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SubjectRe: include/linux/pcounter.h
Andrew Morton a écrit :
> On Sat, 16 Feb 2008 11:07:29 +0100 Eric Dumazet <> wrote:
>> Andrew, pcounter is a temporary abstraction.
> It's buggy! Main problems are a) possible return of negative numbers b)
> some of the API can't be from preemptible code c) excessive interrupt-off
> time on some machines if used from irq-disabled sections.

a) We dont care of possibly off values when reading /proc/net/sockstat
Same arguments apply for percpu_counters.

b) It is called from network parts where preemption is disabled.

sock_prot_inuse_add(sk->sk_prot, -1);
net/ipv4/inet_hashtables.c:291: sock_prot_inuse_add(sk->sk_prot, 1);
net/ipv4/inet_hashtables.c:335: sock_prot_inuse_add(sk->sk_prot, 1);
net/ipv4/inet_hashtables.c:357: sock_prot_inuse_add(sk->sk_prot, 1);
net/ipv4/inet_hashtables.c:390: sock_prot_inuse_add(sk->sk_prot, -1);
net/ipv4/raw.c:95: sock_prot_inuse_add(sk->sk_prot, 1);
net/ipv4/raw.c:104: sock_prot_inuse_add(sk->sk_prot, -1);
net/ipv4/udp.c:235: sock_prot_inuse_add(sk->sk_prot, 1);
sock_prot_inuse_add(sk->sk_prot, -1);
sock_prot_inuse_add(&tcp_prot, 1);
sock_prot_inuse_add(sk->sk_prot, -1);
sock_prot_inuse_add(prot, 1);
net/ipv6/inet6_hashtables.c:46: sock_prot_inuse_add(sk->sk_prot, 1);
net/ipv6/inet6_hashtables.c:207: sock_prot_inuse_add(sk->sk_prot, 1);

c) No need to play with irq games here.

>> It is temporaty because it will vanish as soon as Christoph Clameter (or
>> somebody else) provides real cheap per cpu counter implementation.
> numbers?
> most of percpu_counter_add() is only executed once per FBC_BATCH calls.

>> At time I introduced it in network tree (locally, not meant to invade kernel
>> land and makes you unhappy :) ), the goals were :
> Well maybe as a temporary networking-only thing OK, based upon
> performance-tested results. But I don't think the present code is suitable
> as part of the kernel-wide toolkit.
>> Some counters (total sockets count) were a single integer, that were doing
>> ping-pong between cpus (SMP/NUMA). As they are basically lazy values (as we
>> dont really need to read their value), using plain atomic_t was overkill.
>> Using a plain percpu_counters was expensive (NR_CPUS*(32+sizeof(void *))
>> instead of num_possible_cpus()*4).
> No, percpu_counters use alloc_percpu(), which is O(num_possible_cpus), not

You are playing with words.

The array was exacly sizeof(void *) * NR_CPUS (at least when pcounter were
added in network tree, commit b3242151906372f30f57feaa43b4cac96a23edb1 was
done only ten days ago). Then it needed 32 bytes per possible cpu (maybe less
now with SLUB)

>> Using 'online' instead of 'possible' stuff is not really needed for a
>> temporary thing.
> This was put in ./lib/!
>> - We dont care of read sides.
> Well the present single caller in networking might not care. But this was
> put in ./lib/ and was exported to modules. That is an invitation to all
> kernel developers to use it in new code. Which may result in truly awful
> performance on high-cpu-count machines.

>> We want really fast write side. Real fast.
> eh? It's called on a per-connection basis, not on a per-packet basis?

Yes, per connection basis. Some workloads want to open/close more than 1000
sockets per second.

You are right we also need to reduce all atomic inc/dec done per packet :)

A pcounter/perc_cpu for the device refcounter would be a very nice win, but as
number of devices in the system might be very big, David said no to a percpu
conversion. We will reconsider this when new percpu stuff can go in, so that
the memory cost will be minimal (4 bytes per cpu per device)

>> Read side is when you do a "cat /proc/net/sockstat".
>> That is ... once in a while...
> For the current single caller. But it's in ./lib/.
> And there's always someone out there who does whatever we don't expect them
> to do.
>> Now when we allocate a new socket, code to increment the "socket count" is :
>> c03a74a8 <tcp_pcounter_add>:
>> c03a74a8: b8 90 26 5f c0 mov $0xc05f2690,%eax
>> c03a74ad: 64 8b 0d 10 f1 5e c0 mov %fs:0xc05ef110,%ecx
>> c03a74b4: 01 14 01 add %edx,(%ecx,%eax,1)
>> c03a74b7: c3 ret
> I can't find that code. I suspect that's the DEFINE_PER_CPU flavour, which
> isn't used anywhere afaict. Plus this omits the local_irq_save/restore (or
> preempt_disable/enable) and the indirect function call, which can be
> expensive.

Please do : nm vmlinux | grep tcp_pcounter_add

c03a74a8 t tcp_pcounter_add

It should be there, even if its a static function

>> That is 4 instructions. I could be two in the future, thanks to current work
>> on fs/gs based percpu variables.
>> Current percpu_counters implementation is more expensive :
>> c021467b <__percpu_counter_add>:
>> c021467b: 55 push %ebp
>> c021467c: 57 push %edi
>> c021467d: 89 c7 mov %eax,%edi
>> c021467f: 56 push %esi
>> c0214680: 53 push %ebx
>> c0214681: 83 ec 04 sub $0x4,%esp
>> c0214684: 8b 40 14 mov 0x14(%eax),%eax
>> c0214687: 64 8b 1d 08 f0 5e c0 mov %fs:0xc05ef008,%ebx
>> c021468e: 8b 6c 24 18 mov 0x18(%esp),%ebp
>> c0214692: f7 d0 not %eax
>> c0214694: 8b 1c 98 mov (%eax,%ebx,4),%ebx
>> c0214697: 89 1c 24 mov %ebx,(%esp)
>> c021469a: 8b 03 mov (%ebx),%eax
>> c021469c: 89 c3 mov %eax,%ebx
>> c021469e: 89 c6 mov %eax,%esi
>> c02146a0: c1 fe 1f sar $0x1f,%esi
>> c02146a3: 89 e8 mov %ebp,%eax
>> c02146a5: 01 d3 add %edx,%ebx
>> c02146a7: 11 ce adc %ecx,%esi
>> c02146a9: 99 cltd
>> c02146aa: 39 d6 cmp %edx,%esi
>> c02146ac: 7f 15 jg c02146c3
>> <__percpu_counter_add+0x48>
>> c02146ae: 7c 04 jl c02146b4
> One of the above two branches is taken ((FBC_BATCH-1)/FBC_BATCH)ths of the
> time.
>> <__percpu_counter_add+0x39>
>> c02146b0: 39 eb cmp %ebp,%ebx
>> c02146b2: 73 0f jae c02146c3
>> <__percpu_counter_add+0x48>
>> c02146b4: f7 dd neg %ebp
>> c02146b6: 89 e8 mov %ebp,%eax
>> c02146b8: 99 cltd
>> c02146b9: 39 d6 cmp %edx,%esi
>> c02146bb: 7f 20 jg c02146dd
>> <__percpu_counter_add+0x62>
>> c02146bd: 7c 04 jl c02146c3
>> <__percpu_counter_add+0x48>
>> c02146bf: 39 eb cmp %ebp,%ebx
>> c02146c1: 77 1a ja c02146dd
>> <__percpu_counter_add+0x62>
>> c02146c3: 89 f8 mov %edi,%eax
>> c02146c5: e8 04 cc 1f 00 call c04112ce <_spin_lock>
>> c02146ca: 01 5f 04 add %ebx,0x4(%edi)
>> c02146cd: 11 77 08 adc %esi,0x8(%edi)
>> c02146d0: 8b 04 24 mov (%esp),%eax
>> c02146d3: c7 00 00 00 00 00 movl $0x0,(%eax)
>> c02146d9: fe 07 incb (%edi)
>> c02146db: eb 05 jmp c02146e2
>> <__percpu_counter_add+0x67>
>> c02146dd: 8b 04 24 mov (%esp),%eax
>> c02146e0: 89 18 mov %ebx,(%eax)
>> c02146e2: 58 pop %eax
>> c02146e3: 5b pop %ebx
>> c02146e4: 5e pop %esi
>> c02146e5: 5f pop %edi
>> c02146e6: 5d pop %ebp
>> c02146e7: c3 ret
>> Once it is better, just make pcounter vanish.
> Some of the stuff in there is from the __percpu_disguise() thing which we
> probably can live without.
> But I'd be surprised if benchmarking reveals that the pcounter code is
> justifiable in its present networking application or indeed in any future
> ones.

I have no benchmarks, but real workloads where it matters, and where userland
eats icache/dcache all the time.

>> It is even clearly stated at the top of include/linux/pcounter.h
>> /*
>> * Using a dynamic percpu 'int' variable has a cost :
>> * 1) Extra dereference
>> * Current per_cpu_ptr() implementation uses an array per 'percpu variable'.
>> * 2) memory cost of NR_CPUS*(32+sizeof(void *)) instead of num_possible_cpus()*4
>> *
>> * This pcounter implementation is an abstraction to be able to use
>> * either a static or a dynamic per cpu variable.
>> * One dynamic per cpu variable gets a fast & cheap implementation, we can
>> * change pcounter implementation too.
>> */
>> We all agree.
> No we don't. That comment is afaict wrong about the memory consumption and
> the abstraction *isn't useful*.

Fact is that we need percpu 32bits counters, and we need to have pointers to them.

Current percpu_counters cannot cope that.

> Why do we want some abstraction which makes alloc_percpu() storage and
> DEFINE_PERCPU storage "look the same"? What use is there in that? One is
> per-object storage and one is singleton storage - they're quite different
> things and they are used in quite different situations and they are
> basically never interchangeable. Yet we add this pretend-they're-the-same
> wrapper around them which costs us an indirect function call on the
> fastpath.

I believe all 'pcounter' are in fact statically allocated 'one per struct
proto' to track inuse count. (search for DEFINE_PROTO_INUSE() uses)

# find net include|xargs grep -n DEFINE_PROTO_INUSE
include/net/sock.h:624:# define DEFINE_PROTO_INUSE(NAME) DEFINE_PCOUNTER(NAME)
include/net/sock.h:644:# define DEFINE_PROTO_INUSE(NAME)

So pcounter_alloc()/pcounter_free() could just be deleted from pcounter.h

indirect functions calls are everywhere in kernel, network, fs, everywhere.

As soon we can put in 'struct pcounter' the address of a percpu variable, we
wont need anymore pointers to the pcounter_add()/getval() function.

mov 0(pcounter),%eax # get the address of a percpuvar
add %edx,fs:%eax

This just need the percpu work done by SGI guys to be finished.

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