requirement.
+
+Here is some pseudo code that should help (these functions should actually be
+implemented in assembly):
+
+void ftrace_stub(void)
+{
+ return;
+}
+
+void mcount(void)
+{
+ /* save any bare state needed in order to do initial checking */
+
+ extern void (*ftrace_trace_function)(unsigned long, unsigned long);
+ if (ftrace_trace_function != ftrace_stub)
+ goto do_trace;
+
+ /* restore any bare state */
+
+ return;
+
+do_trace:
+
+ /* save all state needed by the ABI */
+
+ unsigned long frompc = ...;
+ unsigned long selfpc = <return address> - MCOUNT_INSN_SIZE;
+ ftrace_trace_function(frompc, selfpc);
+
+ /* restore all state needed by the ABI */
+}
+
+
+HAVE_FUNCTION_TRACE_MCOUNT_TEST
+-------------------------------
+
+This is an optional optimization for the normal case when tracing is turned off
+in the system. If you do not enable this Kconfig option, the common ftrace
+code will take care of doing the checking for you.
+
+To support this feature, you only need to check the function_trace_stop
+variable in the mcount function. If it is non-zero, there is no tracing to be
+done at all, so you can return.
+
+This additional pseudo code would simply be:
+void mcount(void)
+{
+ /* save any bare state needed in order to do initial checking */
+
++ if (function_trace_stop)
++ return;
+
+ extern void (*ftrace_trace_function)(unsigned long, unsigned long);
+ if (ftrace_trace_function != ftrace_stub)
+...
+
+
+HAVE_FUNCTION_GRAPH_TRACER
+--------------------------
+
+Deep breath ... time to do some real work. Here you will need to update the
+mcount function to check ftrace graph function pointers, as well as implement
+some functions to save (hijack) and restore the return address.
+
+The mcount function should check the function pointers ftrace_graph_return
+(compare to ftrace_stub) and ftrace_graph_entry (compare to
+ftrace_graph_entry_stub). If either of those are not set to the relevant stub
+function, call the arch-specific function ftrace_graph_caller which in turn
+calls the arch-specific function prepare_ftrace_return. Neither of these
+function names are strictly required, but you should use them anyways to stay
+consistent across the architecture ports -- easier to compare & contrast
+things.
+
+The arguments to prepare_ftrace_return are slightly different than what are
+passed to ftrace_trace_function. The second argument "selfpc" is the same,
+but the first argument should be a pointer to the "frompc". Typically this is
+located on the stack. This allows the function to hijack the return address
+temporarily to have it point to the arch-specific function return_to_handler.
+That function will simply call the common ftrace_return_to_handler function and
+that will return the original return address with which, you can return to the
+original call site.
+
+Here is the updated mcount pseudo code:
+void mcount(void)
+{
+...
+ if (ftrace_trace_function != ftrace_stub)
+ goto do_trace;
+
++#ifdef CONFIG_FUNCTION_GRAPH_TRACER
++ extern void (*ftrace_graph_return)(...);
++ extern void (*ftrace_graph_entry)(...);
++ if (ftrace_graph_return != ftrace_stub ||
++ ftrace_graph_entry != ftrace_graph_entry_stub)
++ ftrace_graph_caller();
++#endif
+
+ /* restore any bare state */
+...
+
+Here is the pseudo code for the new ftrace_graph_caller assembly function:
+#ifdef CONFIG_FUNCTION_GRAPH_TRACER
+void ftrace_graph_caller(void)
+{
+ /* save all state needed by the ABI */
+
+ unsigned long *frompc = &...;
+ unsigned long selfpc = <return address> - MCOUNT_INSN_SIZE;
+ prepare_ftrace_return(frompc, selfpc);
+
+ /* restore all state needed by the ABI */
+}
+#endif
+
+For information on how to implement prepare_ftrace_return(), simply look at
+the x86 version. The only architecture-specific piece in it is the setup of
+the fault recovery table (the asm(...) code). The rest should be the same
+across architectures.
+
+Here is the pseudo code for the new return_to_handler assembly function. Note
+that the ABI that applies here is different from what applies to the mcount
+code. Here you are returning from a function, so you might be able to skimp
+on things saved/restored.
+#ifdef CONFIG_FUNCTION_GRAPH_TRACER
+void return_to_handler(void)
+{
+ /* save all state needed by the ABI */
+
+ void (*original_return_point)(void) = ftrace_return_to_handler();
+
+ /* restore all state needed by the ABI */
+
+ /* this is usually either a return or a jump */
+ original_return_point();
+}
+#endif
+
+
+HAVE_FTRACE_NMI_ENTER
+---------------------
+
+If you can't trace NMI functions, then skip this option.
+
+<details to be filled>
+
+
+HAVE_FTRACE_SYSCALLS
+---------------------
+
+<details to be filled>
+
+
+HAVE_FTRACE_MCOUNT_RECORD
+-------------------------
+
+See scripts/recordmcount.pl for more info.
+
+<details to be filled>
+
+
+HAVE_DYNAMIC_FTRACE
+---------------------
+
+<details to be filled>
diff --git a/Documentation/trace/ftrace.txt b/Documentation/trace/ftrace.txt
index 5ad2ded..b0f948f 100644
--- a/Documentation/trace/ftrace.txt
+++ b/Documentation/trace/ftrace.txt
@@ -27,6 +27,12 @@ disabled, and more (ftrace allows for tracer plugins, which
means that the list of tracers can always grow).


+Implementation Details
+----------------------
+
+See ftrace-implementation.txt for details for arch porters and such.
+
+
The File System
---------------

diff --git a/kernel/trace/Kconfig b/kernel/trace/Kconfig
index 417d198..8cbff89 100644
--- a/kernel/trace/Kconfig
+++ b/kernel/trace/Kconfig
@@ -11,31 +11,41 @@ config NOP_TRACER

config HAVE_FTRACE_NMI_ENTER
bool
+ help
+ See Documentation/trace/ftrace-implementation.txt

config HAVE_FUNCTION_TRACER
bool
+ help
+ See Documentation/trace/ftrace-implementation.txt

config HAVE_FUNCTION_GRAPH_TRACER
bool
+ help
+ See Documentation/trace/ftrace-implementation.txt

config HAVE_FUNCTION_TRACE_MCOUNT_TEST
bool
help
- This gets selected when the arch tests the function_trace_stop
- variable at the mcount call site. Otherwise, this variable
- is tested by the called function.
+ See Documentation/trace/ftrace-implementation.txt

config HAVE_DYNAMIC_FTRACE
bool
+ help
+ See Documentation/trace/ftrace-implementation.txt

config HAVE_FTRACE_MCOUNT_RECORD
bool
+ help
+ See Documentation/trace/ftrace-implementation.txt

config HAVE_HW_BRANCH_TRACER
bool

config HAVE_FTRACE_SYSCALLS
bool
+ help
+ See Documentation/trace/ftrace-implementation.txt

config TRACER_MAX_TRACE
bool
--
1.6.3.1


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