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SubjectRe: [PATCH NET-NEXT 02/10] time sync: generic infrastructure to map between time stamps generated by a time counter and system time
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On Mon, 2009-02-09 at 18:02 +0100, Patrick Ohly wrote:
> On Thu, 2009-02-05 at 10:21 +0000, Patrick Ohly wrote:
> > On Wed, 2009-02-04 at 21:44 +0200, john stultz wrote:
> > > On Wed, 2009-02-04 at 14:01 +0100, Patrick Ohly wrote:
> > > I sort of object to the name clocksync, as you're not really doing
> > > anything to sync clocks in the code. One, "clock" is an way overloaded
> > > term in the kernel. Two, you're really seem to be just providing deltas
> > > and skew rates between notions of time. I want to avoid someone thinking
> > > "Oh, NTP must use this code".
> > >
> > > So maybe something like timecompare.c?
> >
> > Fine with me.
>
> As there were no other comments I renamed the file, functions and struct
> accordingly. As I said in my mail, I prefer "struct timecompare" over
> "struct time_comparator". I also used "timecompare_transform()".
>
> Is this revision of the patch okay? How should the two patches get
> included in the main kernel - via netdev-next-2.6?
>
> Bye, Patrick

Small comment below, but otherwise it looks ok to me. I usually push
patches through Andrew, so I'd probably go that way. But I'd leave it to
Dave if he's comfortable pushing them to Linus.

Acked-by: John Stultz <johnstul@us.ibm.com>




> -------------------------------------------------
>
> Subject: [PATCH NET-NEXT 02/10] timecompare: generic infrastructure to map between two time bases
>
> Mapping from a struct timecounter to a time returned by functions like
> ktime_get_real() is implemented. This is sufficient to use this code
> in a network device driver which wants to support hardware time
> stamping and transformation of hardware time stamps to system time.
>
> The interface could have been made more versatile by not depending on
> a time counter, but this wasn't done to avoid writing glue code
> elsewhere.
>
> The method implemented here is the one used and analyzed under the name
> "assisted PTP" in the LCI PTP paper:
> http://www.linuxclustersinstitute.org/conferences/archive/2008/PDF/Ohly_92221.pdf
> ---
> include/linux/timecompare.h | 125 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++
> kernel/time/Makefile | 2 +-
> kernel/time/timecompare.c | 194 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
> 3 files changed, 320 insertions(+), 1 deletions(-)
> create mode 100644 include/linux/timecompare.h
> create mode 100644 kernel/time/timecompare.c
>
> diff --git a/include/linux/timecompare.h b/include/linux/timecompare.h
> new file mode 100644
> index 0000000..f88c454
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/include/linux/timecompare.h
> @@ -0,0 +1,125 @@
> +/*
> + * Utility code which helps transforming between two different time
> + * bases, called "source" and "target" time in this code.
> + *
> + * Source time has to be provided via the timecounter API while target
> + * time is accessed via a function callback whose prototype
> + * intentionally matches ktime_get() and ktime_get_real(). These
> + * interfaces where chosen like this so that the code serves its
> + * initial purpose without additional glue code.
> + *
> + * This purpose is synchronizing a hardware clock in a NIC with system
> + * time, in order to implement the Precision Time Protocol (PTP,
> + * IEEE1588) with more accurate hardware assisted time stamping. In
> + * that context only synchronization against system time (=
> + * ktime_get_real()) is currently needed. But this utility code might
> + * become useful in other situations, which is why it was written as
> + * general purpose utility code.
> + *
> + * The source timecounter is assumed to return monotonically
> + * increasing time (but this code does its best to compensate if that
> + * is not the case) whereas target time may jump.
> + *
> + * The target time corresponding to a source time is determined by
> + * reading target time, reading source time, reading target time
> + * again, then assuming that average target time corresponds to source
> + * time. In other words, the assumption is that reading the source
> + * time is slow and involves equal time for sending the request and
> + * receiving the reply, whereas reading target time is assumed to be
> + * fast.
> + *
> + * Copyright(c) 2009 Intel Corporation.
> + * Author: Patrick Ohly <patrick.ohly@intel.com>
> + *
> + * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
> + * under the terms and conditions of the GNU General Public License,
> + * version 2, as published by the Free Software Foundation.
> + *
> + * This program is distributed in the hope it will be useful, but WITHOUT
> + * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
> + * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. * See the GNU General Public License for
> + * more details.
> + *
> + * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with
> + * this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
> + * 51 Franklin St - Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
> + */
> +#ifndef _LINUX_TIMECOMPARE_H
> +#define _LINUX_TIMECOMPARE_H
> +
> +#include <linux/clocksource.h>
> +#include <linux/ktime.h>
> +
> +/**
> + * struct timecompare - stores state and configuration for the two clocks
> + *
> + * Initialize to zero, then set source/target/num_samples.
> + *
> + * Transformation between source time and target time is done with:
> + * target_time = source_time + offset +
> + * (source_time - last_update) * skew /
> + * TIMECOMPARE_SKEW_RESOLUTION
> + *
> + * @source: used to get source time stamps via timecounter_read()
> + * @target: function returning target time (for example, ktime_get
> + * for monotonic time, or ktime_get_real for wall clock)
> + * @num_samples: number of times that source time and target time are to
> + * be compared when determining their offset
> + * @offset: (target time - source time) at the time of the last update
> + * @skew: average (target time - source time) / delta source time *
> + * TIMECOMPARE_SKEW_RESOLUTION
> + * @last_update: last source time stamp when time offset was measured
> + */
> +struct timecompare {
> + struct timecounter *source;
> + ktime_t (*target)(void);
> + int num_samples;
> +
> + s64 offset;
> + s64 skew;
> + u64 last_update;
> +};
> +
> +/**
> + * timecompare_transform - transform source time stamp into target time base
> + * @sync: context for time sync
> + * @source_tstamp: the result of timecounter_read() or
> + * timecounter_cyc2time()
> + */
> +extern ktime_t timecompare_transform(struct timecompare *sync,
> + u64 source_tstamp);
> +
> +/**
> + * timecompare_offset - measure current (target time - source time) offset
> + * @sync: context for time sync
> + * @offset: average offset during sample period returned here
> + * @source_tstamp: average source time during sample period returned here
> + *
> + * Returns number of samples used. Might be zero (= no result) in the
> + * unlikely case that target time was monotonically decreasing for all
> + * samples (= broken).
> + */
> +extern int timecompare_offset(struct timecompare *sync,
> + s64 *offset,
> + u64 *source_tstamp);
> +
> +extern void __timecompare_update(struct timecompare *sync,
> + u64 source_tstamp);
> +
> +/**
> + * timecompare_update - update offset and skew by measuring current offset
> + * @sync: context for time sync
> + * @source_tstamp: the result of timecounter_read() or
> + * timecounter_cyc2time(), pass zero to force update
> + *
> + * Updates are only done at most once per second.
> + */
> +static inline void timecompare_update(struct timecompare *sync,
> + u64 source_tstamp)
> +{
> + if (!source_tstamp ||
> + (s64)(source_tstamp - sync->last_update) >= NSEC_PER_SEC)
> + __timecompare_update(sync, source_tstamp);
> +}
> +
> +#endif /* _LINUX_TIMECOMPARE_H */
> diff --git a/kernel/time/Makefile b/kernel/time/Makefile
> index 905b0b5..0b0a636 100644
> --- a/kernel/time/Makefile
> +++ b/kernel/time/Makefile
> @@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
> -obj-y += timekeeping.o ntp.o clocksource.o jiffies.o timer_list.o
> +obj-y += timekeeping.o ntp.o clocksource.o jiffies.o timer_list.o timecompare.o
>
> obj-$(CONFIG_GENERIC_CLOCKEVENTS_BUILD) += clockevents.o
> obj-$(CONFIG_GENERIC_CLOCKEVENTS) += tick-common.o
> diff --git a/kernel/time/timecompare.c b/kernel/time/timecompare.c
> new file mode 100644
> index 0000000..1e94abc
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/kernel/time/timecompare.c
> @@ -0,0 +1,194 @@
> +/*
> + * Copyright (C) 2009 Intel Corporation.
> + * Author: Patrick Ohly <patrick.ohly@intel.com>
> + *
> + * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
> + * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
> + * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
> + * (at your option) any later version.
> + *
> + * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
> + * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
> + * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
> + * GNU General Public License for more details.
> + *
> + * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
> + * along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
> + * Foundation, Inc., 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
> + */
> +
> +#include <linux/timecompare.h>
> +#include <linux/module.h>
> +#include <linux/math64.h>
> +
> +/*
> + * fixed point arithmetic scale factor for skew
> + *
> + * Usually one would measure skew in ppb (parts per billion, 1e9), but
> + * using a factor of 2 simplifies the math.
> + */
> +#define TIMECOMPARE_SKEW_RESOLUTION (((s64)1)<<30)
> +
> +ktime_t timecompare_transform(struct timecompare *sync,
> + u64 source_tstamp)
> +{
> + u64 nsec;
> +
> + nsec = source_tstamp + sync->offset;
> + nsec += (s64)(source_tstamp - sync->last_update) * sync->skew /
> + TIMECOMPARE_SKEW_RESOLUTION;
> +
> + return ns_to_ktime(nsec);
> +}
> +EXPORT_SYMBOL(timecompare_transform);
> +
> +int timecompare_offset(struct timecompare *sync,
> + s64 *offset,
> + u64 *source_tstamp)
> +{
> + u64 start_source = 0, end_source = 0;
> + struct {
> + s64 offset;
> + s64 duration_target;
> + } buffer[10], sample, *samples;
> + int counter = 0, i;
> + int used;
> + int index;
> + int num_samples = sync->num_samples;
> +
> + if (num_samples > sizeof(buffer)/sizeof(buffer[0])) {
> + samples = kmalloc(sizeof(*samples) * num_samples, GFP_ATOMIC);
> + if (!samples) {
> + samples = buffer;
> + num_samples = sizeof(buffer)/sizeof(buffer[0]);
> + }
> + } else {
> + samples = buffer;
> + }
> +
> + /* run until we have enough valid samples, but do not try forever */
> + i = 0;
> + counter = 0;
> + while (1) {
> + u64 ts;
> + ktime_t start, end;
> +
> + start = sync->target();
> + ts = timecounter_read(sync->source);
> + end = sync->target();
> +
> + if (!i)
> + start_source = ts;
> +
> + /* ignore negative durations */
> + sample.duration_target = ktime_to_ns(ktime_sub(end, start));
> + if (sample.duration_target >= 0) {

You may also want to checking the bounds on the duration_target. If
preemption hits and the values are too out of whack, the symetric delay
assumption below might be quite invalid.

I guess the outliers removal probably covers this as well, but seems
some sanity checking might be good.

> + /*
> + * assume symetric delay to and from source:
> + * average target time corresponds to measured
> + * source time
> + */
> + sample.offset =
> + ktime_to_ns(ktime_add(end, start)) / 2 -
> + ts;
> +
> + /* simple insertion sort based on duration */
> + index = counter - 1;
> + while (index >= 0) {
> + if (samples[index].duration_target <
> + sample.duration_target)
> + break;
> + samples[index + 1] = samples[index];
> + index--;
> + }
> + samples[index + 1] = sample;
> + counter++;
> + }
> +
> + i++;
> + if (counter >= num_samples || i >= 100000) {
> + end_source = ts;
> + break;
> + }
> + }
> +
> + *source_tstamp = (end_source + start_source) / 2;
> +
> + /* remove outliers by only using 75% of the samples */
> + used = counter * 3 / 4;
> + if (!used)
> + used = counter;
> + if (used) {
> + /* calculate average */
> + s64 off = 0;
> + for (index = 0; index < used; index++)
> + off += samples[index].offset;
> + *offset = div_s64(off, used);
> + }
> +
> + if (samples && samples != buffer)
> + kfree(samples);
> +
> + return used;
> +}
> +EXPORT_SYMBOL(timecompare_offset);
> +
> +void __timecompare_update(struct timecompare *sync,
> + u64 source_tstamp)
> +{
> + s64 offset;
> + u64 average_time;
> +
> + if (!timecompare_offset(sync, &offset, &average_time))
> + return;
> +
> + printk(KERN_DEBUG
> + "average offset: %lld\n", offset);
> +
> + if (!sync->last_update) {
> + sync->last_update = average_time;
> + sync->offset = offset;
> + sync->skew = 0;
> + } else {
> + s64 delta_nsec = average_time - sync->last_update;
> +
> + /* avoid division by negative or small deltas */
> + if (delta_nsec >= 10000) {
> + s64 delta_offset_nsec = offset - sync->offset;
> + s64 skew; /* delta_offset_nsec *
> + TIMECOMPARE_SKEW_RESOLUTION /
> + delta_nsec */
> + u64 divisor;
> +
> + /* div_s64() is limited to 32 bit divisor */
> + skew = delta_offset_nsec * TIMECOMPARE_SKEW_RESOLUTION;
> + divisor = delta_nsec;
> + while (unlikely(divisor >= ((s64)1) << 32)) {
> + /* divide both by 2; beware, right shift
> + of negative value has undefined
> + behavior and can only be used for
> + the positive divisor */
> + skew = div_s64(skew, 2);
> + divisor >>= 1;
> + }
> + skew = div_s64(skew, divisor);
> +
> + /*
> + * Calculate new overall skew as 4/16 the
> + * old value and 12/16 the new one. This is
> + * a rather arbitrary tradeoff between
> + * only using the latest measurement (0/16 and
> + * 16/16) and even more weight on past measurements.
> + */
> +#define TIMECOMPARE_NEW_SKEW_PER_16 12
> + sync->skew =
> + div_s64((16 - TIMECOMPARE_NEW_SKEW_PER_16) *
> + sync->skew +
> + TIMECOMPARE_NEW_SKEW_PER_16 * skew,
> + 16);
> + sync->last_update = average_time;
> + sync->offset = offset;
> + }
> + }
> +}
> +EXPORT_SYMBOL(__timecompare_update);
> --
> 1.6.1.2
>



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