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Subject[PATCH 5/5] CUSE: implement CUSE - Character device in Userspace
Date
CUSE enables implementing character devices in userspace.  With recent
additions of nonblock, lseek, ioctl and poll support, FUSE already has
most of what's necessary to implement character devices. All CUSE has
to do is bonding all those components - FUSE, chardev and the driver
model - nicely.

Due to the number of different objects involved and many ways an
instance can fail, object lifetime rules are a tad bit complex.
Please take a look at the comment on top of fs/fuse/cuse.c for
details.

Other than that, it's mostly straight forward. Client opens
/dev/cuse, kernel starts conversation with CUSE_INIT. The client
tells CUSE which device it wants to create. CUSE creates the device
for the client and the rest works the same way as in a direct IO FUSE
session.

Each CUSE device has a corresponding directory /sys/class/cuse/DEVNAME
(which is symlink to /sys/devices/virtual/class/DEVNAME if
SYSFS_DEPRECATED is turned off) which hosts "waiting" and "abort"
among other things. Those two files have the same meaning as the FUSE
control files.

The only notable lacking feature compared to in-kernel implementation
is mmap support.

Signed-off-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
---
fs/Kconfig | 10 +
fs/fuse/Makefile | 1 +
fs/fuse/cuse.c | 634 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
include/linux/cuse.h | 40 ++++
include/linux/fuse.h | 2 +
5 files changed, 687 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)
create mode 100644 fs/fuse/cuse.c
create mode 100644 include/linux/cuse.h

diff --git a/fs/Kconfig b/fs/Kconfig
index d387358..3da7551 100644
--- a/fs/Kconfig
+++ b/fs/Kconfig
@@ -648,6 +648,16 @@ config FUSE_FS
If you want to develop a userspace FS, or if you want to use
a filesystem based on FUSE, answer Y or M.

+config CUSE
+ tristate "Character device in Userpace support"
+ depends on FUSE_FS
+ help
+ This FUSE extension allows character devices to be
+ implemented in userspace.
+
+ If you want to develop or use userspace character device
+ based on CUSE, answer Y or M.
+
config GENERIC_ACL
bool
select FS_POSIX_ACL
diff --git a/fs/fuse/Makefile b/fs/fuse/Makefile
index 7243706..e95eeb4 100644
--- a/fs/fuse/Makefile
+++ b/fs/fuse/Makefile
@@ -3,5 +3,6 @@
#

obj-$(CONFIG_FUSE_FS) += fuse.o
+obj-$(CONFIG_CUSE) += cuse.o

fuse-objs := dev.o dir.o file.o inode.o control.o
diff --git a/fs/fuse/cuse.c b/fs/fuse/cuse.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..23aa995
--- /dev/null
+++ b/fs/fuse/cuse.c
@@ -0,0 +1,634 @@
+/*
+ * CUSE: Character device in Userspace
+ *
+ * Copyright (C) 2008 SUSE Linux Products GmbH
+ * Copyright (C) 2008 Tejun Heo <teheo@suse.de>
+ *
+ * This file is released under the GPLv2.
+ *
+ * CUSE bridges a few objects to implement a character device using
+ * userland backend. The lifetime rules of the involved objects are a
+ * bit complex.
+ *
+ * cuse_conn : contains fuse_conn and serves as bonding structure
+ * channel : file handle connected to the userland CUSE client
+ * cdev : the implemented character device
+ * mnt : vfsmount which serves dentry and inode for cdev
+ * dev : generic device for cdev
+ *
+ * Note that 'channel' is what 'dev' is in FUSE. As CUSE deals with
+ * devices, it's called 'channel' to reduce confusion.
+ *
+ * channel determines when the character device dies. When channel is
+ * closed, everything should begin to destruct. As cuse_conn and mnt
+ * dereference each other unlike FUSE, both should be destructed at
+ * the same time. This is achieved by giving the base reference of
+ * cuse_conn to mnt and never referencing cuse_conn directly, so both
+ * channel and cdev have reference to mnt which in turn has single
+ * reference to cuse_conn.
+ *
+ * On CUSE client disconnect, cuse_channel_release() unregisters dev,
+ * deletes cdev and puts mnt. When the cdev is released, it puts mnt
+ * which in turn puts the cuse_conn on release.
+ *
+ * cuse_conn_get/put() takes cuse_conn and manipulates the reference
+ * count of mnt for convenience.
+ */
+
+#include <linux/fs.h>
+#include <linux/file.h>
+#include <linux/stat.h>
+#include <linux/cdev.h>
+#include <linux/device.h>
+#include <linux/kdev_t.h>
+#include <linux/kthread.h>
+#include <linux/miscdevice.h>
+#include <linux/cuse.h>
+
+#include "fuse_i.h"
+
+#define CUSE_SUPER_MAGIC 0x43555345
+
+struct cuse_conn {
+ struct fuse_conn fc;
+ struct cdev cdev;
+ struct vfsmount *mnt;
+ struct device *dev;
+ bool cdev_added:1;
+ bool disconnected:1; /* channel disconnected */
+ char *uevent_envp[UEVENT_NUM_ENVP + 1];
+ char *uevent_env_buf;
+};
+
+#define fc_to_cc(_fc) container_of((_fc), struct cuse_conn, fc)
+#define cdev_to_cc(_cdev) container_of((_cdev), struct cuse_conn, cdev)
+#define cuse_conn_get(cc) ({mntget((cc)->mnt); cc;})
+#define cuse_conn_put(cc) mntput((cc)->mnt)
+
+static struct class *cuse_class;
+static DEFINE_SPINLOCK(cuse_disconnect_lock);
+
+static loff_t cuse_file_llseek(struct file *file, loff_t offset, int origin)
+{
+ return fuse_file_llseek(file->private_data, offset, origin);
+}
+
+static ssize_t cuse_direct_read(struct file *file, char __user *buf,
+ size_t count, loff_t *ppos)
+{
+ return fuse_direct_io(file->private_data, buf, count, ppos, 0);
+}
+
+static ssize_t cuse_direct_write(struct file *file, const char __user *buf,
+ size_t count, loff_t *ppos)
+{
+ /*
+ * No locking or generic_write_checks(), the client is
+ * responsible for locking and sanity checks.
+ */
+ return fuse_direct_io(file->private_data, buf, count, ppos, 1);
+}
+
+static int cuse_open(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)
+{
+ struct cuse_conn *cc = cdev_to_cc(inode->i_cdev);
+ struct file *cfile;
+
+ cfile = dentry_open(dget(cc->mnt->mnt_root), mntget(cc->mnt),
+ file->f_flags);
+ if (IS_ERR(cfile))
+ return PTR_ERR(cfile);
+
+ file->private_data = cfile;
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static int cuse_flush(struct file *file, fl_owner_t id)
+{
+ return fuse_flush(file->private_data, id);
+}
+
+static int cuse_release(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)
+{
+ return filp_close(file->private_data, NULL);
+}
+
+static int cuse_fsync(struct file *file, struct dentry *de, int datasync)
+{
+ return fuse_fsync(file->private_data, de, datasync);
+}
+
+static unsigned cuse_file_poll(struct file *file, poll_table *wait)
+{
+ return fuse_file_poll(file->private_data, wait);
+}
+
+static long cuse_file_ioctl(struct file *file, unsigned int cmd,
+ unsigned long arg)
+{
+ return fuse_file_ioctl(file->private_data, cmd, arg);
+}
+
+static long cuse_file_compat_ioctl(struct file *file, unsigned int cmd,
+ unsigned long arg)
+{
+ return fuse_file_compat_ioctl(file->private_data, cmd, arg);
+}
+
+static const struct file_operations cuse_frontend_fops = {
+ .llseek = cuse_file_llseek,
+ .read = cuse_direct_read,
+ .write = cuse_direct_write,
+ .open = cuse_open,
+ .flush = cuse_flush,
+ .release = cuse_release,
+ .fsync = cuse_fsync,
+ .poll = cuse_file_poll,
+ .unlocked_ioctl = cuse_file_ioctl,
+ .compat_ioctl = cuse_file_compat_ioctl,
+};
+
+static void cuse_fc_release(struct fuse_conn *fc)
+{
+ struct cuse_conn *cc = fc_to_cc(fc);
+
+ kfree(cc->uevent_env_buf);
+ kfree(cc);
+}
+
+static int cuse_fill_super(struct super_block *sb, void *data, int silent)
+{
+ struct cuse_conn *cc = NULL;
+ struct dentry *root_dentry = NULL;
+ struct inode *root = NULL;
+ int rc;
+
+ sb->s_magic = CUSE_SUPER_MAGIC;
+ sb->s_op = &fuse_super_operations;
+ sb->s_maxbytes = MAX_LFS_FILESIZE;
+
+ cc = kzalloc(sizeof(*cc), GFP_KERNEL);
+ if (!cc)
+ goto err_nomem;
+ rc = fuse_conn_init(&cc->fc, sb);
+ if (rc)
+ goto err;
+
+ /* cuse isn't accessible to mortal users, give it some latitude */
+ cc->fc.flags = FUSE_ALLOW_OTHER;
+ cc->fc.user_id = current->euid;
+ cc->fc.group_id = current->egid;
+ cc->fc.max_read = FUSE_MAX_PAGES_PER_REQ * PAGE_SIZE;
+ cc->fc.release = cuse_fc_release;
+
+ /* transfer the initial cc refcnt to sb */
+ sb->s_fs_info = &cc->fc;
+ cc = NULL;
+
+ root = fuse_get_root_inode(sb, S_IFREG);
+ if (!root)
+ goto err_nomem;
+
+ root_dentry = d_alloc_root(root);
+ if (!root_dentry)
+ goto err_nomem;
+
+ sb->s_root = root_dentry;
+
+ return 0;
+
+ err_nomem:
+ rc = -ENOMEM;
+ err:
+ if (root_dentry)
+ dput(root_dentry);
+ else if (root)
+ iput(root);
+ kfree(cc);
+ return rc;
+}
+
+static int cuse_get_sb(struct file_system_type *fs_type, int flags,
+ const char *dev_name, void *data, struct vfsmount *mnt)
+{
+ return get_sb_nodev(fs_type, flags, data, cuse_fill_super, mnt);
+}
+
+static struct file_system_type cuse_fs = {
+ .name = "cuse",
+ .get_sb = cuse_get_sb,
+ .kill_sb = kill_anon_super,
+};
+
+static int cuse_parse_one(char **pp, char *end, char **keyp, char **valp)
+{
+ char *p = *pp;
+ char *key, *val;
+
+ while (p < end && *p == '\0')
+ p++;
+ if (p == end)
+ return 0;
+
+ if (end[-1] != '\0') {
+ printk(KERN_ERR "CUSE: info not properly terminated\n");
+ return -EINVAL;
+ }
+
+ key = val = p;
+ p += strlen(p);
+
+ if (valp) {
+ strsep(&val, "=");
+ if (!val)
+ val = key + strlen(key);
+ key = strstrip(key);
+ val = strstrip(val);
+ } else
+ key = strstrip(key);
+
+ if (!strlen(key)) {
+ printk(KERN_ERR "CUSE: zero length info key specified\n");
+ return -EINVAL;
+ }
+
+ *pp = p;
+ *keyp = key;
+ if (valp)
+ *valp = val;
+
+ return 1;
+}
+
+struct cuse_devinfo {
+ const char *name;
+};
+
+static int cuse_parse_devinfo(char *p, size_t len, struct cuse_devinfo *devinfo)
+{
+ char *end = p + len;
+ char *key, *val;
+ int rc;
+
+ while (true) {
+ rc = cuse_parse_one(&p, end, &key, &val);
+ if (rc < 0)
+ return rc;
+ if (!rc)
+ break;
+ if (strcmp(key, "DEVNAME") == 0)
+ devinfo->name = val;
+ else
+ printk(KERN_WARNING "CUSE: unknown device info \"%s\"\n",
+ key);
+ }
+
+ if (!devinfo->name || !strlen(devinfo->name)) {
+ printk(KERN_ERR "CUSE: DEVNAME unspecified\n");
+ return -EINVAL;
+ }
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static int cuse_parse_hotplug_envp(char *p, size_t len, char **envp, int max)
+{
+ char *end = p + len;
+ int idx = 0;
+ char *key;
+ int rc;
+
+ while (true) {
+ rc = cuse_parse_one(&p, end, &key, NULL);
+ if (rc < 0)
+ return rc;
+ if (!rc)
+ break;
+ if (idx >= max) {
+ printk(KERN_ERR "CUSE: too many hotplug info entries\n");
+ return -ENOMEM;
+ }
+ envp[idx++] = key;
+ }
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static void cuse_gendev_release(struct device *dev)
+{
+ kfree(dev);
+}
+
+static void cuse_cdev_release(struct cdev *cdev)
+{
+ cuse_conn_put(cdev_to_cc(cdev));
+}
+
+static int cuse_init_worker(void *data)
+{
+ struct cuse_conn *cc = data;
+ struct cuse_init_in iin = { };
+ struct cuse_init_out iout = { };
+ struct cuse_devinfo devinfo = { };
+ struct fuse_req *req;
+ struct page *page = NULL;
+ struct device *dev;
+ bool disconnected;
+ dev_t devt;
+ int rc;
+
+ BUILD_BUG_ON(CUSE_INIT_INFO_MAX > PAGE_SIZE);
+
+ /* identify ourself and query what the CUSE client wants */
+ req = fuse_get_req(&cc->fc);
+ if (IS_ERR(req)) {
+ rc = PTR_ERR(req);
+ goto out;
+ }
+
+ rc = -ENOMEM;
+ page = alloc_pages(GFP_KERNEL | __GFP_ZERO, 1);
+ if (!page)
+ goto out;
+
+ req->pages[0] = nth_page(page, 0);
+ req->pages[1] = nth_page(page, 1);
+ req->num_pages = 2;
+
+ req->in.h.opcode = CUSE_INIT;
+ req->in.h.nodeid = get_node_id(cc->mnt->mnt_sb->s_root->d_inode);
+ req->in.numargs = 1;
+ req->in.args[0].size = sizeof(iin);
+ req->in.args[0].value = &iin;
+
+ iin.ver_major = CUSE_KERNEL_VERSION;
+ iin.ver_minor = CUSE_KERNEL_MINOR_VERSION;
+
+ req->out.numargs = 2;
+ req->out.args[0].size = sizeof(iout);
+ req->out.args[0].value = &iout;
+ req->out.args[1].size = 2 * CUSE_INIT_INFO_MAX;
+ req->out.argpages = 1;
+ req->out.argvar = 1;
+
+ fuse_request_send(&cc->fc, req);
+ rc = req->out.h.error;
+ if (rc)
+ goto out;
+
+ rc = -EOVERFLOW;
+ if (iout.dev_info_len > CUSE_INIT_INFO_MAX ||
+ iout.hotplug_info_len > CUSE_INIT_INFO_MAX)
+ goto out;
+
+ rc = cuse_parse_devinfo(page_address(page), iout.dev_info_len,
+ &devinfo);
+ if (rc)
+ goto out;
+
+ /* hotplug info is also used during device release, copy and parse */
+ rc = -ENOMEM;
+ cc->uevent_env_buf = kmalloc(iout.hotplug_info_len, GFP_KERNEL);
+ if (!cc->uevent_env_buf)
+ goto out;
+
+ memcpy(cc->uevent_env_buf, page_address(page) + iout.dev_info_len,
+ iout.hotplug_info_len);
+
+ rc = cuse_parse_hotplug_envp(cc->uevent_env_buf, iout.hotplug_info_len,
+ cc->uevent_envp, UEVENT_NUM_ENVP);
+ if (rc)
+ goto out;
+
+ devt = MKDEV(iout.dev_major, iout.dev_minor);
+ if (!MAJOR(devt))
+ rc = alloc_chrdev_region(&devt, MINOR(devt), 1, devinfo.name);
+ else
+ rc = register_chrdev_region(devt, 1, devinfo.name);
+ if (rc) {
+ printk(KERN_ERR "CUSE: failed to register chrdev region\n");
+ goto out;
+ }
+
+ /* We now have MAJ, MIN and name. Let's create the device */
+ rc = -ENOMEM;
+ dev = kzalloc(sizeof(*dev), GFP_KERNEL);
+ if (!dev)
+ goto out_unregister_chrdev_region;
+ device_initialize(dev);
+ dev->class = cuse_class;
+ dev->devt = devt;
+ dev->release = cuse_gendev_release;
+ dev_set_drvdata(dev, cc);
+ dev_set_name(dev, "%s", devinfo.name);
+
+ rc = device_add(dev);
+ if (rc)
+ goto out_put_device;
+
+ /* register cdev */
+ cdev_init(&cc->cdev, &cuse_frontend_fops);
+ cc->cdev.owner = THIS_MODULE;
+ cc->cdev.release = cuse_cdev_release;
+ kobject_set_name(&cc->cdev.kobj, "%s", devinfo.name);
+
+ rc = cdev_add(&cc->cdev, devt, 1);
+ if (rc)
+ goto out_put_device;
+ cuse_conn_get(cc); /* will be released on cdev final put */
+
+ /* transfer dev and cdev ownership to channel */
+ spin_lock(&cuse_disconnect_lock);
+ disconnected = cc->disconnected;
+ if (!disconnected) {
+ cc->dev = dev;
+ cc->cdev_added = true;
+ }
+ spin_unlock(&cuse_disconnect_lock);
+
+ if (disconnected)
+ goto out_cdev_del;
+
+ rc = 0;
+ goto out;
+
+ out_cdev_del:
+ cdev_del(&cc->cdev);
+ out_put_device:
+ put_device(dev);
+ out_unregister_chrdev_region:
+ unregister_chrdev_region(devt, 1);
+ out:
+ if (!IS_ERR(req))
+ fuse_put_request(&cc->fc, req);
+ if (page)
+ __free_pages(page, 1);
+
+ if (rc)
+ fuse_abort_conn(&cc->fc);
+
+ cuse_conn_put(cc);
+ return rc;
+}
+
+static int cuse_channel_open(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)
+{
+ struct cuse_conn *cc;
+ struct vfsmount *mnt;
+ struct fuse_req *init_req;
+ struct task_struct *worker;
+ int rc;
+
+ /* Set up cuse_conn. cuse_conn will be created when filling
+ * in superblock for the following kern_mount().
+ */
+ mnt = kern_mount(&cuse_fs);
+ if (IS_ERR(mnt))
+ return PTR_ERR(mnt);
+
+ cc = fc_to_cc(get_fuse_conn_super(mnt->mnt_sb));
+ cc->mnt = mnt;
+
+ /* let's send fuse init request */
+ rc = -ENOMEM;
+ init_req = fuse_request_alloc();
+ if (!init_req)
+ goto err_cc_put;
+
+ cc->fc.connected = 1;
+ file->private_data = fuse_conn_get(&cc->fc);
+ fuse_send_init(&cc->fc, init_req);
+
+ /* Okay, FUSE part of initialization is complete. The rest of
+ * the initialization is a bit more involved and requires
+ * conversing with userland. Start a kthread.
+ */
+ worker = kthread_run(cuse_init_worker, cuse_conn_get(cc),
+ "cuse-init-pid%d", current->pid);
+ if (IS_ERR(worker)) {
+ fput(file);
+ rc = PTR_ERR(worker);
+ goto err_cc_put;
+ }
+
+ return 0;
+
+ err_cc_put:
+ cuse_conn_put(cc);
+ return rc;
+}
+
+static int cuse_channel_release(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)
+{
+ struct cuse_conn *cc = fc_to_cc(file->private_data);
+ int rc;
+
+ spin_lock(&cuse_disconnect_lock);
+ cc->disconnected = true;
+ spin_unlock(&cuse_disconnect_lock);
+
+ rc = fuse_dev_release(inode, file);
+ if (rc)
+ return rc;
+
+ if (cc->dev)
+ device_unregister(cc->dev);
+ if (cc->cdev_added) {
+ unregister_chrdev_region(cc->cdev.dev, 1);
+ cdev_del(&cc->cdev);
+ }
+ cuse_conn_put(cc);
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static struct file_operations cuse_channel_fops; /* initialized during init */
+
+static int cuse_class_dev_uevent(struct device *dev,
+ struct kobj_uevent_env *env)
+{
+ struct cuse_conn *cc = dev_get_drvdata(dev);
+ int i, rc;
+
+ for (i = 0; cc->uevent_envp[i]; i++) {
+ rc = add_uevent_var(env, "%s", cc->uevent_envp[i]);
+ if (rc)
+ return rc;
+ }
+ return 0;
+}
+
+ssize_t cuse_class_waiting_show(struct device *dev,
+ struct device_attribute *attr, char *buf)
+{
+ struct cuse_conn *cc = dev_get_drvdata(dev);
+
+ return sprintf(buf, "%d\n", atomic_read(&cc->fc.num_waiting));
+}
+
+ssize_t cuse_class_abort_store(struct device *dev,
+ struct device_attribute *attr,
+ const char *buf, size_t count)
+{
+ struct cuse_conn *cc = dev_get_drvdata(dev);
+
+ fuse_abort_conn(&cc->fc);
+ return count;
+}
+
+static struct device_attribute cuse_class_dev_attrs[] = {
+ __ATTR(waiting, S_IFREG | 0400, cuse_class_waiting_show, NULL),
+ __ATTR(abort, S_IFREG | 0200, NULL, cuse_class_abort_store),
+ { }
+};
+
+static struct miscdevice cuse_miscdev = {
+ .minor = MISC_DYNAMIC_MINOR, /* use dynamic for now */
+ .name = "cuse",
+ .fops = &cuse_channel_fops,
+};
+
+static int __init cuse_init(void)
+{
+ int rc;
+
+ /* inherit and extend fuse_dev_operations */
+ cuse_channel_fops = fuse_dev_operations;
+ cuse_channel_fops.owner = THIS_MODULE;
+ cuse_channel_fops.open = cuse_channel_open;
+ cuse_channel_fops.release = cuse_channel_release;
+
+ cuse_class = class_create(THIS_MODULE, "cuse");
+ if (IS_ERR(cuse_class))
+ return PTR_ERR(cuse_class);
+ cuse_class->dev_uevent = cuse_class_dev_uevent;
+ cuse_class->dev_attrs = cuse_class_dev_attrs;
+
+ rc = misc_register(&cuse_miscdev);
+ if (rc)
+ goto destroy_class;
+ rc = register_filesystem(&cuse_fs);
+ if (rc)
+ goto misc_deregister;
+ return 0;
+
+ misc_deregister:
+ misc_deregister(&cuse_miscdev);
+ destroy_class:
+ class_destroy(cuse_class);
+ return rc;
+}
+
+static void __exit cuse_exit(void)
+{
+ unregister_filesystem(&cuse_fs);
+ misc_deregister(&cuse_miscdev);
+ class_destroy(cuse_class);
+}
+
+module_init(cuse_init);
+module_exit(cuse_exit);
+
+MODULE_AUTHOR("Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>");
+MODULE_DESCRIPTION("Character device in Userspace");
+MODULE_LICENSE("GPL");
diff --git a/include/linux/cuse.h b/include/linux/cuse.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..e875723
--- /dev/null
+++ b/include/linux/cuse.h
@@ -0,0 +1,40 @@
+/*
+ * CUSE: Character device in Userspace
+ * Copyright (C) 2008 SUSE Linux Products GmbH
+ * Copyright (C) 2008 Tejun Heo <teheo@suse.de>
+ *
+ * This file is released under the GPL.
+ */
+
+#ifndef _CUSE_H_
+#define _CUSE_H_
+
+#include <linux/major.h>
+#include <linux/miscdevice.h>
+#include <linux/fuse.h>
+
+#define CUSE_KERNEL_VERSION 0
+#define CUSE_KERNEL_MINOR_VERSION 1
+
+#define CUSE_KERNEL_MAJOR MISC_MAJOR
+#define CUSE_KERNEL_MINOR MISC_DYNAMIC_MINOR
+
+#define CUSE_INIT_INFO_MAX 4096
+
+enum cuse_opcode {
+ CUSE_INIT = CUSE_BASE,
+};
+
+struct cuse_init_in {
+ __u32 ver_major;
+ __u32 ver_minor;
+};
+
+struct cuse_init_out {
+ __u32 dev_major; /* chardev major */
+ __u32 dev_minor; /* chardev minor */
+ __u32 dev_info_len; /* device info */
+ __u32 hotplug_info_len; /* uevent envs */
+};
+
+#endif /*_CUSE_H_*/
diff --git a/include/linux/fuse.h b/include/linux/fuse.h
index b772b4a..e55c2f2 100644
--- a/include/linux/fuse.h
+++ b/include/linux/fuse.h
@@ -212,6 +212,8 @@ enum fuse_opcode {
FUSE_LSEEK = 39,
FUSE_IOCTL = 40,
FUSE_POLL = 41,
+
+ CUSE_BASE = 4096,
};

enum fuse_notify_code {
--
1.5.4.5


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