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SubjectRe: [PATCH 2.6.28-rc5 01/11] kmemleak: Add the base support
On Thu, Nov 20, 2008 at 11:30:34AM +0000, Catalin Marinas wrote:
> This patch adds the base support for the kernel memory leak
> detector. It traces the memory allocation/freeing in a way similar to
> the Boehm's conservative garbage collector, the difference being that
> the unreferenced objects are not freed but only shown in
> /sys/kernel/debug/memleak. Enabling this feature introduces an
> overhead to memory allocations.

Hello, Catalin,

I have some concerns about your locking/RCU design, please see
interspersed questions and comments.

Thanx, Paul

> Signed-off-by: Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com>
> ---
> include/linux/memleak.h | 60 +++
> init/main.c | 4
> mm/memleak.c | 1012 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
> 3 files changed, 1075 insertions(+), 1 deletions(-)
> create mode 100644 include/linux/memleak.h
> create mode 100644 mm/memleak.c
>
> diff --git a/include/linux/memleak.h b/include/linux/memleak.h
> new file mode 100644
> index 0000000..29b3ecb
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/include/linux/memleak.h
> @@ -0,0 +1,60 @@
> +/*
> + * include/linux/memleak.h
> + *
> + * Copyright (C) 2008 ARM Limited
> + * Written by Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com>
> + *
> + * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
> + * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
> + * published by the Free Software Foundation.
> + *
> + * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
> + * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
> + * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
> + * GNU General Public License for more details.
> + *
> + * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
> + * along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
> + * Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA
> + */
> +
> +#ifndef __MEMLEAK_H
> +#define __MEMLEAK_H
> +
> +#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_MEMLEAK
> +
> +extern void memleak_init(void);
> +extern void memleak_alloc(const void *ptr, size_t size, int ref_count);
> +extern void memleak_free(const void *ptr);
> +extern void memleak_padding(const void *ptr, unsigned long offset, size_t size);
> +extern void memleak_not_leak(const void *ptr);
> +extern void memleak_ignore(const void *ptr);
> +extern void memleak_scan_area(const void *ptr, unsigned long offset, size_t length);
> +
> +static inline void memleak_erase(void **ptr)
> +{
> + *ptr = NULL;
> +}
> +
> +#else
> +
> +#define DECLARE_MEMLEAK_OFFSET(name, type, member)
> +
> +static inline void memleak_init(void)
> +{ }
> +static inline void memleak_alloc(const void *ptr, size_t size, int ref_count)
> +{ }
> +static inline void memleak_free(const void *ptr)
> +{ }
> +static inline void memleak_not_leak(const void *ptr)
> +{ }
> +static inline void memleak_ignore(const void *ptr)
> +{ }
> +static inline void memleak_scan_area(const void *ptr, unsigned long offset, size_t length)
> +{ }
> +static inline void memleak_erase(void **ptr)
> +{ }
> +
> +#endif /* CONFIG_DEBUG_MEMLEAK */
> +
> +#endif /* __MEMLEAK_H */
> diff --git a/init/main.c b/init/main.c
> index 7e117a2..e7f4d8c 100644
> --- a/init/main.c
> +++ b/init/main.c
> @@ -63,6 +63,7 @@
> #include <linux/signal.h>
> #include <linux/idr.h>
> #include <linux/ftrace.h>
> +#include <linux/memleak.h>
>
> #include <asm/io.h>
> #include <asm/bugs.h>
> @@ -652,6 +653,8 @@ asmlinkage void __init start_kernel(void)
> mem_init();
> enable_debug_pagealloc();
> cpu_hotplug_init();
> + prio_tree_init();
> + memleak_init();
> kmem_cache_init();
> debug_objects_mem_init();
> idr_init_cache();
> @@ -662,7 +665,6 @@ asmlinkage void __init start_kernel(void)
> calibrate_delay();
> pidmap_init();
> pgtable_cache_init();
> - prio_tree_init();
> anon_vma_init();
> #ifdef CONFIG_X86
> if (efi_enabled)
> diff --git a/mm/memleak.c b/mm/memleak.c
> new file mode 100644
> index 0000000..8fb5260
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/mm/memleak.c
> @@ -0,0 +1,1012 @@
> +/*
> + * mm/memleak.c
> + *
> + * Copyright (C) 2008 ARM Limited
> + * Written by Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com>
> + *
> + * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
> + * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
> + * published by the Free Software Foundation.
> + *
> + * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
> + * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
> + * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
> + * GNU General Public License for more details.
> + *
> + * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
> + * along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
> + * Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA
> + */
> +
> +#include <linux/init.h>
> +#include <linux/kernel.h>
> +#include <linux/list.h>
> +#include <linux/sched.h>
> +#include <linux/jiffies.h>
> +#include <linux/module.h>
> +#include <linux/prio_tree.h>
> +#include <linux/gfp.h>
> +#include <linux/kallsyms.h>
> +#include <linux/debugfs.h>
> +#include <linux/seq_file.h>
> +#include <linux/cpumask.h>
> +#include <linux/spinlock.h>
> +#include <linux/rcupdate.h>
> +#include <linux/stacktrace.h>
> +#include <linux/cache.h>
> +#include <linux/percpu.h>
> +#include <linux/lockdep.h>
> +
> +#include <asm/sections.h>
> +#include <asm/processor.h>
> +#include <asm/thread_info.h>
> +#include <asm/atomic.h>
> +
> +#include <linux/memleak.h>
> +
> +/*
> + * kmemleak configuration and common defines
> + */
> +#define MAX_TRACE 16 /* stack trace length */
> +#define REPORT_THLD 1 /* unreferenced reporting threshold */
> +#define REPORTS_NR 100 /* maximum number of reported leaks */
> +#undef SCAN_TASK_STACKS /* scan the task kernel stacks */
> +#undef REPORT_ORPHAN_FREEING /* notify when freeing orphan objects */
> +#undef FAST_CACHE_STATS /* fast_cache statistics */
> +
> +#define BYTES_PER_WORD sizeof(void *)
> +#define MSECS_SCAN_YIELD 100
> +
> +/*
> + * Simple lock-free memory allocator using pages. Objects are
> + * allocated on a CPU but can be freed on a different one
> + */
> +struct fast_cache {
> + struct list_head free_list[NR_CPUS];
> + size_t obj_size;
> + int objs_per_page;
> +#ifdef FAST_CACHE_STATS
> + int pages_nr[NR_CPUS];
> + int free_nr[NR_CPUS];
> +#endif
> +};
> +
> +/*
> + * Cache page information
> + */
> +struct fast_cache_page {
> + int free_nr[NR_CPUS];
> + char data[0] ____cacheline_aligned_in_smp;
> +};
> +
> +#define entry_to_page(entry) \
> + ((struct fast_cache_page *)((unsigned long)(entry) & ~(PAGE_SIZE - 1)))
> +
> +#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
> +#define cache_line_align(x) L1_CACHE_ALIGN(x)
> +#else
> +#define cache_line_align(x) (x)
> +#endif
> +
> +#ifdef FAST_CACHE_STATS
> +#define fast_cache_inc_pages(cache, cpu) ((cache)->pages_nr[cpu]++)
> +#define fast_cache_dec_pages(cache, cpu) ((cache)->pages_nr[cpu]--)
> +#define fast_cache_inc_free(cache, cpu) ((cache)->free_nr[cpu]++)
> +#define fast_cache_dec_free(cache, cpu) ((cache)->free_nr[cpu]--)
> +static void fast_cache_dump_stats(struct fast_cache *cache, const char *name)
> +{
> + unsigned int cpu = get_cpu();
> + unsigned long flags;
> +
> + local_irq_save(flags);
> + pr_info("kmemleak: %s statistics\n", name);
> + pr_info(" obj_size: %d\n", cache->obj_size);
> + pr_info(" objs_per_page: %d\n", cache->objs_per_page);
> + for_each_online_cpu(cpu) {
> + pr_info(" CPU: %d\n", cpu);
> + pr_info(" pages_nr: %d\n", cache->pages_nr[cpu]);
> + pr_info(" free_nr: %d\n", cache->free_nr[cpu]);
> + }
> + local_irq_restore(flags);
> + put_cpu();
> +}
> +#else
> +#define fast_cache_inc_pages(cache, cpu)
> +#define fast_cache_dec_pages(cache, cpu)
> +#define fast_cache_inc_free(cache, cpu)
> +#define fast_cache_dec_free(cache, cpu)
> +static inline void fast_cache_dump_stats(struct fast_cache *cache, const char *name)
> +{ }
> +#endif
> +
> +/*
> + * Initialize the cache. This function must be called before any
> + * tracked memory allocations take place
> + */
> +static void fast_cache_init(struct fast_cache *cache, size_t size)
> +{
> + unsigned int cpu;
> +
> + for_each_possible_cpu(cpu) {
> + INIT_LIST_HEAD(&cache->free_list[cpu]);
> +#ifdef FAST_CACHE_STATS
> + cache->pages_nr[cpu] = 0;
> + cache->free_nr[cpu] = 0;
> +#endif
> + }
> + cache->obj_size = cache_line_align(sizeof(struct list_head) + size);
> + cache->objs_per_page = (PAGE_SIZE - sizeof(struct fast_cache_page)) /
> + cache->obj_size;
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * Expand the free list for the current CPU. Called with interrupts
> + * and preemption disabled
> + */
> +static inline void __fast_cache_grow(struct fast_cache *cache, unsigned int cpu)
> +{
> + struct fast_cache_page *page;
> + void *pos, *last;
> + unsigned int c;
> +
> + page = (struct fast_cache_page *)__get_free_page(GFP_ATOMIC);
> + if (!page)
> + panic("kmemleak: cannot allocate page for fast_cache\n");
> + fast_cache_inc_pages(cache, cpu);
> +
> + for_each_possible_cpu(c)
> + page->free_nr[c] = 0;
> + page->free_nr[cpu] = cache->objs_per_page;
> +
> + last = (void *)page + PAGE_SIZE - cache->obj_size;
> + for (pos = page->data; pos <= last; pos += cache->obj_size) {
> + struct list_head *entry = pos;
> + list_add_tail(entry, &cache->free_list[cpu]);
> + fast_cache_inc_free(cache, cpu);
> + }
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * Shrink the free list for the current CPU and free the specified
> + * page. Called with interrupts and preemption disabled
> + */
> +static inline void __fast_cache_shrink(struct fast_cache *cache, unsigned int cpu,
> + struct fast_cache_page *page)
> +{
> + void *pos;
> + void *last = (void *)page + PAGE_SIZE - cache->obj_size;
> +
> + for (pos = page->data; pos <= last; pos += cache->obj_size) {
> + struct list_head *entry = pos;
> + /* entry present only in cache->free_list[cpu] */
> + list_del(entry);
> + fast_cache_dec_free(cache, cpu);
> + }
> +
> + free_page((unsigned long)page);
> + fast_cache_dec_pages(cache, cpu);
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * Object allocation
> + */
> +static void *fast_cache_alloc(struct fast_cache *cache)
> +{
> + unsigned int cpu = get_cpu();
> + unsigned long flags;
> + struct list_head *entry;
> + struct fast_cache_page *page;
> +
> + local_irq_save(flags);
> +
> + if (list_empty(&cache->free_list[cpu]))
> + __fast_cache_grow(cache, cpu);
> +
> + entry = cache->free_list[cpu].next;
> + page = entry_to_page(entry);
> + list_del(entry);
> + page->free_nr[cpu]--;
> + BUG_ON(page->free_nr[cpu] < 0);
> + fast_cache_dec_free(cache, cpu);
> +
> + local_irq_restore(flags);
> + put_cpu_no_resched();
> +
> + return (void *)(entry + 1);
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * Object freeing
> + */
> +static void fast_cache_free(struct fast_cache *cache, void *obj)
> +{
> + unsigned int cpu = get_cpu();
> + unsigned long flags;
> + struct list_head *entry = (struct list_head *)obj - 1;
> + struct fast_cache_page *page = entry_to_page(entry);
> +
> + local_irq_save(flags);
> +
> + list_add(entry, &cache->free_list[cpu]);
> + page->free_nr[cpu]++;
> + BUG_ON(page->free_nr[cpu] > cache->objs_per_page);
> + fast_cache_inc_free(cache, cpu);
> +
> + if (page->free_nr[cpu] == cache->objs_per_page)
> + __fast_cache_shrink(cache, cpu, page);
> +
> + local_irq_restore(flags);
> + put_cpu_no_resched();
> +}
> +
> +/* scanning area inside a memory block */
> +struct memleak_scan_area {
> + struct hlist_node node;
> + unsigned long offset;
> + size_t length;
> +};
> +
> +/* the main allocation tracking object */
> +struct memleak_object {
> + spinlock_t lock;
> + unsigned long flags;
> + struct list_head object_list;
> + struct list_head gray_list;
> + struct prio_tree_node tree_node;
> + struct rcu_head rcu; /* used for object_list lockless traversal */
> + atomic_t use_count; /* internal usage count */
> + unsigned long pointer;
> + size_t size;
> + int ref_count; /* the minimum encounters of the pointer */
> + int count; /* the ecounters of the pointer */
> + int report_thld; /* the unreferenced reporting threshold */
> + struct hlist_head area_list; /* areas to be scanned (or empty for all) */
> + unsigned long trace[MAX_TRACE];
> + unsigned int trace_len;
> + unsigned long jiffies; /* creation timestamp */
> + pid_t pid; /* pid of the current task */
> + char comm[TASK_COMM_LEN]; /* executable name */
> +};
> +
> +/* The list of all allocated objects */
> +static LIST_HEAD(object_list);
> +static DEFINE_SPINLOCK(object_list_lock);
> +/* The list of the gray objects */
> +static LIST_HEAD(gray_list);
> +/* prio search tree for object boundaries */
> +static struct prio_tree_root object_tree_root;
> +static DEFINE_RWLOCK(object_tree_lock);
> +
> +/* allocation pools */
> +static struct fast_cache object_cache;
> +static struct fast_cache scan_area_cache;
> +
> +static atomic_t memleak_enabled = ATOMIC_INIT(0);
> +static int reported_leaks;
> +
> +/* minimum and maximum address that may be valid pointers */
> +static unsigned long min_addr = ~0;
> +static unsigned long max_addr;
> +
> +/* used for yielding the CPU to other tasks during scanning */
> +static unsigned long next_scan_yield;
> +
> +/* object flags */
> +#define OBJECT_ALLOCATED 0x1
> +
> +/*
> + * Object colors, encoded with count and ref_count:
> + * - white - orphan object, i.e. not enough references to it (ref_count >= 1)
> + * - gray - referred at least once and therefore non-orphan (ref_count == 0)
> + * - black - ignore; it doesn't contain references (text section) (ref_count == -1)
> + */
> +static inline int color_white(const struct memleak_object *object)
> +{
> + return object->count != -1 && object->count < object->ref_count;
> +}
> +
> +static inline int color_gray(const struct memleak_object *object)
> +{
> + return object->ref_count != -1 && object->count >= object->ref_count;
> +}
> +
> +static inline int color_black(const struct memleak_object *object)
> +{
> + return object->ref_count == -1;
> +}
> +
> +static void dump_object_info(struct memleak_object *object)
> +{
> + struct stack_trace trace;
> +
> + trace.nr_entries = object->trace_len;
> + trace.entries = object->trace;
> +
> + pr_notice("kmemleak: object 0x%08lx (size %u):\n",
> + object->tree_node.start, object->size);
> + pr_notice(" comm \"%s\", pid %d, jiffies %lu\n",
> + object->comm, object->pid, object->jiffies);
> + pr_notice(" ref_count = %d\n", object->ref_count);
> + pr_notice(" count = %d\n", object->count);
> + pr_notice(" backtrace:\n");
> + print_stack_trace(&trace, 4);
> +}
> +
> +static struct memleak_object *lookup_object(unsigned long ptr, int alias)
> +{
> + struct prio_tree_node *node;
> + struct prio_tree_iter iter;
> + struct memleak_object *object;
> +
> + prio_tree_iter_init(&iter, &object_tree_root, ptr, ptr);
> + node = prio_tree_next(&iter);
> + if (node) {
> + object = prio_tree_entry(node, struct memleak_object, tree_node);
> + if (!alias && object->pointer != ptr) {
> + pr_warning("kmemleak: found object by alias");
> + object = NULL;
> + }
> + } else
> + object = NULL;
> +
> + return object;
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * return 1 if successful or 0 otherwise
> + */
> +static inline int get_object(struct memleak_object *object)
> +{
> + return atomic_inc_not_zero(&object->use_count);
> +}
> +
> +static void free_object_rcu(struct rcu_head *rcu)
> +{
> + struct hlist_node *elem, *tmp;
> + struct memleak_scan_area *area;
> + struct memleak_object *object =
> + container_of(rcu, struct memleak_object, rcu);
> +
> + /* once use_count is 0, there is no code accessing the object */
OK, so we won't pass free_object_rcu() to call_rcu() until use_count
is equal to zero. And once use_count is zero, it is never incremented.
So the point of the RCU grace period is to ensure that all tasks
who didn't quite call get_object() soon enough get done failing
before we free up the object, correct?

Which means that get_object() needs to be under rcu_read_lock()...

> + hlist_for_each_entry_safe(area, elem, tmp, &object->area_list, node) {
> + hlist_del(elem);
> + fast_cache_free(&scan_area_cache, area);
> + }
> + fast_cache_free(&object_cache, object);
> +}
> +
> +static void put_object(struct memleak_object *object)
> +{
> + unsigned long flags;
> +
> + if (!atomic_dec_and_test(&object->use_count))
> + return;
> +
> + /* should only get here after delete_object was called */
> + BUG_ON(object->flags & OBJECT_ALLOCATED);
> +
> + spin_lock_irqsave(&object_list_lock, flags);

We also need to write-hold the object_tree_lock, not?

> + /* the last reference to this object */
> + list_del_rcu(&object->object_list);
> + call_rcu(&object->rcu, free_object_rcu);
> + spin_unlock_irqrestore(&object_list_lock, flags);
> +}
> +
> +static struct memleak_object *find_and_get_object(unsigned long ptr, int alias)
> +{
> + unsigned long flags;
> + struct memleak_object *object;
> +
> + read_lock_irqsave(&object_tree_lock, flags);

Use of read_lock_irqsave() will work, but only if -all- deletions are
protected by write-acquiring object_tree_lock.

Or unless there is an enclosing rcu_read_lock() around all calls to
find_and_get_object().

> + object = lookup_object(ptr, alias);
> + if (object)
> + get_object(object);
> + read_unlock_irqrestore(&object_tree_lock, flags);
> +
> + return object;
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * Insert a pointer into the pointer hash table
> + */
> +static inline void create_object(unsigned long ptr, size_t size, int ref_count)
> +{
> + unsigned long flags;
> + struct memleak_object *object;
> + struct prio_tree_node *node;
> + struct stack_trace trace;
> +
> + object = fast_cache_alloc(&object_cache);
> + if (!object)
> + panic("kmemleak: cannot allocate a memleak_object structure\n");
> +
> + INIT_LIST_HEAD(&object->object_list);
> + INIT_LIST_HEAD(&object->gray_list);
> + INIT_HLIST_HEAD(&object->area_list);
> + spin_lock_init(&object->lock);
> + atomic_set(&object->use_count, 1);
> + object->flags = OBJECT_ALLOCATED;
> + object->pointer = ptr;
> + object->size = size;
> + object->ref_count = ref_count;
> + object->count = -1; /* black color initially */
> + object->report_thld = REPORT_THLD;
> + object->jiffies = jiffies;
> + if (in_irq()) {
> + object->pid = 0;
> + strncpy(object->comm, "hardirq", TASK_COMM_LEN);
> + } else if (in_softirq()) {
> + object->pid = 0;
> + strncpy(object->comm, "softirq", TASK_COMM_LEN);
> + } else {
> + object->pid = current->pid;
> + strncpy(object->comm, current->comm, TASK_COMM_LEN);
> + }
> +
> + trace.max_entries = MAX_TRACE;
> + trace.nr_entries = 0;
> + trace.entries = object->trace;
> + trace.skip = 1;
> + save_stack_trace(&trace);
> +
> + object->trace_len = trace.nr_entries;
> +
> + INIT_PRIO_TREE_NODE(&object->tree_node);
> + object->tree_node.start = ptr;
> + object->tree_node.last = ptr + size - 1;
> +
> + if (ptr < min_addr)
> + min_addr = ptr;
> + if (ptr + size > max_addr)
> + max_addr = ptr + size;
> + /* update the boundaries before inserting the object in the
> + * prio search tree */
> + smp_mb();
> +
> + write_lock_irqsave(&object_tree_lock, flags);
> + node = prio_tree_insert(&object_tree_root, &object->tree_node);
> + if (node != &object->tree_node) {
> + unsigned long flags;
> +
> + pr_warning("kmemleak: existing pointer\n");
> + dump_stack();
> +
> + object = lookup_object(ptr, 1);
> + spin_lock_irqsave(&object->lock, flags);
> + dump_object_info(object);
> + spin_unlock_irqrestore(&object->lock, flags);
> +
> + panic("kmemleak: cannot insert 0x%lx into the object search tree\n",
> + ptr);
> + }
> + write_unlock_irqrestore(&object_tree_lock, flags);

In theory, you are OK here, but only because the below is adding
an element (not removing it). But this code is looking pretty dodgy.

What exactly does object_tree_lock protect? What exactly does
object_list protect?

> +
> + spin_lock_irqsave(&object_list_lock, flags);
> + list_add_tail_rcu(&object->object_list, &object_list);
> + spin_unlock_irqrestore(&object_list_lock, flags);
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * Remove a pointer from the pointer hash table
> + */
> +static inline void delete_object(unsigned long ptr)
> +{
> + unsigned long flags;
> + struct memleak_object *object;
> +
> + write_lock_irqsave(&object_tree_lock, flags);
> + object = lookup_object(ptr, 0);
> + if (!object) {
> + pr_warning("kmemleak: freeing unknown object at 0x%08lx\n", ptr);
> + dump_stack();
> + write_unlock_irqrestore(&object_tree_lock, flags);
> + return;
> + }
> + prio_tree_remove(&object_tree_root, &object->tree_node);
> + write_unlock_irqrestore(&object_tree_lock, flags);
> +
> + BUG_ON(!(object->flags & OBJECT_ALLOCATED));
> +
> + spin_lock_irqsave(&object->lock, flags);
> + object->flags &= ~OBJECT_ALLOCATED;
> +#ifdef REPORT_ORPHAN_FREEING
> + if (color_white(object)) {
> + pr_warning("kmemleak: freeing orphan object 0x%08lx\n", ptr);
> + dump_stack();
> + dump_object_info(object);
> + }
> +#endif
> + object->pointer = 0;
> + spin_unlock_irqrestore(&object->lock, flags);
> +
> + put_object(object);
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * Make a object permanently gray (false positive)
> + */
> +static inline void make_gray_object(unsigned long ptr)
> +{
> + unsigned long flags;
> + struct memleak_object *object;
> +
> + object = find_and_get_object(ptr, 0);
> + if (!object) {
> + dump_stack();
> + panic("kmemleak: graying unknown object at 0x%08lx\n", ptr);
> + }
> +
> + spin_lock_irqsave(&object->lock, flags);
> + object->ref_count = 0;
> + spin_unlock_irqrestore(&object->lock, flags);
> + put_object(object);
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * Mark the object as black
> + */
> +static inline void make_black_object(unsigned long ptr)
> +{
> + unsigned long flags;
> + struct memleak_object *object;
> +
> + object = find_and_get_object(ptr, 0);
> + if (!object) {
> + dump_stack();
> + panic("kmemleak: blacking unknown object at 0x%08lx\n", ptr);
> + }
> +
> + spin_lock_irqsave(&object->lock, flags);
> + object->ref_count = -1;
> + spin_unlock_irqrestore(&object->lock, flags);
> + put_object(object);
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * Add a scanning area to the object
> + */
> +static inline void add_scan_area(unsigned long ptr, unsigned long offset, size_t length)
> +{
> + unsigned long flags;
> + struct memleak_object *object;
> + struct memleak_scan_area *area;
> +
> + object = find_and_get_object(ptr, 0);
> + if (!object) {
> + dump_stack();
> + panic("kmemleak: adding scan area to unknown object at 0x%08lx\n", ptr);
> + }
> +
> + spin_lock_irqsave(&object->lock, flags);
> + if (offset + length > object->size) {
> + dump_stack();
> + dump_object_info(object);
> + panic("kmemleak: scan area larger than object 0x%08lx\n", ptr);
> + }
> +
> + area = fast_cache_alloc(&scan_area_cache);
> + if (!area)
> + panic("kmemleak: cannot allocate a scan area\n");
> +
> + INIT_HLIST_NODE(&area->node);
> + area->offset = offset;
> + area->length = length;
> +
> + hlist_add_head(&area->node, &object->area_list);
> + spin_unlock_irqrestore(&object->lock, flags);
> + put_object(object);
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * Allocation function hook
> + */
> +void memleak_alloc(const void *ptr, size_t size, int ref_count)
> +{
> + pr_debug("%s(0x%p, %u, %d)\n", __FUNCTION__, ptr, size, ref_count);
> +
> + if (!atomic_read(&memleak_enabled))
> + return;
> + if (!ptr)
> + return;
> +
> + create_object((unsigned long)ptr, size, ref_count);
> +}
> +EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(memleak_alloc);
> +
> +/*
> + * Freeing function hook
> + */
> +void memleak_free(const void *ptr)
> +{
> + pr_debug("%s(0x%p)\n", __FUNCTION__, ptr);
> +
> + if (!atomic_read(&memleak_enabled))
> + return;
> + if (!ptr)
> + return;
> +
> + delete_object((unsigned long)ptr);
> +}
> +EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(memleak_free);
> +
> +/*
> + * Mark a object as a false positive
> + */
> +void memleak_not_leak(const void *ptr)
> +{
> + pr_debug("%s(0x%p)\n", __FUNCTION__, ptr);
> +
> + if (!atomic_read(&memleak_enabled))
> + return;
> + if (!ptr)
> + return;
> +
> + make_gray_object((unsigned long)ptr);
> +}
> +EXPORT_SYMBOL(memleak_not_leak);
> +
> +/*
> + * Ignore this memory object
> + */
> +void memleak_ignore(const void *ptr)
> +{
> + pr_debug("%s(0x%p)\n", __FUNCTION__, ptr);
> +
> + if (!atomic_read(&memleak_enabled))
> + return;
> + if (!ptr)
> + return;
> +
> + make_black_object((unsigned long)ptr);
> +}
> +EXPORT_SYMBOL(memleak_ignore);
> +
> +/*
> + * Add a scanning area to an object
> + */
> +void memleak_scan_area(const void *ptr, unsigned long offset, size_t length)
> +{
> + pr_debug("%s(0x%p)\n", __FUNCTION__, ptr);
> +
> + if (!atomic_read(&memleak_enabled))
> + return;
> + if (!ptr)
> + return;
> +
> + add_scan_area((unsigned long)ptr, offset, length);
> +}
> +EXPORT_SYMBOL(memleak_scan_area);
> +
> +static inline void scan_yield(void)
> +{
> + BUG_ON(in_atomic());
> +
> + if (time_is_before_eq_jiffies(next_scan_yield)) {
> + schedule();
> + next_scan_yield = jiffies + msecs_to_jiffies(MSECS_SCAN_YIELD);
> + }
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * Scan a block of memory (exclusive range) for pointers and move
> + * those found to the gray list
> + */
> +static void scan_block(void *_start, void *_end, struct memleak_object *scanned)
> +{
> + unsigned long *ptr;
> + unsigned long *start = PTR_ALIGN(_start, BYTES_PER_WORD);
> + unsigned long *end = _end - (BYTES_PER_WORD - 1);
> +
> + for (ptr = start; ptr < end; ptr++) {
> + unsigned long flags;
> + unsigned long pointer = *ptr;
> + struct memleak_object *object;
> +
> + if (!scanned)
> + scan_yield();
> +
> + /* the boundaries check doesn't need to be precise
> + * (hence no locking) since orphan objects need to
> + * pass a scanning threshold before being reported */
> + if (pointer < min_addr || pointer >= max_addr)
> + continue;
> +
> + object = find_and_get_object(pointer, 1);
> + if (!object)
> + continue;
> + if (object == scanned) {
> + /* self referenced */
> + put_object(object);
> + continue;
> + }
> +
> + /* avoid the lockdep recursive warning on object->lock
> + * being previously acquired in scan_object(). These
> + * locks are enclosed by a mutex aquired in seq_open */
> + spin_lock_irqsave_nested(&object->lock, flags, SINGLE_DEPTH_NESTING);
> + if (!color_white(object)) {
> + /* non-orphan or ignored */
> + spin_unlock_irqrestore(&object->lock, flags);
> + put_object(object);
> + continue;
> + }
> +
> + object->count++;
> + if (color_gray(object)) {
> + /* the object became gray, add it to the list */
> + object->report_thld++;
> + list_add_tail(&object->gray_list, &gray_list);
> + } else
> + put_object(object);
> + spin_unlock_irqrestore(&object->lock, flags);
> + }
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * Scan a memory block represented by a memleak_object
> + */
> +static inline void scan_object(struct memleak_object *object)
> +{
> + struct memleak_scan_area *area;
> + struct hlist_node *elem;
> + unsigned long flags;
> +
> + spin_lock_irqsave(&object->lock, flags);
> +
> + /* freed object */
> + if (!(object->flags & OBJECT_ALLOCATED))
> + goto out;
> +
> + if (hlist_empty(&object->area_list))
> + scan_block((void *)object->pointer,
> + (void *)(object->pointer + object->size), object);
> + else
> + hlist_for_each_entry(area, elem, &object->area_list, node)
> + scan_block((void *)(object->pointer + area->offset),
> + (void *)(object->pointer + area->offset
> + + area->length), object);
> +
> + out:
> + spin_unlock_irqrestore(&object->lock, flags);
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * Scan the memory and print the orphan objects
> + */
> +static void memleak_scan(void)
> +{
> + unsigned long flags;
> + struct memleak_object *object, *tmp;
> + int i;
> +#ifdef SCAN_TASK_STACKS
> + struct task_struct *task;
> +#endif
> +
> + fast_cache_dump_stats(&object_cache, "object_cache");
> + fast_cache_dump_stats(&scan_area_cache, "scan_area_cache");
> +
> + rcu_read_lock();
> + list_for_each_entry_rcu(object, &object_list, object_list) {
> + spin_lock_irqsave(&object->lock, flags);
> +
> +#ifdef DEBUG
> + /* with a few exceptions there should be a maximum of
> + * 1 reference to any object at this point */
> + if (atomic_read(&object->use_count) > 1) {
> + pr_debug("kmemleak: object->use_count = %d\n",
> + atomic_read(&object->use_count));
> + dump_object_info(object);
> + }
> +#endif
> +
> + /* reset the reference count (whiten the object) */
> + object->count = 0;
> + if (color_gray(object) && get_object(object))
> + list_add_tail(&object->gray_list, &gray_list);

What prevents other tasks from concurrently adding other objects to
gray_list? Preventing such concurrent adds is absolutely required,
otherwise gray_list will be corrupted.

> + else
> + object->report_thld--;
> +
> + spin_unlock_irqrestore(&object->lock, flags);
> + }
> + rcu_read_unlock();
> +
> + /* data/bss scanning */
> + scan_block(_sdata, _edata, NULL);
> + scan_block(__bss_start, __bss_stop, NULL);
> +
> +#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
> + /* per-cpu scanning */
> + for_each_possible_cpu(i)
> + scan_block(__per_cpu_start + per_cpu_offset(i),
> + __per_cpu_end + per_cpu_offset(i), NULL);
> +#endif
> +
> + /* mem_map scanning */
> + for_each_online_node(i) {
> + struct page *page, *end;
> +
> + page = NODE_MEM_MAP(i);
> + end = page + NODE_DATA(i)->node_spanned_pages;
> +
> + scan_block(page, end, NULL);
> + }
> +
> +#ifdef SCAN_TASK_STACKS
> + read_lock(&tasklist_lock);
> + for_each_process(task)
> + scan_block(task_stack_page(task),
> + task_stack_page(task) + THREAD_SIZE, NULL);
> + read_unlock(&tasklist_lock);
> +#endif
> +
> + /* scan the objects already referenced. More objects will be
> + * referenced and, if there are no memory leaks, all the
> + * objects will be scanned. The list traversal is safe for
> + * both tail additions and removals from inside the loop. The
> + * memleak objects cannot be freed from outside the loop
> + * because their use_count was increased */
> + object = list_entry(gray_list.next, typeof(*object), gray_list);
> + while (&object->gray_list != &gray_list) {
> + scan_yield();
> +
> + /* may add new objects to the list */
> + scan_object(object);
> +
> + tmp = list_entry(object->gray_list.next, typeof(*object),
> + gray_list);
> +
> + /* remove the object from the list and release it */
> + list_del(&object->gray_list);
> + put_object(object);
> +
> + object = tmp;
> + }
> + BUG_ON(!list_empty(&gray_list));
> +}
> +
> +static void *memleak_seq_start(struct seq_file *seq, loff_t *pos)
> +{
> + struct memleak_object *object;
> + loff_t n = *pos;
> +
> + if (!n) {
> + memleak_scan();
> + reported_leaks = 0;
> + }
> + if (reported_leaks >= REPORTS_NR)
> + return NULL;
> +
> + rcu_read_lock();
> + list_for_each_entry_rcu(object, &object_list, object_list) {
> + if (n-- > 0)
> + continue;
> +
> + if (get_object(object))
> + goto out;
> + }
> + object = NULL;
> + out:
> + rcu_read_unlock();
> + return object;
> +}
> +
> +static void *memleak_seq_next(struct seq_file *seq, void *v, loff_t *pos)
> +{
> + struct list_head *n;
> + struct memleak_object *next = NULL;
> + unsigned long flags;
> +
> + ++(*pos);
> + if (reported_leaks >= REPORTS_NR)
> + goto out;
> +
> + spin_lock_irqsave(&object_list_lock, flags);

Using a spinlock instead of rcu_read_lock() is OK, but only if all
updates are also protected by this same spinlock. Which means that,
given that find_and_get_object read-acquires object_tree_lock, deletions
must be projected both by object_list_lock and by write-acquiring
object_tree_lock. Or all calls to memleak_seq_next need to be covered
by rcu_read_lock().

> + n = ((struct memleak_object *)v)->object_list.next;
> + if (n != &object_list) {
> + next = list_entry(n, struct memleak_object, object_list);
> + get_object(next);
> + }
> + spin_unlock_irqrestore(&object_list_lock, flags);
> +
> + out:
> + put_object(v);
> + return next;
> +}
> +
> +static void memleak_seq_stop(struct seq_file *seq, void *v)
> +{
> + if (v)
> + put_object(v);
> +}
> +
> +static int memleak_seq_show(struct seq_file *seq, void *v)
> +{
> + struct memleak_object *object = v;
> + unsigned long flags;
> + char namebuf[KSYM_NAME_LEN + 1] = "";
> + char *modname;
> + unsigned long symsize;
> + unsigned long offset = 0;
> + int i;
> +
> + spin_lock_irqsave(&object->lock, flags);
> +
> + if (!color_white(object))
> + goto out;
> + /* freed in the meantime (false positive) or just allocated */
> + if (!(object->flags & OBJECT_ALLOCATED))
> + goto out;
> + if (object->report_thld >= 0)
> + goto out;
> +
> + reported_leaks++;
> + seq_printf(seq, "unreferenced object 0x%08lx (size %u):\n",
> + object->pointer, object->size);
> + seq_printf(seq, " comm \"%s\", pid %d, jiffies %lu\n",
> + object->comm, object->pid, object->jiffies);
> + seq_printf(seq, " backtrace:\n");
> +
> + for (i = 0; i < object->trace_len; i++) {
> + unsigned long trace = object->trace[i];
> +
> + kallsyms_lookup(trace, &symsize, &offset, &modname, namebuf);
> + seq_printf(seq, " [<%08lx>] %s\n", trace, namebuf);
> + }
> +
> + out:
> + spin_unlock_irqrestore(&object->lock, flags);
> + return 0;
> +}
> +
> +static struct seq_operations memleak_seq_ops = {
> + .start = memleak_seq_start,
> + .next = memleak_seq_next,
> + .stop = memleak_seq_stop,
> + .show = memleak_seq_show,
> +};
> +
> +static int memleak_seq_open(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)
> +{
> + return seq_open(file, &memleak_seq_ops);
> +}
> +
> +static struct file_operations memleak_fops = {
> + .owner = THIS_MODULE,
> + .open = memleak_seq_open,
> + .read = seq_read,
> + .llseek = seq_lseek,
> + .release = seq_release,
> +};
> +
> +/*
> + * Kmemleak initialization
> + */
> +void __init memleak_init(void)
> +{
> + fast_cache_init(&object_cache, sizeof(struct memleak_object));
> + fast_cache_init(&scan_area_cache, sizeof(struct memleak_scan_area));
> +
> + INIT_PRIO_TREE_ROOT(&object_tree_root);
> +
> + /* this is the point where tracking allocations is safe.
> + * Scanning is only available later */
> + atomic_set(&memleak_enabled, 1);
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * Late initialization function
> + */
> +int __init memleak_late_init(void)
> +{
> + struct dentry *dentry;
> +
> + dentry = debugfs_create_file("memleak", S_IRUGO, NULL, NULL,
> + &memleak_fops);
> + if (!dentry)
> + return -ENOMEM;
> +
> + pr_info("Kernel memory leak detector initialized\n");
> +
> + return 0;
> +}
> +late_initcall(memleak_late_init);
>
> --
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