lkml.org 
[lkml]   [2008]   [Jun]   [4]   [last100]   RSS Feed
Views: [wrap][no wrap]   [headers]  [forward] 
 
Messages in this thread
/
Date
From
SubjectRe: Intel IOMMU (and IOMMU for Virtualization) performances
On Wed, Jun 4, 2008 at 7:47 AM, FUJITA Tomonori
<fujita.tomonori@lab.ntt.co.jp> wrote:
...
> Now I try to fix Intel IOMMU code, the free space management
> algorithm.
>
> The major difference between Intel IOMMU code and the others is Intel
> IOMMU code uses Red Black tree to manage free space while the others
> use bitmap (swiotlb is the only exception).
>
> The Red Black tree method consumes less memory than the bitmap method,
> but it incurs more overheads (the RB tree method needs to walk through
> the tree, allocates a new item, and insert it every time it maps an
> I/O address). Intel IOMMU (and IOMMUs for virtualization) needs
> multiple IOMMU address spaces. That's why the Red Black tree method is
> chosen, I guess.

It's possible to split up one flat address space and share the IOMMU
among several users. Each user gets her own segment of bitmap and
corresponding IO Pdir. So I don't see allocation policy as a strong reason
to use Red/Black Tree.

I suspect R/B tree was chosen becuase they expected a host VM to allocate
one large "static" entry for a guest OS and the guest would manage that range
itself. R/B Tree seems like a very efficient way to handle that from the host
VM point of view.

> Half a year ago, I tried to convert POWER IOMMU code to use the Red
> Black method and saw performance drop:
>
> http://linux.derkeiler.com/Mailing-Lists/Kernel/2007-11/msg00650.html
>
> So I tried to convert Intel IOMMU code to use the bitmap method to see
> how much I can get.
>
> I didn't see noticable performance differences with 1GbE. So I tried
> the modified driver of a SCSI HBA that just does memory accesses to
> emulate the performances of SSD disk drives, 10GbE, Infiniband, etc.

You can easily emulate SSD drives by doing sequential 4K reads
from a normal SATA HD. That should result in ~7-8K IOPS since the disk
will recognize the sequential stream and read ahead. SAS/SCSI/FC will
probably work the same way with different IOP rates.

> I got the following results with one thread issuing 1KB I/Os:
>
> IOPS (I/O per second)
> IOMMU disabled 145253.1 (1.000)
> RB tree (mainline) 118313.0 (0.814)
> Bitmap 128954.1 (0.887)

Just to make this clear, this is a 10% performance difference.

But a second metric is more telling: CPU utilization.
How much time was spent in the IOMMU code for each
implementation with the same workload?

This isn't a demand for that information but just a request
to measure that in any future benchmarking.
oprofile or perfmon2 are the best tools to determine that.


> I've attached the patch to modify Intel IOMMU code to use the bitmap
> method but I have no intention of arguing that Intel IOMMU code
> consumes more memory for better performance. :) I want to do more
> performance tests with 10GbE (probably, I have to wait for a server
> box having VT-d, which is not available on the market now).


> As I said, what I want to do now is to make Intel IOMMU code respect
> drivers' DMA alignment. Well, it's easier to do that if Intel IOMMU
> uses the bitmap method since I can simply convert the IOMMU code to
> use lib/iommu-helper but I can modify the RB tree method too.

Just as important as the allocation data structure is the allocation policy.
The allocation policy will perform best if it matches the IO TLB
replacement implemented in the IOMMU HW. Thrashing the IO TLB
by allocating aliases to competing streams will hurt perf as well.
Obviously a single benchmark is unlikely to detect this.

> I'm just interested in other people's opinions on IOMMU
> implementations, performances, possible future changes for performance
> improvement, etc.
>
> For further information:
>
> LSF'08 "Storage Track" summary by Grant Grundler:
> http://iou.parisc-linux.org/lsf2008/SUMMARY-Storage.txt
>
> My LSF'08 slides:
> http://iou.parisc-linux.org/lsf2008/IO-DMA_Representations-fujita_tomonori.pdf

I personally found this to be one of the more interesting talks :)
Excellent work!


> Tis patch is against the latst git tree (note that it just converts
> Intel IOMMU code to use the bitmap. It doesn't make it respect
> drivers' DMA alignment yet).
...


> diff --git a/drivers/pci/dmar.c b/drivers/pci/dmar.c
> index f941f60..41ad545 100644
> --- a/drivers/pci/dmar.c
> +++ b/drivers/pci/dmar.c
> @@ -26,7 +26,6 @@
>
> #include <linux/pci.h>
> #include <linux/dmar.h>
> -#include "iova.h"
> #include "intel-iommu.h"
>
> #undef PREFIX
> diff --git a/drivers/pci/intel-iommu.c b/drivers/pci/intel-iommu.c
> index 66c0fd2..839363a 100644
> --- a/drivers/pci/intel-iommu.c
> +++ b/drivers/pci/intel-iommu.c
> @@ -32,8 +32,7 @@
> #include <linux/dmar.h>
> #include <linux/dma-mapping.h>
> #include <linux/mempool.h>
> -#include <linux/timer.h>
> -#include "iova.h"
> +#include <linux/iommu-helper.h>
> #include "intel-iommu.h"
> #include <asm/proto.h> /* force_iommu in this header in x86-64*/
> #include <asm/cacheflush.h>
> @@ -51,33 +50,15 @@
>
> #define DMAR_OPERATION_TIMEOUT ((cycles_t) tsc_khz*10*1000) /* 10sec */
>
> -#define DOMAIN_MAX_ADDR(gaw) ((((u64)1) << gaw) - 1)
> -
> -
> -static void flush_unmaps_timeout(unsigned long data);
> +#define DMA_ERROR_CODE (~(dma_addr_t)0x0)
>
> -DEFINE_TIMER(unmap_timer, flush_unmaps_timeout, 0, 0);
> +#define DOMAIN_MAX_ADDR(gaw) ((((u64)1) << gaw) - 1)
>
> static struct intel_iommu *g_iommus;
>
> -#define HIGH_WATER_MARK 250
> -struct deferred_flush_tables {
> - int next;
> - struct iova *iova[HIGH_WATER_MARK];
> - struct dmar_domain *domain[HIGH_WATER_MARK];
> -};

Sorry, I didn't see a replacement for the deferred_flush_tables.
Mark Gross and I agree this substantially helps with unmap performance.
See http://lkml.org/lkml/2008/3/3/373

...
> static void dmar_init_reserved_ranges(void)
> {
> struct pci_dev *pdev = NULL;
> - struct iova *iova;
> int i;
> u64 addr, size;
>
> - init_iova_domain(&reserved_iova_list, DMA_32BIT_PFN);
> + reserved_it_size = 1UL << (32 - PAGE_SHIFT_4K);

Can you make reserved_it_size a module or kernel parameter?

I've never been able to come up with a good heuristic
for determining the size of the IOVA space. It generally
does NOT need to map all of Host Physical RAM.
The actual requirement depends entirely on the workload,
type and number of IO devices installed. The problem is we
don't know any of those things until well after the IOMMU
is already needed.

> + reserved_it_map = kzalloc(reserved_it_size / BITS_PER_BYTE, GFP_ATOMIC);
> + BUG_ON(!reserved_it_map);
>
> lockdep_set_class(&reserved_iova_list.iova_alloc_lock,
> &reserved_alloc_key);
> lockdep_set_class(&reserved_iova_list.iova_rbtree_lock,
> &reserved_rbtree_key);
>
> + reserve_area(reserved_it_map, 0, IOVA_PFN(IOVA_START_ADDR));
> +
> /* IOAPIC ranges shouldn't be accessed by DMA */
> - iova = reserve_iova(&reserved_iova_list, IOVA_PFN(IOAPIC_RANGE_START),
> - IOVA_PFN(IOAPIC_RANGE_END));
> - if (!iova)
> - printk(KERN_ERR "Reserve IOAPIC range failed\n");
> + reserve_area(reserved_it_map, IOVA_PFN(IOAPIC_RANGE_START),
> + IOVA_PFN(IOAPIC_RANGE_END));
>
> /* Reserve all PCI MMIO to avoid peer-to-peer access */
> for_each_pci_dev(pdev) {

I didn't check....but reserving MMIO address space might be better done
by looking at MMIO ranges routed by all the top level PCI Host-bus controllers
(aka PCI-e Root ports). Maybe this is an idea for Mark Gross to implement.

> -static void domain_reserve_special_ranges(struct dmar_domain *domain)
> -{
> - copy_reserved_iova(&reserved_iova_list, &domain->iovad);
> }
>
> static inline int guestwidth_to_adjustwidth(int gaw)
> @@ -1191,38 +1163,52 @@ static inline int guestwidth_to_adjustwidth(int gaw)
> static int domain_init(struct dmar_domain *domain, int guest_width)
> {
> struct intel_iommu *iommu;
> - int adjust_width, agaw;
> + int ret, adjust_width, agaw;
> unsigned long sagaw;
>
> - init_iova_domain(&domain->iovad, DMA_32BIT_PFN);
> spin_lock_init(&domain->mapping_lock);
>
> - domain_reserve_special_ranges(domain);
> -
> /* calculate AGAW */
> iommu = domain->iommu;
> +
> if (guest_width > cap_mgaw(iommu->cap))
> guest_width = cap_mgaw(iommu->cap);
> domain->gaw = guest_width;
> adjust_width = guestwidth_to_adjustwidth(guest_width);
> agaw = width_to_agaw(adjust_width);
> sagaw = cap_sagaw(iommu->cap);
> +
> +/* domain->it_size = 1UL << (guest_width - PAGE_SHIFT_4K); */
> + domain->it_size = 1UL << (32 - PAGE_SHIFT_4K);

"32-PAGE_SHIFT_4K" expression is used in several places but I didn't see
an explanation of why 32. Can you add one someplace?

out of time...

thanks!
grant


\
 
 \ /
  Last update: 2008-06-04 20:09    [from the cache]
©2003-2011 Jasper Spaans