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Subject[PATCH 01/41] Create a dynamically sized pool of threads for doing very slow work items [ver #48]
Date
Create a dynamically sized pool of threads for doing very slow work items, such
as invoking mkdir() or rmdir() - things that may take a long time and may
sleep, holding mutexes/semaphores and hogging a thread, and are thus unsuitable
for workqueues.

The number of threads is always at least a settable minimum, but more are
started when there's more work to do, up to a limit. Because of the nature of
the load, it's not suitable for a 1-thread-per-CPU type pool. A system with
one CPU may well want several threads.

This is used by FS-Cache to do slow caching operations in the background, such
as looking up, creating or deleting cache objects.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Serge Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com>
Acked-by: Steve Dickson <steved@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Trond Myklebust <Trond.Myklebust@netapp.com>
Acked-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
Tested-by: Daire Byrne <Daire.Byrne@framestore.com>
---
include/linux/slow-work.h | 88 ++++++++++
init/Kconfig | 12 +
kernel/Makefile | 1
kernel/slow-work.c | 388 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
4 files changed, 489 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)
create mode 100644 include/linux/slow-work.h
create mode 100644 kernel/slow-work.c

diff --git a/include/linux/slow-work.h b/include/linux/slow-work.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..4dd754a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/include/linux/slow-work.h
@@ -0,0 +1,88 @@
+/* Worker thread pool for slow items, such as filesystem lookups or mkdirs
+ *
+ * Copyright (C) 2008 Red Hat, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
+ * Written by David Howells (dhowells@redhat.com)
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
+ * modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public Licence
+ * as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version
+ * 2 of the Licence, or (at your option) any later version.
+ */
+
+#ifndef _LINUX_SLOW_WORK_H
+#define _LINUX_SLOW_WORK_H
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_SLOW_WORK
+
+struct slow_work;
+
+/*
+ * The operations used to support slow work items
+ */
+struct slow_work_ops {
+ /* get a ref on a work item
+ * - return 0 if successful, -ve if not
+ */
+ int (*get_ref)(struct slow_work *work);
+
+ /* discard a ref to a work item */
+ void (*put_ref)(struct slow_work *work);
+
+ /* execute a work item */
+ void (*execute)(struct slow_work *work);
+};
+
+/*
+ * A slow work item
+ * - A reference is held on the parent object by the thread pool when it is
+ * queued
+ */
+struct slow_work {
+ unsigned long flags;
+#define SLOW_WORK_PENDING 0 /* item pending (further) execution */
+#define SLOW_WORK_EXECUTING 1 /* item currently executing */
+#define SLOW_WORK_ENQ_DEFERRED 2 /* item enqueue deferred */
+#define SLOW_WORK_VERY_SLOW 3 /* item is very slow */
+ const struct slow_work_ops *ops; /* operations table for this item */
+ struct list_head link; /* link in queue */
+};
+
+/**
+ * slow_work_init - Initialise a slow work item
+ * @work: The work item to initialise
+ * @ops: The operations to use to handle the slow work item
+ *
+ * Initialise a slow work item.
+ */
+static inline void slow_work_init(struct slow_work *work,
+ const struct slow_work_ops *ops)
+{
+ work->flags = 0;
+ work->ops = ops;
+ INIT_LIST_HEAD(&work->link);
+}
+
+/**
+ * slow_work_init - Initialise a very slow work item
+ * @work: The work item to initialise
+ * @ops: The operations to use to handle the slow work item
+ *
+ * Initialise a very slow work item. This item will be restricted such that
+ * only a certain number of the pool threads will be able to execute items of
+ * this type.
+ */
+static inline void vslow_work_init(struct slow_work *work,
+ const struct slow_work_ops *ops)
+{
+ work->flags = 1 << SLOW_WORK_VERY_SLOW;
+ work->ops = ops;
+ INIT_LIST_HEAD(&work->link);
+}
+
+extern int slow_work_enqueue(struct slow_work *work);
+extern int slow_work_register_user(void);
+extern void slow_work_unregister_user(void);
+
+
+#endif /* CONFIG_SLOW_WORK */
+#endif /* _LINUX_SLOW_WORK_H */
diff --git a/init/Kconfig b/init/Kconfig
index 1398a14..236a793 100644
--- a/init/Kconfig
+++ b/init/Kconfig
@@ -1014,6 +1014,18 @@ config MARKERS

source "arch/Kconfig"

+config SLOW_WORK
+ default n
+ bool "Enable slow work thread pool"
+ help
+ The slow work thread pool provides a number of dynamically allocated
+ threads that can be used by the kernel to perform operations that
+ take a relatively long time.
+
+ An example of this would be CacheFiles doing a path lookup followed
+ by a series of mkdirs and a create call, all of which have to touch
+ disk.
+
endmenu # General setup

config HAVE_GENERIC_DMA_COHERENT
diff --git a/kernel/Makefile b/kernel/Makefile
index e4791b3..bab1dff 100644
--- a/kernel/Makefile
+++ b/kernel/Makefile
@@ -93,6 +93,7 @@ obj-$(CONFIG_HAVE_GENERIC_DMA_COHERENT) += dma-coherent.o
obj-$(CONFIG_FUNCTION_TRACER) += trace/
obj-$(CONFIG_TRACING) += trace/
obj-$(CONFIG_SMP) += sched_cpupri.o
+obj-$(CONFIG_SLOW_WORK) += slow-work.o

ifneq ($(CONFIG_SCHED_OMIT_FRAME_POINTER),y)
# According to Alan Modra <alan@linuxcare.com.au>, the -fno-omit-frame-pointer is
diff --git a/kernel/slow-work.c b/kernel/slow-work.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..5a73927
--- /dev/null
+++ b/kernel/slow-work.c
@@ -0,0 +1,388 @@
+/* Worker thread pool for slow items, such as filesystem lookups or mkdirs
+ *
+ * Copyright (C) 2008 Red Hat, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
+ * Written by David Howells (dhowells@redhat.com)
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
+ * modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public Licence
+ * as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version
+ * 2 of the Licence, or (at your option) any later version.
+ */
+
+#include <linux/module.h>
+#include <linux/slow-work.h>
+#include <linux/kthread.h>
+#include <linux/freezer.h>
+#include <linux/wait.h>
+#include <asm/system.h>
+
+/*
+ * The pool of threads has at least min threads in it as long as someone is
+ * using the facility, and may have as many as max.
+ *
+ * A portion of the pool may be processing very slow operations.
+ */
+static unsigned slow_work_min_threads = 2;
+static unsigned slow_work_max_threads = 4;
+static unsigned vslow_work_proportion = 50; /* % of threads that may process
+ * very slow work */
+static atomic_t slow_work_thread_count;
+static atomic_t vslow_work_executing_count;
+
+/*
+ * The queues of work items and the lock governing access to them. These are
+ * shared between all the CPUs. It doesn't make sense to have per-CPU queues
+ * as the number of threads bears no relation to the number of CPUs.
+ *
+ * There are two queues of work items: one for slow work items, and one for
+ * very slow work items.
+ */
+static LIST_HEAD(slow_work_queue);
+static LIST_HEAD(vslow_work_queue);
+static DEFINE_SPINLOCK(slow_work_queue_lock);
+
+/*
+ * The thread controls. A variable used to signal to the threads that they
+ * should exit when the queue is empty, a waitqueue used by the threads to wait
+ * for signals, and a completion set by the last thread to exit.
+ */
+static bool slow_work_threads_should_exit;
+static DECLARE_WAIT_QUEUE_HEAD(slow_work_thread_wq);
+static DECLARE_COMPLETION(slow_work_last_thread_exited);
+
+/*
+ * The number of users of the thread pool and its lock. Whilst this is zero we
+ * have no threads hanging around, and when this reaches zero, we wait for all
+ * active or queued work items to complete and kill all the threads we do have.
+ */
+static int slow_work_user_count;
+static DEFINE_MUTEX(slow_work_user_lock);
+
+/*
+ * Calculate the maximum number of active threads in the pool that are
+ * permitted to process very slow work items.
+ *
+ * The answer is rounded up to at least 1, but may not equal or exceed the
+ * maximum number of the threads in the pool. This means we always have at
+ * least one thread that can process slow work items, and we always have at
+ * least one thread that won't get tied up doing so.
+ */
+static unsigned slow_work_calc_vsmax(void)
+{
+ unsigned vsmax;
+
+ vsmax = atomic_read(&slow_work_thread_count) * vslow_work_proportion;
+ vsmax /= 100;
+ vsmax = max(vsmax, 1U);
+ return min(vsmax, slow_work_max_threads - 1);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Attempt to execute stuff queued on a slow thread. Return true if we managed
+ * it, false if there was nothing to do.
+ */
+static bool slow_work_execute(void)
+{
+ struct slow_work *work = NULL;
+ unsigned vsmax;
+ bool very_slow;
+
+ vsmax = slow_work_calc_vsmax();
+
+ /* find something to execute */
+ spin_lock_irq(&slow_work_queue_lock);
+ if (!list_empty(&vslow_work_queue) &&
+ atomic_read(&vslow_work_executing_count) < vsmax) {
+ work = list_entry(vslow_work_queue.next,
+ struct slow_work, link);
+ if (test_and_set_bit_lock(SLOW_WORK_EXECUTING, &work->flags))
+ BUG();
+ list_del_init(&work->link);
+ atomic_inc(&vslow_work_executing_count);
+ very_slow = true;
+ } else if (!list_empty(&slow_work_queue)) {
+ work = list_entry(slow_work_queue.next,
+ struct slow_work, link);
+ if (test_and_set_bit_lock(SLOW_WORK_EXECUTING, &work->flags))
+ BUG();
+ list_del_init(&work->link);
+ very_slow = false;
+ } else {
+ very_slow = false; /* avoid the compiler warning */
+ }
+ spin_unlock_irq(&slow_work_queue_lock);
+
+ if (!work)
+ return false;
+
+ if (!test_and_clear_bit(SLOW_WORK_PENDING, &work->flags))
+ BUG();
+
+ work->ops->execute(work);
+
+ if (very_slow)
+ atomic_dec(&vslow_work_executing_count);
+ clear_bit_unlock(SLOW_WORK_EXECUTING, &work->flags);
+
+ /* if someone tried to enqueue the item whilst we were executing it,
+ * then it'll be left unenqueued to avoid multiple threads trying to
+ * execute it simultaneously
+ *
+ * there is, however, a race between us testing the pending flag and
+ * getting the spinlock, and between the enqueuer setting the pending
+ * flag and getting the spinlock, so we use a deferral bit to tell us
+ * if the enqueuer got there first
+ */
+ if (test_bit(SLOW_WORK_PENDING, &work->flags)) {
+ spin_lock_irq(&slow_work_queue_lock);
+
+ if (!test_bit(SLOW_WORK_EXECUTING, &work->flags) &&
+ test_and_clear_bit(SLOW_WORK_ENQ_DEFERRED, &work->flags))
+ goto auto_requeue;
+
+ spin_unlock_irq(&slow_work_queue_lock);
+ }
+
+ work->ops->put_ref(work);
+ return true;
+
+auto_requeue:
+ /* we must complete the enqueue operation
+ * - we transfer our ref on the item back to the appropriate queue
+ * - don't wake another thread up as we're awake already
+ */
+ if (test_bit(SLOW_WORK_VERY_SLOW, &work->flags))
+ list_add_tail(&work->link, &vslow_work_queue);
+ else
+ list_add_tail(&work->link, &slow_work_queue);
+ spin_unlock_irq(&slow_work_queue_lock);
+ return true;
+}
+
+/**
+ * slow_work_enqueue - Schedule a slow work item for processing
+ * @work: The work item to queue
+ *
+ * Schedule a slow work item for processing. If the item is already undergoing
+ * execution, this guarantees not to re-enter the execution routine until the
+ * first execution finishes.
+ *
+ * The item is pinned by this function as it retains a reference to it, managed
+ * through the item operations. The item is unpinned once it has been
+ * executed.
+ *
+ * An item may hog the thread that is running it for a relatively large amount
+ * of time, sufficient, for example, to perform several lookup, mkdir, create
+ * and setxattr operations. It may sleep on I/O and may sleep to obtain locks.
+ *
+ * Conversely, if a number of items are awaiting processing, it may take some
+ * time before any given item is given attention. The number of threads in the
+ * pool may be increased to deal with demand, but only up to a limit.
+ *
+ * If SLOW_WORK_VERY_SLOW is set on the work item, then it will be placed in
+ * the very slow queue, from which only a portion of the threads will be
+ * allowed to pick items to execute. This ensures that very slow items won't
+ * overly block ones that are just ordinarily slow.
+ *
+ * Returns 0 if successful, -EAGAIN if not.
+ */
+int slow_work_enqueue(struct slow_work *work)
+{
+ unsigned long flags;
+
+ BUG_ON(slow_work_user_count <= 0);
+ BUG_ON(!work);
+ BUG_ON(!work->ops);
+ BUG_ON(!work->ops->get_ref);
+
+ /* when honouring an enqueue request, we only promise that we will run
+ * the work function in the future; we do not promise to run it once
+ * per enqueue request
+ *
+ * we use the PENDING bit to merge together repeat requests without
+ * having to disable IRQs and take the spinlock, whilst still
+ * maintaining our promise
+ */
+ if (!test_and_set_bit_lock(SLOW_WORK_PENDING, &work->flags)) {
+ spin_lock_irqsave(&slow_work_queue_lock, flags);
+
+ /* we promise that we will not attempt to execute the work
+ * function in more than one thread simultaneously
+ *
+ * this, however, leaves us with a problem if we're asked to
+ * enqueue the work whilst someone is executing the work
+ * function as simply queueing the work immediately means that
+ * another thread may try executing it whilst it is already
+ * under execution
+ *
+ * to deal with this, we set the ENQ_DEFERRED bit instead of
+ * enqueueing, and the thread currently executing the work
+ * function will enqueue the work item when the work function
+ * returns and it has cleared the EXECUTING bit
+ */
+ if (test_bit(SLOW_WORK_EXECUTING, &work->flags)) {
+ set_bit(SLOW_WORK_ENQ_DEFERRED, &work->flags);
+ } else {
+ if (work->ops->get_ref(work) < 0)
+ goto cant_get_ref;
+ if (test_bit(SLOW_WORK_VERY_SLOW, &work->flags))
+ list_add_tail(&work->link, &vslow_work_queue);
+ else
+ list_add_tail(&work->link, &slow_work_queue);
+ wake_up(&slow_work_thread_wq);
+ }
+
+ spin_unlock_irqrestore(&slow_work_queue_lock, flags);
+ }
+ return 0;
+
+cant_get_ref:
+ spin_unlock_irqrestore(&slow_work_queue_lock, flags);
+ return -EAGAIN;
+}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(slow_work_enqueue);
+
+/*
+ * Determine if there is slow work available for dispatch
+ */
+static inline bool slow_work_available(int vsmax)
+{
+ return !list_empty(&slow_work_queue) ||
+ (!list_empty(&vslow_work_queue) &&
+ atomic_read(&vslow_work_executing_count) < vsmax);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Worker thread dispatcher
+ */
+static int slow_work_thread(void *_data)
+{
+ int vsmax;
+
+ DEFINE_WAIT(wait);
+
+ set_freezable();
+ set_user_nice(current, -5);
+
+ for (;;) {
+ vsmax = vslow_work_proportion;
+ vsmax *= atomic_read(&slow_work_thread_count);
+ vsmax /= 100;
+
+ prepare_to_wait(&slow_work_thread_wq, &wait,
+ TASK_INTERRUPTIBLE);
+ if (!freezing(current) &&
+ !slow_work_threads_should_exit &&
+ !slow_work_available(vsmax))
+ schedule();
+ finish_wait(&slow_work_thread_wq, &wait);
+
+ try_to_freeze();
+
+ vsmax = vslow_work_proportion;
+ vsmax *= atomic_read(&slow_work_thread_count);
+ vsmax /= 100;
+
+ if (slow_work_available(vsmax) && slow_work_execute()) {
+ cond_resched();
+ continue;
+ }
+
+ if (slow_work_threads_should_exit)
+ break;
+ }
+
+ if (atomic_dec_and_test(&slow_work_thread_count))
+ complete_and_exit(&slow_work_last_thread_exited, 0);
+ return 0;
+}
+
+/**
+ * slow_work_register_user - Register a user of the facility
+ *
+ * Register a user of the facility, starting up the initial threads if there
+ * aren't any other users at this point. This will return 0 if successful, or
+ * an error if not.
+ */
+int slow_work_register_user(void)
+{
+ struct task_struct *p;
+ int loop;
+
+ mutex_lock(&slow_work_user_lock);
+
+ if (slow_work_user_count == 0) {
+ printk(KERN_NOTICE "Slow work thread pool: Starting up\n");
+ init_completion(&slow_work_last_thread_exited);
+
+ slow_work_threads_should_exit = false;
+
+ /* start the minimum number of threads */
+ for (loop = 0; loop < slow_work_min_threads; loop++) {
+ atomic_inc(&slow_work_thread_count);
+ p = kthread_run(slow_work_thread, NULL, "kslowd");
+ if (IS_ERR(p))
+ goto error;
+ }
+ printk(KERN_NOTICE "Slow work thread pool: Ready\n");
+ }
+
+ slow_work_user_count++;
+ mutex_unlock(&slow_work_user_lock);
+ return 0;
+
+error:
+ if (atomic_dec_and_test(&slow_work_thread_count))
+ complete(&slow_work_last_thread_exited);
+ if (loop > 0) {
+ printk(KERN_ERR "Slow work thread pool:"
+ " Aborting startup on ENOMEM\n");
+ slow_work_threads_should_exit = true;
+ wake_up_all(&slow_work_thread_wq);
+ wait_for_completion(&slow_work_last_thread_exited);
+ printk(KERN_ERR "Slow work thread pool: Aborted\n");
+ }
+ mutex_unlock(&slow_work_user_lock);
+ return PTR_ERR(p);
+}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(slow_work_register_user);
+
+/**
+ * slow_work_unregister_user - Unregister a user of the facility
+ *
+ * Unregister a user of the facility, killing all the threads if this was the
+ * last one.
+ */
+void slow_work_unregister_user(void)
+{
+ mutex_lock(&slow_work_user_lock);
+
+ BUG_ON(slow_work_user_count <= 0);
+
+ slow_work_user_count--;
+ if (slow_work_user_count == 0) {
+ printk(KERN_NOTICE "Slow work thread pool: Shutting down\n");
+ slow_work_threads_should_exit = true;
+ wake_up_all(&slow_work_thread_wq);
+ wait_for_completion(&slow_work_last_thread_exited);
+ printk(KERN_NOTICE "Slow work thread pool:"
+ " Shut down complete\n");
+ }
+
+ mutex_unlock(&slow_work_user_lock);
+}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(slow_work_unregister_user);
+
+/*
+ * Initialise the slow work facility
+ */
+static int __init init_slow_work(void)
+{
+ unsigned nr_cpus = num_possible_cpus();
+
+ if (nr_cpus > slow_work_max_threads)
+ slow_work_max_threads = nr_cpus;
+ return 0;
+}
+
+subsys_initcall(init_slow_work);


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