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SubjectRe: [PATCH 3/5] sched: make double-lock-balance fair
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On Tuesday 26 August 2008 22:23, Gregory Haskins wrote:
> Nick Piggin wrote:
> > On Tuesday 26 August 2008 06:15, Gregory Haskins wrote:
> >> double_lock balance() currently favors logically lower cpus since they
> >> often do not have to release their own lock to acquire a second lock.
> >> The result is that logically higher cpus can get starved when there is
> >> a lot of pressure on the RQs. This can result in higher latencies on
> >> higher cpu-ids.
> >>
> >> This patch makes the algorithm more fair by forcing all paths to have
> >> to release both locks before acquiring them again. Since callsites to
> >> double_lock_balance already consider it a potential
> >> preemption/reschedule point, they have the proper logic to recheck for
> >> atomicity violations.
> >>
> >> Signed-off-by: Gregory Haskins <ghaskins@novell.com>
> >> ---
> >>
> >> kernel/sched.c | 17 +++++------------
> >> 1 files changed, 5 insertions(+), 12 deletions(-)
> >>
> >> diff --git a/kernel/sched.c b/kernel/sched.c
> >> index 6e0bde6..b7326cd 100644
> >> --- a/kernel/sched.c
> >> +++ b/kernel/sched.c
> >> @@ -2790,23 +2790,16 @@ static int double_lock_balance(struct rq
> >> *this_rq, struct rq *busiest) __acquires(busiest->lock)
> >> __acquires(this_rq->lock)
> >> {
> >> - int ret = 0;
> >> -
> >> if (unlikely(!irqs_disabled())) {
> >> /* printk() doesn't work good under rq->lock */
> >> spin_unlock(&this_rq->lock);
> >> BUG_ON(1);
> >> }
> >> - if (unlikely(!spin_trylock(&busiest->lock))) {
> >> - if (busiest < this_rq) {
> >> - spin_unlock(&this_rq->lock);
> >> - spin_lock(&busiest->lock);
> >> - spin_lock_nested(&this_rq->lock, SINGLE_DEPTH_NESTING);
> >> - ret = 1;
> >> - } else
> >> - spin_lock_nested(&busiest->lock, SINGLE_DEPTH_NESTING);
> >> - }
> >> - return ret;
> >> +
> >> + spin_unlock(&this_rq->lock);
> >> + double_rq_lock(this_rq, busiest);
> >
> > Rather than adding the extra atomic operation, can't you just put this
> > into the unlikely spin_trylock failure path rather than the unfair logic
> > there?
>
> The trick is that we *must* first release this_rq before proceeding or
> the new proposal doesn't work as intended. This patch effectively
> breaks up the this_rq->lock critical section evenly across all CPUs as
> if it hit the case common for higher cpus.

I don't exactly see why my proposal would introduce any more latency, because
we only trylock while holding the existing lock -- this is will only ever add
a small ~constant time to the critical section, regardless of whether it is a
high or low CPU runqueue.


> This modification decreased
> latency by over 800% (went from > 400us to < 50us) on cpus 6 and 7 in my
> 8-way box namely because they were not forced to wait for all the other
> lower cores to finish, but rather completions of double_lock_balance
> were handled in true FIFO w.r.t. to other calls to
> double_lock_balance(). It has to do with the positioning within your
> FIFO ticket locks (though even if ticket locks are not present on a
> given architecture we should still see an improvement.)
>
> When a low cpu wants to double lock, it tends to hold this_rq and gets
> in line for busiest_rq with no bearing on how long it held this_rq.
> Therefore the following scenario can occur:
>
> cpu 0 cpu N
> ----------------------------------
> rq[0] locked
> ..
> ..
> ..
> double_lock(N, 0)
> rq[N] released
> blocked on rq[0]
> ..
> ..
> ..
> ..
> double_lock(0, N)
> rq[N] locked
> double_lock returns
> ..
> ..
> ..
> ..
> rq[0] released rq[0] locked
> double_lock returns
> ...
> ...
> ...
>
> ---------------------------------
>
> So double lock acquisition favors the lower cpus unfairly. They will
> always win, even if they were not first. Now with the combination of my
> patch plus your ticket locks, entry into the double lock becomes FIFO
> because the "blocked on rq[0]" would have inserted it in the
> time-ordered head of rq[0].

Right, but I don't think it is particularly wrong to allow a given
CPU to double_lock_balance ahead of another guy if we're already holding
the lock. _So long as_ the lock we are trying to acquire is uncontended,
and we don't introduce this skewed unfairness due to lower CPUs being
allowed to hold their lower lock while higher CPUs have to release their
lock and first queue on the lower.

The difference is that with my patch, there is a small window where the
guy who asks for the double lock first will go through second. I don't
think this really adds a fundamental amount of latency, and the
performance benefit should not be ignored.

Linux's traditional and I suppose much largest user base does not require
realtime or really strict fairness, so IMO it is always questionable to
make changes like this.


> The later call to double_lock(0, N)
> performed by cpu0 would be forced to queue up behind cpuN trying to
> reacquire its own lock.
>
> Effectively, double_lock_balance becomes as fair as the underlying
> spinlock governing the RQ. If we have ticket locks, double_lock_balance
> is FIFO. Lack of ticket locks means we have arbitrary fairness. And
> lack of this patch means we have favor for the lower cpus.
>
> To your point about the extra atomic ops: Perhaps I should predicate
> this change on CONFIG_PREEMPT so as to not slow down mainline where
> throughput is more valued.

I am happy with that. Actually, I think we should have a CONFIG_ to trade
off throughput for latency, and have that config select PREEMPT as well as
enable small misc changes like this one and the tlb flushing latency
reduction. But for the moment, CONFIG_PREEMPT is the traditional placeholder
for such a config option.


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