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SubjectRe: [PATCH HACK] powerpc: quick hack to get a functional eHEA with hardirq preemption
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On Sep 24, 2008, at 7:30 AM, Sebastien Dugue wrote:
> Hi Milton,
> On Wed, 24 Sep 2008 04:58:22 -0500 (CDT) Milton Miller
> <miltonm@bga.com> wrote:
>> On Mon Sep 15 at 18:04:06 EST in 2008, Sebastien Dugue wrote:
>>> When entering the low level handler, level sensitive interrupts are
>>> masked, then eio'd in interrupt context and then unmasked at the
>>> end of hardirq processing. That's fine as any interrupt comming
>>> in-between will still be processed since the kernel replays those
>>> pending interrupts.
>>
>> Is this to generate some kind of software managed nesting and priority
>> of the hardware level interrupts?
>
> No, not really. This is only to be sure to not miss interrupts coming
> from the same source that were received during threaded hardirq
> processing.
> Some instrumentation showed that it never seems to happen in the eHEA
> interrupt case, so I think we can forget this aspect.

I don't trust "the interrupt can never happen during hea hardirq",
because I think there will be a race between their rearming the next
interrupt and the unmask being called.

I was trying to understand why the mask and early eoi, but I guess its
to handle other more limited interrupt controllers where the interrupts
stack in hardware instead of software.

> Also, the problem only manifests with the eHEA RX interrupt. For
> example,
> the IBM Power Raid (ipr) SCSI exhibits absolutely no problem under an
> RT
> kernel. From this I conclude that:
>
> IPR - PCI - XICS is OK
> eHEA - IBMEBUS - XICS is broken with hardirq preemption.
>
> I also checked that forcing the eHEA interrupt to take the non
> threaded
> path does work.

For a long period of time, XICS dealt only with level interrupts.
First Micro Channel, and later PCI buses. The IPI is made level by
software conventions. Recently, EHCA, EHEA, and MSI interrupts were
added which by their nature are edge based. The logic that converts
those interrupts to the XICS layer is responsible for the resend when
no cpu can accept them, but not to retrigger after an EOI.

> Here is a side by side comparison of the fasteoi flow with and
> without hardirq
> threading (sorry it's a bit wide)
(removed)
> the non-threaded flow does (in interrupt context):
>
> mask
> handle interrupt
> unmask
> eoi
>
> the threaded flow does:
>
> mask
> eoi
> handle interrupt
> unmask
>
> If I remove the mask() call, then the eHEA is no longer hanging.

Hmm, I guess I'm confused. You are saying the irq does not appear if
it occurs while it is masked? Well, in that case, I would guess that
the hypervisor is checking if the irq is previously pending while it
was masked and resetting it as part of the unmask. It can't do it on
level, but can on the true edge sources. I would further say the
justification for this might be the hardware might make it pending from
some previous stale event that might result in the false interrupt on
startup were it not to do this clear.

>> The reason I ask is the xics controller can do unlimited nesting
>> of hardware interrupts. In fact, the hardware has 255 levels of
>> priority, of which 16 or so are reserved by the hypervisor, leaving
>> over 200 for the os to manage. Higher numbers are lower in priority,
>> and the hardware will only dispatch an interrupt to a given cpu if
>> it is currenty at a lower priority. If it is at a higher priority
>> and the interrupt is not bound to a specific cpu it will look for
>> another cpu to dispatch it. The hardware will not re-present an
>> irq until the it is EOId (managed by a small state machine per
>> interrupt at the source, which also handles no cpu available try
>> again later), but software can return its cpu priority to the
>> previous level to recieve other interrupt sources at the same level.
>> The hardware also supports lazy update of the cpu priority register
>> when an interrupt is presented; as long as the cpu is hard-irq
>> enabled it can take the irq then write is real priority and let the
>> hw decide if the irq is still pending or it must defer or try another
>> cpu in the rejection scenerio. The only restriction is that the
>> EOI can not cause an interrupt reject by raising the priority while
>> sending the EOI command.
>>
>> The per-interrupt mask and unmask calls have to go through RTAS, a
>> single-threaded global context, which in addition to increasing
>> path length will really limit scalability. The interrupt controller
>> poll and reject facilities are accessed through hypervisor calls
>> which are comparable to a fast syscall, and parallel to all cpus.
>>
>> We used to lower the priority to allow other interrupts in, but we
>> realized that in addition to the questionable latency in doing so,
>> it only caused unlimited stack nesting and overflow without per-irq
>> stacks. We currently set IPIs above other irqs so we typically
>> only process them during a hard irq (but we return to base level
>> after IPI and could take another base irq, a bug).
>>
>>
>> So, Sebastien, with this information, is does the RT kernel have
>> a strategy that better matches this hardware?
>
> Don't think so. I think that the problem may be elsewhere as
> everything is fine with PCI devices (well at least SCSI).

Those are true level sources, and not edge.

> As I said earlier in another mail, it seems that the eHEA
> is behaving as if it was generating edge interrupts which do not
> support masking. Don't know.

(I wrote this next paragraph before parsing the "remove mask and it
works" / I'm confused paragraph above, so it may not be a problem).

These sources are truly edge. Once you do an EOI you are taking
responsibility to do the replay yourself. In your threaded case, you
EOI and therefore the hardware will arm for the next event. When you
add the mask, the delivery is deferred until it is unmasked at the end
of your EOI loop. When you do not, the new interrupt may come in but
you just EOI it but do not tell the running thread that it happened,
then you are dropping the irq event. Since the source is truly edge,
there is no hardware replay and the interrupt is lost.

(I think the pci express gigabit is one of the few msi interrupt
adapters that both IBM and Linux support).

> Thanks a lot for the explanation, looks like the xics + hypervisor
> combo is way more complex than I thought.

While the hypervisor adds a bit of path length (an hcall vs a single
mmio access for get_irq/eoi with multiple priority irq nesting), the
model is no more or less complicated than native xics.

The path lengh for mask and unmask is always VERY slow and single
threaded global lock and single context in xics. It is designed and
tuned to run at driver startup and shutdown (and adapter reset and
reinitalize during pci error processing), not during normal irq
processing.

The XICS hardware implicitly masks the specific source as part of
interrupt ack (get_irq), and implicitly undoes this mask at eoi. In
addition, it helps to manage the cpu priority by supplying the previous
priority as part of the get_irq process and providing for the priority
to be restored (lowered only) as part of the eoi. The hardware does
support setting the cpu priority independently.

We should only be using this implicit masking for xics, and not the
explicit masking for any normal interrupt processing. I don't know if
this means making the mask/unmask setting a bit in software, and the
enable/disable to actually call what we do now on mask/unmask, or if it
means we need a new flow type on real time.

While call to mask and unmask might work on level interrupts, its
really slow and will limit performance if done on every interrupt.

> the non-threaded flow does (in interrupt context):
>
> mask
> handle interrupt
> unmask
> eoi
>
> the threaded flow does:
>
> mask
> eoi
> handle interrupt
> unmask

I think the flows we want on xics are:

(non-threaded)
getirq (implicit source specific mask until eoi)
handle interrupt
eoi (implicit cpu priority restore)

(threaded)
getirq (implicit source specific mask until eoi)
explicit cpu priority restore
handle interrupt
eoi (implicit cpu priority restore to same as explicit level)

Where the cpu priority restore allows receiving other interrupts of the
same priority from the hardware.

So I guess the question is can the rt kernel interrupt processing take
advantage of xics auto mask, or does someone need to write state
tracking in the xics code to work around this, changing mask under
interrupt to "defer eoi to unmask" (which I can not see as clean, and
having shutdown problems).

milton



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