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SubjectRe: [PATCH, RFC, tip/core/rcu] scalable classic RCU implementation
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On Fri, 2008-08-22 at 18:53 -0700, Paul E. McKenney wrote:
> On Fri, Aug 22, 2008 at 04:29:32PM -0700, Josh Triplett wrote:
> > On Thu, 2008-08-21 at 16:43 -0700, Paul E. McKenney wrote:
> > > - spinlock_t lock ____cacheline_internodealigned_in_smp;
> > > - cpumask_t cpumask; /* CPUs that need to switch in order */
> > > - /* for current batch to proceed. */
> > > +/*
> > > + * Definition for node within the RCU grace-period-detection hierarchy.
> > > + */
> > > +struct rcu_node {
> > > + spinlock_t lock;
> > > + unsigned long qsmask; /* CPUs or groups that need to switch in */
> > > + /* order for current grace period to proceed.*/
> > > + unsigned long qsmaskinit;
> > > + /* Per-GP initialization for qsmask. */
> > > + int grplo; /* lowest-numbered CPU or group here. */
> > > + int grphi; /* highest-numbered CPU or group here. */
> > > + char grpnum; /* CPU/group number for next level up. */
> > > + char level; /* root is at level 0. */
> >
> > These four fields should use sized types, and preferably unsigned types.
>
> OK for grpnum and level, but grphi and grplo need to be "int" to
> match the various CPU-manipulation primitives.

Fair enough; the CPU-manipulation primitives do indeed use "int". Odd
that they use a signed type.

> > > + struct rcu_node *parent;
> > > } ____cacheline_internodealigned_in_smp;
> > >
> > > -/* Is batch a before batch b ? */
> > > -static inline int rcu_batch_before(long a, long b)
> > > -{
> > > - return (a - b) < 0;
> > > -}
> > > +/*
> > > + * RCU global state, including node hierarchy. This hierarchy is
> > > + * represented in "heap" form in a dense array. The root (first level)
> > > + * of the hierarchy is in ->node[0] (referenced by ->level[0]), the second
> > > + * level in ->node[1] through ->node[m] (->node[1] referenced by ->level[1]),
> > > + * and the third level in ->node[m+1] and following (->node[m+1] referenced
> > > + * by ->level[2]). The number of levels is determined by the number of
> > > + * CPUs and by CONFIG_RCU_FANOUT. Small systems will have a "hierarchy"
> > > + * consisting of a single rcu_node.
> > > + */
> > > +struct rcu_state {
> > > + struct rcu_node node[NUM_RCU_NODES]; /* Hierarchy. */
> > > + struct rcu_node *level[NUM_RCU_LEVELS]; /* Hierarchy levels. */
> > > + int levelcnt[MAX_RCU_LEVELS + 1]; /* # nodes in each level. */
> > > + int levelspread[NUM_RCU_LEVELS]; /* kids/node in each level. */
> >
> > These two should use sized types.
>
> Fair enough. And can be 8 bits, for that matter.

levelspread can, since it will never exceed 64, but levelcnt cannot.
That would lead to a bug on systems with more than 256 CPUs.

> > > +
> > > + /* The following fields are guarded by the root rcu_node's lock. */
> > > +
> > > + char signaled ____cacheline_internodealigned_in_smp;
> > > + /* sent GP-kick IPIs? */
> >
> > u8 or bool, depending on semantics. If just a simple flag, how about
> > bool?
>
> This will need to be a non-bool shortly.

OK.

> OK, so what the heck -are- the official type names??? u8 seems
> to be defined in a powerpc-specific file. OK, it also appears in
> include/asm-generic/int-l64.h. s8, u8, s16, u16, s32, u32, s64, and
> u64, then?

Yes. {s,u}{8,16,32,64}, defined in include/asm-generic/int-{l,ll}64.h,
depending on architecture.

> > > int cpu;
> > > struct rcu_head barrier;
> > > };
> > >
> > > +extern struct rcu_state rcu_state;
> > > DECLARE_PER_CPU(struct rcu_data, rcu_data);
> > > +
> > > +extern struct rcu_state rcu_bh_state;
> > > DECLARE_PER_CPU(struct rcu_data, rcu_bh_data);
> >
> > Why extern and in the header? I don't see anything else using them.
>
> kernel/rcuclassic_trace.c, right?

Hmmm, true. Unfortunate, particularly if only for the benefit of
tracing code which doesn't even get compiled under normal circumstances.

> > > select DEBUG_FS
> > > default y
> > > help
> > > @@ -77,3 +76,33 @@ config RCU_TRACE
> > >
> > > Say Y here if you want to enable RCU tracing
> > > Say N if you are unsure.
> > > +
> > > +config RCU_FANOUT
> > > + int "Hierarchical RCU fanout value"
> > > + range 2 64 if 64BIT
> > > + range 2 32 if !64BIT
> > > + depends on CLASSIC_RCU
> > > + default 64 if 64BIT
> > > + default 32 if !64BIT
> > > + help
> > > + This option controls the fanout of hierarchical implementations
> > > + of RCU, allowing RCU to work efficiently on machines with
> > > + large numbers of CPUs. This value must be at least the cube
> > > + root of NR_CPUS, which allows NR_CPUS up to 32,768 for 32-bit
> > > + systems and up to 262,144 for 64-bit systems.
> > > +
> > > + Select a specific number if testing RCU itself.
> >
> > ...or if attempting to tune for a specific NUMA system.
>
> Indeed. But I need to see an actual example before I document it.
> It would be easy to make things slower by following the NUMA hardware
> layout.

Fair enough.

> > > + Take the default if unsure.
> > > +
> > > +config RCU_FANOUT_EXACT
> > > + bool "Disable hierarchical RCU auto-balancing"
> > > + depends on CLASSIC_RCU
> > > + default n
> > > + help
> > > + This option forces use of the exact RCU_FANOUT value specified,
> > > + regardless of imbalances in the hierarchy. This can be useful
> > > + on systems with strong NUMA behavior.
> > > +
> > > + Without RCU_FANOUT_EXACT, the code will balance the hierarchy.
> >
> > You might want to give a specific example of a NUMA machine, the
> > appropriate value to use on that machine, and the result with and
> > without RCU_FANOUT_EXACT.
>
> Or change "can" to "might". ;-)

:)
Right, my comment only applies if such an example actually exists. :)

> > > -static int blimit = 10;
> > > -static int qhimark = 10000;
> > > -static int qlowmark = 100;
> > > +static int blimit = 10; /* Maximum callbacks per softirq. */
> > > +static int qhimark = 10000; /* If this many pending, ignore blimit. */
> > > +static int qlowmark = 100; /* Once only this many pending, use blimit. */
> >
> > Indentation mismatch on the comments?
>
> Looks fine in the source -- context diff-ism.

Sigh. Yay for tabs.

> > > #ifdef CONFIG_SMP
> > > -static void force_quiescent_state(struct rcu_data *rdp,
> > > - struct rcu_ctrlblk *rcp)
> > > +static void force_quiescent_state(struct rcu_state *rsp)
> > > {
> > > int cpu;
> > > - cpumask_t cpumask;
> > > unsigned long flags;
> > >
> > > set_need_resched();
> > > - spin_lock_irqsave(&rcp->lock, flags);
> > > - if (unlikely(!rcp->signaled)) {
> > > - rcp->signaled = 1;
> > > + if (!spin_trylock_irqsave(&rsp->onofflock, flags))
> > > + return;
> >
> > This seems to make force_quiescent_state rather less forceful.
>
> It will try again on the next scheduling-clock interrupt. The reason
> I did this is because ->onofflock is a global lock acquired when
> beginning a quiescent state or when onlining/offlining. Can't let
> force_quiescent_state() monopolize things, and would like to exclude
> online/offline while doing force_quiescent_state(). Hence make
> force_quiescent_state() back off if the lock is held.
>
> There is probably a better way to do this...

Primarily concerned about the possibility of perpetual failure. Then
again, eventually a grace period will occur "naturally". Just wondering
whether the inability to force might cause a problem.

> > > -#else
> > > +#else /* #ifdef CONFIG_HOTPLUG_CPU */
> > >
> > > -static void rcu_offline_cpu(int cpu)
> > > +static inline void
> > > +rcu_offline_cpu(int cpu)
> > > {
> > > }
> >
> > No need to explicitly say "inline"; GCC should do the right thing here.
> > Same comment applies a couple of other places in your patch.
>
> OK, I will get rid of these. You can do the other 26,000 of them. ;-)

:)

> > > @@ -658,14 +806,19 @@ int rcu_needs_cpu(int cpu)
> > > struct rcu_data *rdp = &per_cpu(rcu_data, cpu);
> > > struct rcu_data *rdp_bh = &per_cpu(rcu_bh_data, cpu);
> > >
> > > - return !!rdp->nxtlist || !!rdp_bh->nxtlist || rcu_pending(cpu);
> > > + return !!*rdp->nxttail[RCU_DONE_TAIL] ||
> > > + !!*rdp_bh->nxttail[RCU_DONE_TAIL] ||
> > > + rcu_pending(cpu);
> >
> > !! seems unnecessary here.
>
> Someone once told me why this was necessary, but I forget. It was in the
> original, and I didn't put it there. Some weirdness about conversion
> to 32-bit integer when the lower 32 bits of the pointer was zero or
> some such. So if your pointer value was 0x100000000, for example,
> so that conversion to int gives zero.

Good point! That doesn't apply if you use ||, though. If you just did
"return somepointer" that could potentially cause the problem you
describe. In any case, it can't *hurt* to have it; GCC should do the
sane thing.
> > > +void call_rcu_bh(struct rcu_head *head,
> > > + void (*func)(struct rcu_head *rcu))
> > > +{
> > > + unsigned long flags;
> > > +
> > > + head->func = func;
> > > + head->next = NULL;
> > > + local_irq_save(flags);
> > > + __call_rcu(head, &rcu_bh_state, &__get_cpu_var(rcu_bh_data));
> > > + local_irq_restore(flags);
> > > +}
> > > +EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(call_rcu_bh);
> >
> > This comment applies to the original code, but:
> > You only call __call_rcu twice, in call_rcu and call_rcu_bh. Both
> > times, you set head first, then wrap the call with local_irq_save. How
> > about moving both into __call_rcu, making call_rcu and call_rcu_bh
> > one-liners?
>
> I can't pass "rcu_data" to a function (or at least I don't know how to
> do so, short of passing __per_cpu_rcu_data and doing the per-CPU stuff
> by hand). I could make __call_rcu() be a macro, but that seemed more
> ugly than it seemed worthwhile.
>
> Is there some other approach that would work?

Hmmm. No, not that I know of. Sigh.

> > > +static char *rcuclassic_trace_buf;
> > > +#define RCUPREEMPT_TRACE_BUF_SIZE 4096
> >
> > Did you perhaps want PAGE_SIZE?
>
> I really want some way of gracefully handling arbitrarily long output
> to debugfs. I am sure that some such exists, but haven't found it.
> What I do instead is to arbitrarily truncate output to 4096 bytes,
> which will be stunningly less than useful on a 4,096-CPU machine. :-/
>
> Suggestions welcome!

I can see two possibilities, depending on how much complexity you want.

The complicated way: do one pass calling snprintf everywhere and adding
up the total length used, and if you run out of memory during that pass,
reallocate the buffer to at least the total length you accumulated. Or
something like that.

The simple hack:
#define RCUPREEMPT_TRACE_BUF_SIZE (NR_CPUS * something)

:)

- Josh Triplett




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