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Subject[PATCH RFC: kvm tsc virtualization 17/20] Periodically measure TSC skew
Date
Resync all CPUs to measure TSC skew periodically.  Use the measured skew
to adjust the resync time (not done yet - heuristic needed)

Signed-off-by: Zachary Amsden <zamsden@redhat.com>
---
arch/x86/kvm/x86.c | 93 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++--
1 files changed, 90 insertions(+), 3 deletions(-)
diff --git a/arch/x86/kvm/x86.c b/arch/x86/kvm/x86.c
index 792c895..3a854ec 100644
--- a/arch/x86/kvm/x86.c
+++ b/arch/x86/kvm/x86.c
@@ -750,9 +750,10 @@ struct cpu_tsc_vars
u64 last_ref;
};
static DEFINE_PER_CPU(struct cpu_tsc_vars, cpu_tsc_vars);
-
static int tsc_base_cpu = -1;
static unsigned long ref_tsc_khz;
+static u64 tsc_drift;
+static struct timer_list resync_timer;

static inline int cpu_is_tsc_synchronized(int cpu)
{
@@ -935,6 +936,7 @@ static void sync_tsc_helper(int measure_cpu, s64 *delta, atomic_t *ready)
* Average and trim the samples of any outliers; we use > 2 x sigma
*/
static u64 tsc_deviation;
+static u64 tsc_skew;
static s64 average_samples(s64 *samples, unsigned num_samples)
{
unsigned i, j;
@@ -993,10 +995,24 @@ static void kvm_sync_tsc(void *cpup)
s64 *delta1, *delta2;
static atomic_t ready ____cacheline_aligned = ATOMIC_INIT(1);
struct cpu_tsc_vars *cv = &per_cpu(cpu_tsc_vars, new_cpu);
+ static u64 old_base;
+ static s64 old_offset;
+ static unsigned long old_multiplier;
+ static unsigned int old_shift;

BUG_ON(tsc_base_cpu == -1);
local_irq_save(flags);
+
+ /*
+ * First, the new CPU may be just coming up to sync or might have
+ * changed frequency, which means the measurement base must be
+ * adjusted. If not, we can use it to compute a skew estimate.
+ */
if (raw_smp_processor_id() == new_cpu) {
+ old_multiplier = cv->tsc_multiplier;
+ old_shift = cv->tsc_shift;
+ old_base = cv->tsc_measure_base;
+ old_offset = cv->tsc_offset;
cv->tsc_measure_base = native_read_tsc();
cv->tsc_offset = 0;
compute_best_multiplier(ref_tsc_khz, cv->tsc_khz,
@@ -1005,10 +1021,12 @@ static void kvm_sync_tsc(void *cpup)
" tsc_base_cpu = %d\n", __func__, new_cpu, cv->tsc_khz,
cv->tsc_measure_base, tsc_base_cpu);
}
+
delta1 = per_cpu(delta_array, tsc_base_cpu).delta;
delta2 = per_cpu(delta_array, new_cpu).delta;
sync_tsc_helper(tsc_base_cpu, delta1, &ready);
sync_tsc_helper(new_cpu, delta2, &ready);
+
if (raw_smp_processor_id() == new_cpu) {
s64 accumulator = 0;

@@ -1024,8 +1042,40 @@ static void kvm_sync_tsc(void *cpup)
accumulator += average_samples(&delta1[2], SYNC_TRIES-3);
accumulator -= average_samples(&delta2[2], SYNC_TRIES-3);
accumulator /= 2;
-
cv->tsc_offset = accumulator;
+
+ /*
+ * Skew can be computed over a constant multiplier as follows:
+ *
+ * ref_new = (tsc_new - base_new) * mult + off_new
+ * ref_old = (tsc_old - base_old) * mult + off_old
+ *
+ * skew = ref_new - (ref_old + delta_ref)
+ *
+ * skew = off_new - off_old + mult(tsc_new - tsc_old)
+ * - mult(base_new - base_old) - delta_ref
+ *
+ * The tsc_old / tsc_new values are not recoverable, but
+ * observe that mult(tsc_new - tsc_old) == delta_ref, so
+ *
+ * skew = delta(off) - mult(delta base)
+ *
+ * To avoid problems with signed computation, we multiply
+ * unsigned numbers first before switching to signed arithmetic
+ */
+ if (old_multiplier == cv->tsc_multiplier &&
+ old_shift == cv->tsc_shift) {
+ u64 sbo = old_base, sbn = cv->tsc_measure_base;
+ s64 skew;
+ sbo = mult_precise(sbo, old_multiplier, old_shift);
+ sbn = mult_precise(sbn, old_multiplier, old_shift);
+ skew = cv->tsc_offset - old_offset + (sbo - sbn);
+ if (skew < 0)
+ skew = -skew;
+ if (skew > tsc_skew)
+ tsc_skew = skew;
+ }
+
smp_wmb();
++cv->tsc_generation;
atomic_set(&cv->tsc_synchronized, 1);
@@ -3611,6 +3661,8 @@ static long resync(void *unused)
struct cpu_tsc_vars *cv = &__get_cpu_var(cpu_tsc_vars);
u64 tsc = 0;
int cpu;
+ static unsigned long jif_old;
+ unsigned long jif_delta;

/*
* First, make sure we are on the right CPU; between when the work got
@@ -3643,17 +3695,28 @@ static long resync(void *unused)
cv->tsc_generation++; // XXX needed? */
compute_best_multiplier(ref_tsc_khz, cv->tsc_khz, &cv->tsc_multiplier,
&cv->tsc_shift);
+ tsc_skew = 0;
atomic_set(&cv->tsc_synchronized, 1);
+ smp_wmb();

for_each_online_cpu(cpu)
kvm_do_sync_tsc(cpu);

+ for_each_online_cpu(cpu)
+ while (!cpu_is_tsc_synchronized(cpu))
+ cpu_relax();
+
+ smp_rmb();
+ jif_delta = jiffies - jif_old;
+ pr_debug("max TSC skew now estimated at %llu over %lu jiffies\n",
+ tsc_skew, jif_delta);
+ jif_old = jiffies;
+ mod_timer(&resync_timer, jiffies + HZ * 50);
put_cpu();
return 0;
}

static DEFINE_MUTEX(resync_lock);
-
static void resync_all(void)
{
mutex_lock(&resync_lock);
@@ -3662,6 +3725,18 @@ static void resync_all(void)
mutex_unlock(&resync_lock);
}

+static struct work_struct resync_work;
+static void resync_work_fn(struct work_struct *work)
+{
+ resync_all();
+}
+
+static void resync_callout(unsigned long unused)
+{
+ INIT_WORK(&resync_work, resync_work_fn);
+ schedule_work(&resync_work);
+}
+
static int kvmclock_cpufreq_notifier(struct notifier_block *nb, unsigned long val,
void *data)
{
@@ -3836,6 +3911,15 @@ static void kvm_timer_init(void)
for_each_possible_cpu(cpu)
per_cpu(cpu_tsc_vars, cpu).tsc_khz = tsc_khz;
}
+
+ /*
+ * Now, pick a CPU to make the master and synchronize all other
+ * CPUs to it's clock. Periodically check for drift as well.
+ * Our initial drift estimate is 1 ppm / sec.
+ */
+ tsc_drift = ref_tsc_khz / 1000;
+ init_timer(&resync_timer);
+ resync_timer.function = resync_callout;
tsc_base_cpu = get_cpu();
put_cpu();
resync_all();
@@ -3898,6 +3982,9 @@ void kvm_arch_exit(void)
pci_write_config_byte(*nb, 0x87, disabled_c1_ramp);
}
#endif
+ mutex_lock(&resync_lock);
+ del_timer(&resync_timer);
+ mutex_unlock(&resync_lock);
}

int kvm_emulate_halt(struct kvm_vcpu *vcpu)
--
1.6.5.2


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