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Subject[PATCH 2/2] smp_call_function: use rwlocks on queues rather than rcu
RCU can only control the lifetime of allocated memory blocks, which
forces all the call structures to be allocated. This is expensive
compared to allocating them on the stack, which is the common case for
synchronous calls.

This patch takes a different approach. Rather than using RCU, the
queues are managed under rwlocks. Adding or removing from the queue
requires holding the lock for writing, but multiple CPUs can walk the
queues to process function calls under read locks. In the common
case, where the structures are stack allocated, the calling CPU need
only wait for its call to be done, take the lock for writing and
remove the call structure.

Lock contention - particularly write vs read - is reduced by using
multiple queues.

Signed-off-by: Jeremy Fitzhardinge <jeremy.fitzhardinge@citrix.com>
---
kernel/smp.c | 140 +++++++++++++++++++++++-----------------------------------
1 file changed, 56 insertions(+), 84 deletions(-)
===================================================================
--- a/kernel/smp.c
+++ b/kernel/smp.c
@@ -7,8 +7,6 @@
#include <linux/init.h>
#include <linux/module.h>
#include <linux/percpu.h>
-#include <linux/rcupdate.h>
-#include <linux/rculist.h>
#include <linux/smp.h>
#include <asm/atomic.h>

@@ -26,7 +24,7 @@
static DEFINE_PER_CPU(struct call_single_queue, call_single_queue);
struct ____cacheline_aligned queue {
struct list_head list;
- spinlock_t lock;
+ rwlock_t rwlock;
};

static __cacheline_aligned struct queue call_function_queues[NQUEUES];
@@ -40,7 +38,7 @@
struct call_single_data csd;
atomic_t refs;
cpumask_t cpumask;
- struct rcu_head rcu_head;
+ struct list_head cull_list;
};

struct call_single_queue {
@@ -98,15 +96,6 @@
csd_flag_wait(data);
}

-static void rcu_free_call_data(struct rcu_head *head)
-{
- struct call_function_data *data;
-
- data = container_of(head, struct call_function_data, rcu_head);
-
- kfree(data);
-}
-
/*
* Invoked by arch to handle an IPI for call function. Must be called with
* interrupts disabled.
@@ -115,17 +104,14 @@
{
struct call_function_data *data;
struct queue *queue;
+ LIST_HEAD(cull_list);
int cpu = get_cpu();

queue = &call_function_queues[queue_no];
-
- /*
- * It's ok to use list_for_each_rcu() here even though we may delete
- * 'pos', since list_del_rcu() doesn't clear ->next
- */
- rcu_read_lock();
- list_for_each_entry_rcu(data, &queue->list, csd.list) {
- if (!cpu_isset(cpu, data->cpumask))
+
+ read_lock(&queue->rwlock);
+ list_for_each_entry(data, &queue->list, csd.list) {
+ if (!cpu_isset(cpu, data->cpumask))
continue;

data->csd.func(data->csd.info);
@@ -134,22 +120,36 @@
if (!atomic_dec_and_test(&data->refs))
continue;

- spin_lock(&queue->lock);
- list_del_rcu(&data->csd.list);
- spin_unlock(&queue->lock);
-
if (data->csd.flags & CSD_FLAG_WAIT) {
/*
- * serialize stores to data with the flag clear
- * and wakeup
+ * Serialize stores to data with the flag
+ * clear and wakeup. Waiter will remove us
+ * from the list.
*/
smp_wmb();
data->csd.flags &= ~CSD_FLAG_WAIT;
+ } else {
+ /*
+ * If there's no waiter, then the data must
+ * have been heap-allocated.
+ */
+ BUG_ON(!(data->csd.flags & CSD_FLAG_ALLOC));
+
+ list_add_tail(&data->cull_list, &cull_list);
}
- if (data->csd.flags & CSD_FLAG_ALLOC)
- call_rcu(&data->rcu_head, rcu_free_call_data);
}
- rcu_read_unlock();
+ read_unlock(&queue->rwlock);
+
+ if (!list_empty(&cull_list)) {
+ struct call_function_data *next;
+
+ write_lock(&queue->rwlock);
+ list_for_each_entry_safe(data, next, &cull_list, cull_list) {
+ list_del(&data->csd.list);
+ kfree(data);
+ }
+ write_unlock(&queue->rwlock);
+ }

put_cpu();
}
@@ -271,42 +271,6 @@
generic_exec_single(cpu, data);
}

-/* Dummy function */
-static void quiesce_dummy(void *unused)
-{
-}
-
-/*
- * Ensure stack based data used in call function mask is safe to free.
- *
- * This is needed by smp_call_function_mask when using on-stack data, because
- * a single call function queue is shared by all CPUs, and any CPU may pick up
- * the data item on the queue at any time before it is deleted. So we need to
- * ensure that all CPUs have transitioned through a quiescent state after
- * this call.
- *
- * This is a very slow function, implemented by sending synchronous IPIs to
- * all possible CPUs. For this reason, we have to alloc data rather than use
- * stack based data even in the case of synchronous calls. The stack based
- * data is then just used for deadlock/oom fallback which will be very rare.
- *
- * If a faster scheme can be made, we could go back to preferring stack based
- * data -- the data allocation/free is non-zero cost.
- */
-static void smp_call_function_mask_quiesce_stack(cpumask_t mask)
-{
- struct call_single_data data;
- int cpu;
-
- data.func = quiesce_dummy;
- data.info = NULL;
-
- for_each_cpu_mask(cpu, mask) {
- data.flags = CSD_FLAG_WAIT;
- generic_exec_single(cpu, &data);
- }
-}
-
/**
* smp_call_function_mask(): Run a function on a set of other CPUs.
* @mask: The set of cpus to run on.
@@ -332,7 +296,6 @@
cpumask_t allbutself;
unsigned long flags;
int cpu, num_cpus;
- int slowpath = 0;
unsigned queue_no;
struct queue *queue;

@@ -359,16 +322,20 @@
return smp_call_function_single(cpu, func, info, wait);
}

- data = kmalloc(sizeof(*data), GFP_ATOMIC);
- if (data) {
- data->csd.flags = CSD_FLAG_ALLOC;
- if (wait)
- data->csd.flags |= CSD_FLAG_WAIT;
- } else {
+ /*
+ * Allocate data if it's an async call, otherwise use stack.
+ * If the allocation fails, then convert it to a sync call and
+ * use the stack anyway.
+ */
+ if (!wait) {
+ data = kmalloc(sizeof(*data), GFP_ATOMIC);
+ if (data)
+ data->csd.flags = CSD_FLAG_ALLOC;
+ }
+ if (!data) {
data = &d;
data->csd.flags = CSD_FLAG_WAIT;
wait = 1;
- slowpath = 1;
}

data->csd.func = func;
@@ -376,9 +343,9 @@
atomic_set(&data->refs, num_cpus);
data->cpumask = mask;

- spin_lock_irqsave(&queue->lock, flags);
- list_add_tail_rcu(&data->csd.list, &queue->list);
- spin_unlock_irqrestore(&queue->lock, flags);
+ write_lock_irqsave(&queue->rwlock, flags);
+ list_add_tail(&data->csd.list, &queue->list);
+ write_unlock_irqrestore(&queue->rwlock, flags);

/* Send a message to all CPUs in the map */
arch_send_call_function_ipi(mask);
@@ -386,8 +353,13 @@
/* optionally wait for the CPUs to complete */
if (wait) {
csd_flag_wait(&data->csd);
- if (unlikely(slowpath))
- smp_call_function_mask_quiesce_stack(mask);
+
+ write_lock_irqsave(&queue->rwlock, flags);
+ list_del(&data->csd.list);
+ write_unlock_irqrestore(&queue->rwlock, flags);
+
+ /* We should never wait for allocated data. */
+ BUG_ON(data->csd.flags & CSD_FLAG_ALLOC);
}

return 0;
@@ -425,7 +397,7 @@
int i;

for(i = 0; i < NQUEUES; i++)
- spin_lock(&call_function_queues[i].lock);
+ write_lock(&call_function_queues[i].rwlock);
}

void ipi_call_unlock(void)
@@ -433,7 +405,7 @@
int i;

for(i = 0; i < NQUEUES; i++)
- spin_unlock(&call_function_queues[i].lock);
+ write_unlock(&call_function_queues[i].rwlock);
}

void ipi_call_lock_irq(void)
@@ -443,7 +415,7 @@
spin_lock_irq(&queues_lock);

for(i = 0; i < NQUEUES; i++)
- spin_lock_nest_lock(&call_function_queues[i].lock, &queues_lock);
+ write_lock(&call_function_queues[i].rwlock);
}

void ipi_call_unlock_irq(void)
@@ -451,7 +423,7 @@
int i;

for(i = 0; i < NQUEUES; i++)
- spin_unlock(&call_function_queues[i].lock);
+ write_unlock(&call_function_queues[i].rwlock);

spin_unlock_irq(&queues_lock);
}
@@ -463,7 +435,7 @@

for(i = 0; i < NQUEUES; i++) {
INIT_LIST_HEAD(&call_function_queues[i].list);
- spin_lock_init(&call_function_queues[i].lock);
+ rwlock_init(&call_function_queues[i].rwlock);
}

printk(KERN_INFO "smp function calls: using %d/%d queues\n",



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