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    SubjectRe: [RFC][PATCH 0/3] Skip I/O merges when disabled
    Alan D. Brunelle wrote:
    > The block I/O + elevator + I/O scheduler code spends a lot of time
    > trying to merge I/Os -- rightfully so under "normal" circumstances.
    > However, if one were to know that the incoming I/O stream was /very/
    > random in nature, the cycles are wasted. (This can be the case, for
    > example, during OLTP-type runs.)
    >
    > This patch stream adds a per-request_queue tunable that (when set)
    > disables merge attempts, thus freeing up a non-trivial amount of CPU
    cycles.
    >
    > I'll be doing some more benchmarking, but this is a representative set
    > of data on a two-way Opteron box w/ 4 SATA drives. 'fio' was used to
    > generate random 4k asynchronous direct I/Os over the 128GiB of each SATA
    > drive. Oprofile was used to collect the results, and we collected
    > CPU_CLK_UNHALTED (CPU) and DATA_CACHE_MISSES (DCM) events. The data
    > extracted below shows both the percentage for all samples (including
    > non-kernel) as well as just those from the block I/O layer + elevator +
    > deadline I/O scheduler + SATA modules.
    >
    > v2.6.25 (not patched): CPU: 5.8330% (total) 7.5644% (I/O code only)
    > v2.6.25 + nomerges = 0: CPU: 5.8008% (total) 7.5806% (I/O code only)
    > v2.6.25 + nomerges = 1: CPU: 4.5404% (total) 5.9416% (I/O code only)
    >
    > v2.6.25 (not patched): DCM: 8.1967% (total) 10.5188% (I/O code only)
    > v2.6.25 + nomerges = 0: DCM: 7.2291% (total) 9.4087% (I/O code only)
    > v2.6.25 + nomerges = 1: DCM: 6.1989% (total) 8.0155% (I/O code only)
    >
    > I've typically been seeing a good 20-25% reduction in CPU samples, and
    > 10-15% in DCM samples for the random load w/ nomerges set to 1 compared
    > to set to 0 (looking at just the block code).
    >
    > [BTW: The I/O performance doesn't change much between the 3 sets of data
    > - the seek + I/O times themselves dominate things to such a large
    > extent. There is a very small improvement seen w/ nomerges=1, but <<1%.]
    >
    > It's not clear to me why 2.6.25 (not patched) requires /more/ cycles
    > than does the patched kernel w/ nomerges=0 -- it's been consistent in
    > the handful of runs I've done. I'm going to do a large set of runs for
    > each condition (not patched, nomerges=0 & nomerges=1) to verify that
    > this holds over multiple runs. I'm also going to check out sequential
    > loads to see what (if any) penalty the extra couple of checks incurs on
    > those (probably not noticeable).
    >
    > The first patch in the series adds the tunable; The second adds in the
    > check to skip the merge code; and the third adds in the check to skip
    > adding requests to hash lists for merging.
    >
    > Alan D. Brunelle
    > Hewlett-Packard

    The results over 25 runs (10-minutes each) look good, as noted
    yesterday, /very/ slightly better I/Os per seconds with nomerges=1:

    Kernel NM I/Os per second
    -------------------- -- ---------------
    2.6.25 (not patched) 483,727.36
    2.6.25 + nomerges 0 483,880.96
    2.6.25 + nomerges 1 483,921.92

    The CPU and DCM samples in the block I/O code again were better w/
    nomerges=1 averaged over the 25 runs (about 23.8% fewer cycles needed to
    do the work in the block I/O code):

    v2.6.25 (not patched): CPU: 5.779% (total) 7.544% (I/O code only)
    v2.6.25 + nomerges = 0: CPU: 5.496% (total) 7.199% (I/O code only)
    v2.6.25 + nomerges = 1: CPU: 4.403% (total) 5.771% (I/O code only)


    v2.6.26 (not patched): DCM: 7.986% (total) 10.246% (I/O code only)
    v2.6.25 + nomerges = 0: DCM: 8.213% (total) 10.514% (I/O code only)
    v2.6.25 + nomerges = 1: DCM: 6.670% (total) 8.525% (I/O code only)

    Alan


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