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SubjectRe: [PATCH -tip v5 4/7] tracing: add kprobe-based event tracer
From
Hi,

2009/5/9 Masami Hiramatsu <mhiramat@redhat.com>:
> Add kprobes based event tracer on ftrace.
>
> This tracer is similar to the events tracer which is based on Tracepoint
> infrastructure. Instead of Tracepoint, this tracer is based on kprobes(kprobe
> and kretprobe). It probes anywhere where kprobes can probe(this means, all
> functions body except for __kprobes functions).
>
> Changes from v4:
>  - Change interface name from 'kprobe_probes' to 'kprobe_events'
>  - Skip comments (words after '#') from inputs of 'kprobe_events'.
>
> Signed-off-by: Masami Hiramatsu <mhiramat@redhat.com>
> Cc: Steven Rostedt <rostedt@goodmis.org>
> Cc: Ananth N Mavinakayanahalli <ananth@in.ibm.com>
> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
> Cc: Frederic Weisbecker <fweisbec@gmail.com>
> ---
>
>  Documentation/trace/ftrace.txt |   55 +++++
>  kernel/trace/Kconfig           |    9 +
>  kernel/trace/Makefile          |    1
>  kernel/trace/trace_kprobe.c    |  404 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>  4 files changed, 469 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)
>  create mode 100644 kernel/trace/trace_kprobe.c
>
> diff --git a/Documentation/trace/ftrace.txt b/Documentation/trace/ftrace.txt
> index fd9a3e6..2b8ead6 100644
> --- a/Documentation/trace/ftrace.txt
> +++ b/Documentation/trace/ftrace.txt
> @@ -1310,6 +1310,61 @@ dereference in a kernel module:
>  [...]
>
>
> +kprobe-based event tracer
> +---------------------------
> +
> +This tracer is similar to the events tracer which is based on Tracepoint
> +infrastructure. Instead of Tracepoint, this tracer is based on kprobes(kprobe
> +and kretprobe). It probes anywhere where kprobes can probe(this means, all
> +functions body except for __kprobes functions).
> +
> +Unlike the function tracer, this tracer can probe instructions inside of
> +kernel functions. It allows you to check which instruction has been executed.
> +
> +Unlike the Tracepoint based events tracer, this tracer can add new probe points
> +on the fly.
> +
> +Similar to the events tracer, this tracer doesn't need to be activated via
> +current_tracer, instead of that, just set probe points via
> +/debug/tracing/kprobe_events.
> +
> +Synopsis of kprobe_events:
> +  p SYMBOL[+offs|-offs]|MEMADDR        : set a probe
> +  r SYMBOL[+0]                 : set a return probe
> +
> +E.g.
> +  echo p sys_open > /debug/tracing/kprobe_events
> +
> + This sets a kprobe on the top of sys_open() function.
> +
> +  echo r sys_open >> /debug/tracing/kprobe_events
> +
> + This sets a kretprobe on the return point of sys_open() function.
> +
> +  echo > /debug/tracing/kprobe_events
> +
> + This clears all probe points. and you can see the traced information via
> +/debug/tracing/trace.
> +
> +  cat /debug/tracing/trace
> +# tracer: nop
> +#
> +#           TASK-PID    CPU#    TIMESTAMP  FUNCTION
> +#              | |       |          |         |
> +           <...>-5117  [003]   416.481638: sys_open: @sys_open+0
> +           <...>-5117  [003]   416.481662: syscall_call: <-sys_open+0
> +           <...>-5117  [003]   416.481739: sys_open: @sys_open+0
> +           <...>-5117  [003]   416.481762: sysenter_do_call: <-sys_open+0
> +           <...>-5117  [003]   416.481818: sys_open: @sys_open+0
> +           <...>-5117  [003]   416.481842: sysenter_do_call: <-sys_open+0
> +           <...>-5117  [003]   416.481882: sys_open: @sys_open+0
> +           <...>-5117  [003]   416.481905: sysenter_do_call: <-sys_open+0
> +
> + @SYMBOL means that kernel hits a probe, and <-SYMBOL means kernel returns
> +from SYMBOL(e.g. "sysenter_do_call: <-sys_open+0" means kernel returns from
> +sys_open to sysenter_do_call).
> +
> +
>  function graph tracer
>  ---------------------------
>
> diff --git a/kernel/trace/Kconfig b/kernel/trace/Kconfig
> index 7370253..914df9c 100644
> --- a/kernel/trace/Kconfig
> +++ b/kernel/trace/Kconfig
> @@ -398,6 +398,15 @@ config BLK_DEV_IO_TRACE
>
>          If unsure, say N.
>
> +config KPROBE_TRACER
> +       depends on KPROBES
> +       depends on X86
> +       bool "Trace kprobes"
> +       select TRACING
> +       help
> +         This tracer probes everywhere where kprobes can probe it, and
> +         records various registers and memories specified by user.
> +
>  config DYNAMIC_FTRACE
>        bool "enable/disable ftrace tracepoints dynamically"
>        depends on FUNCTION_TRACER
> diff --git a/kernel/trace/Makefile b/kernel/trace/Makefile
> index 06b8585..166c859 100644
> --- a/kernel/trace/Makefile
> +++ b/kernel/trace/Makefile
> @@ -51,5 +51,6 @@ obj-$(CONFIG_EVENT_TRACING) += trace_export.o
>  obj-$(CONFIG_FTRACE_SYSCALLS) += trace_syscalls.o
>  obj-$(CONFIG_EVENT_PROFILE) += trace_event_profile.o
>  obj-$(CONFIG_EVENT_TRACING) += trace_events_filter.o
> +obj-$(CONFIG_KPROBE_TRACER) += trace_kprobe.o
>
>  libftrace-y := ftrace.o
> diff --git a/kernel/trace/trace_kprobe.c b/kernel/trace/trace_kprobe.c
> new file mode 100644
> index 0000000..8112505
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/kernel/trace/trace_kprobe.c
> @@ -0,0 +1,404 @@
> +/*
> + * kprobe based kernel tracer
> + *
> + * Created by Masami Hiramatsu <mhiramat@redhat.com>
> + *
> + * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
> + * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
> + * published by the Free Software Foundation.
> + *
> + * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
> + * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
> + * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
> + * GNU General Public License for more details.
> + *
> + * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
> + * along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
> + * Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307  USA
> + */
> +
> +#include <linux/module.h>
> +#include <linux/uaccess.h>
> +#include <linux/kprobes.h>
> +#include <linux/seq_file.h>
> +#include <linux/slab.h>
> +#include <linux/smp.h>
> +#include <linux/debugfs.h>
> +#include <linux/types.h>
> +#include <linux/string.h>
> +#include <linux/ctype.h>
> +
> +#include <linux/ftrace.h>
> +#include "trace.h"
> +
> +/**
> + * kprobe_trace_core
> + */
> +#define TRACE_MAXARGS 6
> +
> +struct trace_probe {
> +       struct list_head        list;
> +       union {
> +               struct kprobe           kp;
> +               struct kretprobe        rp;
> +       };
> +       const char              *symbol;        /* symbol name */
> +};
> +
> +static void kprobe_trace_record(unsigned long ip, struct trace_probe *tp,
> +                               struct pt_regs *regs);
> +
> +static int kprobe_trace_func(struct kprobe *kp, struct pt_regs *regs)
> +{
> +       struct trace_probe *tp = container_of(kp, struct trace_probe, kp);
> +
> +       kprobe_trace_record(instruction_pointer(regs), tp, regs);
> +       return 0;
> +}
> +
> +static int kretprobe_trace_func(struct kretprobe_instance *ri,
> +                               struct pt_regs *regs)
> +{
> +       struct trace_probe *tp = container_of(ri->rp, struct trace_probe, rp);
> +
> +       kprobe_trace_record((unsigned long)ri->ret_addr, tp, regs);
> +       return 0;
> +}
> +
> +static int probe_is_return(struct trace_probe *tp)
> +{
> +       return (tp->rp.handler == kretprobe_trace_func);
> +}
> +
> +static const char *probe_symbol(struct trace_probe *tp)
> +{
> +       return tp->symbol ? tp->symbol : "unknown";
> +}
> +
> +static long probe_offset(struct trace_probe *tp)
> +{
> +       return (probe_is_return(tp)) ? tp->rp.kp.offset : tp->kp.offset;
> +}
> +
> +static void *probe_address(struct trace_probe *tp)
> +{
> +       return (probe_is_return(tp)) ? tp->rp.kp.addr : tp->kp.addr;
> +}
> +
> +
> +static DEFINE_MUTEX(probe_lock);
> +static LIST_HEAD(probe_list);
> +
> +static struct trace_probe *alloc_trace_probe(const char *symbol)
> +{
> +       struct trace_probe *tp;
> +
> +       tp = kzalloc(sizeof(struct trace_probe), GFP_KERNEL);
> +       if (!tp)
> +               return ERR_PTR(-ENOMEM);
> +
> +       if (symbol) {
> +               tp->symbol = kstrdup(symbol, GFP_KERNEL);
> +               if (!tp->symbol) {
> +                       kfree(tp);
> +                       return ERR_PTR(-ENOMEM);
> +               }
> +       }
> +
> +       INIT_LIST_HEAD(&tp->list);
> +       return tp;
> +}
> +
> +static void free_trace_probe(struct trace_probe *tp)
> +{
> +       kfree(tp->symbol);
> +       kfree(tp);
> +}
> +
> +static int register_trace_probe(struct trace_probe *tp)
> +{
> +       int ret;
> +
> +       mutex_lock(&probe_lock);
> +       list_add_tail(&tp->list, &probe_list);
> +
> +       if (probe_is_return(tp))
> +               ret = register_kretprobe(&tp->rp);
> +       else
> +               ret = register_kprobe(&tp->kp);
> +
> +       if (ret) {
> +               pr_warning("Could not insert probe(%d)\n", ret);
> +               if (ret == -EILSEQ) {
> +                       pr_warning("Probing address(0x%p) is not an "
> +                                  "instruction boundary.\n",
> +                                  probe_address(tp));
> +                       ret = -EINVAL;
> +               }
> +               list_del(&tp->list);
> +       }
> +       mutex_unlock(&probe_lock);
> +       return ret;
> +}
> +
> +static void unregister_trace_probe(struct trace_probe *tp)
> +{
> +       if (probe_is_return(tp))
> +               unregister_kretprobe(&tp->rp);
> +       else
> +               unregister_kprobe(&tp->kp);
> +       list_del(&tp->list);
> +}
> +
> +static int create_trace_probe(int argc, char **argv)
> +{
> +       /*
> +        * Argument syntax:
> +        *  - Add kprobe: p SYMBOL[+OFFS|-OFFS]|ADDRESS
> +        *  - Add kretprobe: r SYMBOL[+0]
> +        */
> +       struct trace_probe *tp;
> +       struct kprobe *kp;
> +       char *tmp;
> +       int ret = 0;
> +       int is_return = 0;
> +       char *symbol = NULL;
> +       long offset = 0;
> +       void *addr = NULL;
> +
> +       if (argc < 2)
> +               return -EINVAL;
> +
> +       if (argv[0][0] == 'p')
> +               is_return = 0;
> +       else if (argv[0][0] == 'r')
> +               is_return = 1;
> +       else
> +               return -EINVAL;
> +
> +       if (isdigit(argv[1][0])) {
> +               if (is_return)
> +                       return -EINVAL;
> +               /* an address specified */
> +               ret = strict_strtoul(&argv[0][2], 0, (unsigned long *)&addr);
> +               if (ret)
> +                       return ret;
> +       } else {
> +               /* a symbol specified */
> +               symbol = argv[1];
> +               /* TODO: support .init module functions */
> +               tmp = strchr(symbol, '+');
> +               if (!tmp)
> +                       tmp = strchr(symbol, '-');
> +
> +               if (tmp) {
> +                       /* skip sign because strict_strtol doesn't accept '+' */
> +                       ret = strict_strtol(tmp + 1, 0, &offset);
> +                       if (ret)
> +                               return ret;
> +                       if (*tmp == '-')
> +                               offset = -offset;
> +                       *tmp = '\0';
> +               }
> +               if (offset && is_return)
> +                       return -EINVAL;
> +       }
> +
> +       /* setup a probe */
> +       tp = alloc_trace_probe(symbol);
> +       if (IS_ERR(tp))
> +               return PTR_ERR(tp);
> +
> +       if (is_return) {
> +               kp = &tp->rp.kp;
> +               tp->rp.handler = kretprobe_trace_func;
> +       } else {
> +               kp = &tp->kp;
> +               tp->kp.pre_handler = kprobe_trace_func;
> +       }
> +
> +       if (tp->symbol) {
> +               /* TODO: check offset is collect by using insn_decoder */
> +               kp->symbol_name = tp->symbol;
> +               kp->offset = offset;
> +       } else
> +               kp->addr = addr;
> +
> +       ret = register_trace_probe(tp);
> +       if (ret)
> +               goto error;
> +       return 0;
> +
> +error:
> +       free_trace_probe(tp);
> +       return ret;
> +}
> +
> +static void cleanup_all_probes(void)
> +{
> +       struct trace_probe *tp;
> +       mutex_lock(&probe_lock);
> +       /* TODO: Use batch unregistration */
> +       while (!list_empty(&probe_list)) {
> +               tp = list_entry(probe_list.next, struct trace_probe, list);
> +               unregister_trace_probe(tp);
> +               free_trace_probe(tp);
> +       }
> +       mutex_unlock(&probe_lock);
> +}
> +
> +
> +/* Probes listing interfaces */
> +static void *probes_seq_start(struct seq_file *m, loff_t *pos)
> +{
> +       mutex_lock(&probe_lock);
> +       return seq_list_start(&probe_list, *pos);
> +}
> +
> +static void *probes_seq_next(struct seq_file *m, void *v, loff_t *pos)
> +{
> +       return seq_list_next(v, &probe_list, pos);
> +}
> +
> +static void probes_seq_stop(struct seq_file *m, void *v)
> +{
> +       mutex_unlock(&probe_lock);
> +}
> +
> +static int probes_seq_show(struct seq_file *m, void *v)
> +{
> +       struct trace_probe *tp = v;
> +
> +       if (tp == NULL)
> +               return 0;
> +
> +       if (tp->symbol)
> +               seq_printf(m, "%c %s%+ld\n",
> +                       probe_is_return(tp) ? 'r' : 'p',
> +                       probe_symbol(tp), probe_offset(tp));
> +       else
> +               seq_printf(m, "%c 0x%p\n",
> +                       probe_is_return(tp) ? 'r' : 'p',
> +                       probe_address(tp));
> +       return 0;
> +}
> +
> +static const struct seq_operations probes_seq_op = {
> +       .start  = probes_seq_start,
> +       .next   = probes_seq_next,
> +       .stop   = probes_seq_stop,
> +       .show   = probes_seq_show
> +};
> +
> +static int probes_open(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)
> +{
> +       if ((file->f_mode & FMODE_WRITE) &&
> +           !(file->f_flags & O_APPEND))
> +               cleanup_all_probes();
> +
> +       return seq_open(file, &probes_seq_op);
> +}
> +
> +
> +#define WRITE_BUFSIZE 128
> +
> +static ssize_t probes_write(struct file *file, const char __user *buffer,
> +                           size_t count, loff_t *ppos)
> +{
> +       char *kbuf, *tmp;
> +       char **argv = NULL;
> +       int argc = 0;
> +       int ret;
> +       size_t done;
> +       size_t size;
> +
> +       if (!count || count < 0)
> +               return 0;
> +
> +       kbuf = kmalloc(WRITE_BUFSIZE, GFP_KERNEL);
> +       if (!kbuf)
> +               return -ENOMEM;
> +
> +       ret = done = 0;
> +       do {
> +               size = count - done;
> +               if (size > WRITE_BUFSIZE)
> +                       size = WRITE_BUFSIZE;
> +               if (copy_from_user(kbuf, buffer + done, size)) {
> +                       ret = -EFAULT;
> +                       goto out;
> +               }
> +               kbuf[size] = '\0';
> +               tmp = strchr(kbuf, '\n');
> +               if (!tmp) {
> +                       pr_warning("Line length is too long: "
> +                                  "Should be less than %d.", WRITE_BUFSIZE);
> +                       ret = -EINVAL;
> +                       goto out;
> +               }
> +               *tmp = '\0';
> +               size = tmp - kbuf + 1;
> +               done += size;
> +               /* Remove comments */
> +               tmp = strchr(kbuf, '#');
> +               if (tmp)
> +                       *tmp = '\0';
> +
> +               argv = argv_split(GFP_KERNEL, kbuf, &argc);
> +               if (!argv) {
> +                       ret = -ENOMEM;
> +                       goto out;
> +               }
> +
> +               if (argc)
> +                       ret = create_trace_probe(argc, argv);
> +
> +               argv_free(argv);
> +               if (ret < 0)
> +                       goto out;
> +
> +       } while (done < count);
> +       ret = done;
> +out:
> +       kfree(kbuf);
> +       return ret;
> +}
> +
> +static const struct file_operations kprobe_events_ops = {
> +       .owner          = THIS_MODULE,
> +       .open           = probes_open,
> +       .read           = seq_read,
> +       .llseek         = seq_lseek,
> +       .release        = seq_release,
> +       .write          = probes_write,
> +};
> +
> +/* event recording functions */
> +static void kprobe_trace_record(unsigned long ip, struct trace_probe *tp,
> +                               struct pt_regs *regs)
> +{
> +       __trace_bprintk(ip, "%s%s%+ld\n",
> +                       probe_is_return(tp) ? "<-" : "@",
> +                       probe_symbol(tp), probe_offset(tp));
> +}



What happens here if you have:

kprobe_trace_record() {
probe_symbol() {
.... probes_open() {
cleanup_all_probes() {
free_trace_probe();
return tp->symbol ? ....; //crack!

I wonder if you shouldn't use a per_cpu list of probes,
spinlocked/irqsaved accessed
and also a kind of prevention against nmi.

Or better, you can use rcu, but we won't be able to probe rcu functions....
Frederic.


> +
> +/* Make a debugfs interface for controling probe points */
> +static __init int init_kprobe_trace(void)
> +{
> +       struct dentry *d_tracer;
> +       struct dentry *entry;
> +
> +       d_tracer = tracing_init_dentry();
> +       if (!d_tracer)
> +               return 0;
> +
> +       entry = debugfs_create_file("kprobe_events", 0644, d_tracer,
> +                                   NULL, &kprobe_events_ops);
> +
> +       if (!entry)
> +               pr_warning("Could not create debugfs "
> +                          "'kprobe_events' entry\n");
> +       return 0;
> +}
> +fs_initcall(init_kprobe_trace);
> +
>
>
> --
> Masami Hiramatsu
>
> Software Engineer
> Hitachi Computer Products (America) Inc.
> Software Solutions Division
>
> e-mail: mhiramat@redhat.com
>
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