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Subject[RFC PATCH 02/12] net: infrastructure for hardware time stamping
Date
Instead of adding new members to struct sk_buff this
patch introduces and uses a generic mechanism for
extending skb: additional structures are allocated
at the end of the data area, similar to the skb_shared_info.
One new member of skb holds the information which of the
optional structures are present, with one bit per
structure. This allows fast checks whether certain
information is present.

The actual address of an optional structure
is found by using a hard-coded ordering of these
structures and adding up the size and alignment padding
of the preceeding structs.

The new struct skb_shared_tx is used to transport time stamping
instructions to the device driver (outgoing packets). The
resulting hardware time stamps are returned via struct
skb_shared_hwtstamps (incoming or sent packets), in all
formats possibly needed by the rest of the kernel and
user space (original raw hardware time stamp and converted
to system time base). This replaces the problematic callbacks
into the network driver used in earlier revisions of this patch.

Conceptionally the two structs are independent and use
different bits in the new flags fields. This avoids the
problem that dev_start_hard_xmit() cannot distinguish
reliably between outgoing and incoming packets (it is
called for looped multicast packets). But to avoid copying
sent data, the space reserved for skb_shared_tx is
increased so that this space can be reused for skb_shared_hwtstamps
when sending back the packet to the originating socket.
TX time stamping is implemented in software if the device driver
doesn't support hardware time stamping.

The new semantic for hardware/software time stamping around
net_device->hard_start_xmit() is based on two assumptions about
existing network device drivers which don't support hardware
time stamping and know nothing about it:
- they leave the new skb_shared_tx struct unmodified
- the keep the connection to the originating socket in skb->sk
alive, i.e., don't call skb_orphan()

Given that skb_shared_tx is new, the first assumption is safe.
The second is only true for some drivers. As a result, software
TX time stamping currently works with the bnx2 driver, but not
with the unmodified igb driver (the two drivers this patch series
was tested with).

Signed-off-by: Patrick Ohly <patrick.ohly@intel.com>
---
include/linux/skbuff.h | 196 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++--
net/core/dev.c | 34 ++++++++-
net/core/skbuff.c | 139 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++------
3 files changed, 338 insertions(+), 31 deletions(-)
diff --git a/include/linux/skbuff.h b/include/linux/skbuff.h
index acf17af..7f58b55 100644
--- a/include/linux/skbuff.h
+++ b/include/linux/skbuff.h
@@ -156,6 +156,105 @@ struct skb_shared_info {
#endif
};

+#define HAVE_HW_TIME_STAMP
+
+/**
+ * skb_shared_hwtstamps - optional hardware time stamps
+ *
+ * @hwtstamp: hardware time stamp transformed into duration
+ * since arbitrary point in time
+ * @syststamp: hwtstamp transformed to system time base
+ *
+ * Software time stamps generated by ktime_get_real() are stored in
+ * skb->tstamp. The relation between the different kinds of time
+ * stamps is as follows:
+ *
+ * syststamp and tstamp can be compared against each other in
+ * arbitrary combinations. The accuracy of a
+ * syststamp/tstamp/"syststamp from other device" comparison is
+ * limited by the accuracy of the transformation into system time
+ * base. This depends on the device driver and its underlying
+ * hardware.
+ *
+ * hwtstamps can only be compared against other hwtstamps from
+ * the same device.
+ *
+ * This additional structure has to be allocated together with
+ * the data buffer and is shared between clones.
+ */
+struct skb_shared_hwtstamps {
+ ktime_t hwtstamp;
+ ktime_t syststamp;
+};
+
+/**
+ * skb_shared_tx - optional instructions for time stamping of outgoing packets
+ *
+ * @hardware: generate hardware time stamp
+ * @software: generate software time stamp
+ * @in_progress: device driver is going to provide
+ * hardware time stamp
+ *
+ * This additional structure has to be allocated together with the
+ * data buffer and is shared between clones. Its space is reused
+ * in skb_tstamp_tx() for skb_shared_hwtstamps and therefore it
+ * has to be larger than strictly necessary (handled in skbuff.c).
+ */
+union skb_shared_tx {
+ struct {
+ __u8 hardware:1,
+ software:1,
+ in_progress:1;
+ };
+ __u8 flags;
+};
+
+/*
+ * Flags which control how &struct sk_buff is to be/was allocated.
+ * The &struct skb_shared_info always comes at sk_buff->end, then
+ * all of the optional structs in the order defined by their
+ * flags. Each structure is aligned so that it is at a multiple
+ * of its own size. Putting structs with less strict alignment
+ * requirements at the end increases the chance that no padding
+ * is needed.
+ *
+ * SKB_FLAGS_TXTSTAMP could be combined with SKB_FLAGS_HWTSTAMPS
+ * (outgoing packets have &union skb_shared_tx, incoming
+ * &struct skb_shared_hwtstamps), but telling apart one from
+ * the other is ambiguous: when a multicast packet is looped back,
+ * it has to be considered incoming, but it then passes through
+ * dev_hard_start_xmit() once more. Better avoid such ambiguities,
+ * in particular as it doesn't save any space. One additional byte
+ * is needed in any case.
+ *
+ * SKB_FLAGS_CLONE replaces the true/false integer fclone parameter in
+ * __alloc_skb(). Clones are marked as before in sk_buff->cloned.
+ *
+ * Similarly, SKB_FLAGS_NOBLOCK is used in place of a special noblock
+ * parameter in sock_alloc_send_skb().
+ *
+ * When adding optional structs, remember to update skb_optional_sizes
+ * in skbuff.c!
+ */
+enum {
+ /*
+ * one byte holds the lower order flags in struct sk_buff,
+ * so we could add more structs without additional costs
+ */
+ SKB_FLAGS_OPTIONAL_HWTSTAMPS = 1 << 0,
+ SKB_FLAGS_OPTIONAL_TX = 1 << 1,
+
+ /* number of bits used for optional structures */
+ SKB_FLAGS_OPTIONAL_NUM = 2,
+
+ /*
+ * the following flags only affect how the skb is allocated,
+ * they are not stored like the ones above
+ */
+ SKB_FLAGS_CLONE = 1 << 8,
+ SKB_FLAGS_NOBLOCK = 1 << 9,
+};
+
/* We divide dataref into two halves. The higher 16 bits hold references
* to the payload part of skb->data. The lower 16 bits hold references to
* the entire skb->data. A clone of a headerless skb holds the length of
@@ -228,6 +327,8 @@ typedef unsigned char *sk_buff_data_t;
* @ip_summed: Driver fed us an IP checksum
* @priority: Packet queueing priority
* @users: User count - see {datagram,tcp}.c
+ * @optional: a combination of SKB_FLAGS_OPTIONAL_* flags, indicates
+ * which of the corresponding structs were allocated
* @protocol: Packet protocol from driver
* @truesize: Buffer size
* @head: Head of buffer
@@ -305,6 +406,8 @@ struct sk_buff {
ipvs_property:1,
peeked:1,
nf_trace:1;
+ /* not all of the bits in optional are used */
+ __u8 optional;
__be16 protocol;

void (*destructor)(struct sk_buff *skb);
@@ -374,18 +477,18 @@ extern void skb_dma_unmap(struct device *dev, struct sk_buff *skb,

extern void kfree_skb(struct sk_buff *skb);
extern void __kfree_skb(struct sk_buff *skb);
-extern struct sk_buff *__alloc_skb(unsigned int size,
- gfp_t priority, int fclone, int node);
+extern struct sk_buff *__alloc_skb_flags(unsigned int size,
+ gfp_t priority, int flags, int node);
static inline struct sk_buff *alloc_skb(unsigned int size,
gfp_t priority)
{
- return __alloc_skb(size, priority, 0, -1);
+ return __alloc_skb_flags(size, priority, 0, -1);
}

static inline struct sk_buff *alloc_skb_fclone(unsigned int size,
gfp_t priority)
{
- return __alloc_skb(size, priority, 1, -1);
+ return __alloc_skb_flags(size, priority, SKB_FLAGS_CLONE, -1);
}

extern int skb_recycle_check(struct sk_buff *skb, int skb_size);
@@ -469,6 +572,29 @@ static inline unsigned char *skb_end_pointer(const struct sk_buff *skb)
#define skb_shinfo(SKB) ((struct skb_shared_info *)(skb_end_pointer(SKB)))

/**
+ * __skb_get_optional - returns pointer to the requested structure
+ *
+ * @optional: one of the SKB_FLAGS_OPTIONAL_* constants
+ *
+ * The caller must check that the structure is actually in the skb.
+ */
+extern void *__skb_get_optional(struct sk_buff *skb, int optional);
+
+static inline struct skb_shared_hwtstamps *skb_hwtstamps(struct sk_buff *skb)
+{
+ return (skb->optional & SKB_FLAGS_OPTIONAL_HWTSTAMPS) ?
+ __skb_get_optional(skb, SKB_FLAGS_OPTIONAL_HWTSTAMPS) :
+ NULL;
+}
+
+static inline union skb_shared_tx *skb_tx(struct sk_buff *skb)
+{
+ return (skb->optional & SKB_FLAGS_OPTIONAL_TX) ?
+ __skb_get_optional(skb, SKB_FLAGS_OPTIONAL_TX) :
+ NULL;
+}
+
+/**
* skb_queue_empty - check if a queue is empty
* @list: queue head
*
@@ -1399,8 +1525,33 @@ static inline struct sk_buff *__dev_alloc_skb(unsigned int length,

extern struct sk_buff *dev_alloc_skb(unsigned int length);

-extern struct sk_buff *__netdev_alloc_skb(struct net_device *dev,
- unsigned int length, gfp_t gfp_mask);
+/**
+ * __netdev_alloc_skb_internal - allocate an skbuff for rx on a specific device
+ * @dev: network device to receive on
+ * @length: length to allocate
+ * @flags: SKB_FLAGS_* mask
+ * @gfp_mask: get_free_pages mask, passed to alloc_skb
+ *
+ * Allocate a new &sk_buff and assign it a usage count of one. The
+ * buffer has unspecified headroom built in. Users should allocate
+ * the headroom they think they need without accounting for the
+ * built in space. The built in space is used for optimisations.
+ *
+ * %NULL is returned if there is no free memory.
+ *
+ * This function takes the full set of parameters. There are aliases
+ * with a smaller number of parameters.
+ */
+extern struct sk_buff *__netdev_alloc_skb_internal(struct net_device *dev,
+ unsigned int length, int flags,
+ gfp_t gfp_mask);
+
+static inline struct sk_buff *__netdev_alloc_skb(struct net_device *dev,
+ unsigned int length,
+ gfp_t gfp_mask)
+{
+ return __netdev_alloc_skb_internal(dev, length, 0, gfp_mask);
+}

/**
* netdev_alloc_skb - allocate an skbuff for rx on a specific device
@@ -1418,7 +1569,12 @@ extern struct sk_buff *__netdev_alloc_skb(struct net_device *dev,
static inline struct sk_buff *netdev_alloc_skb(struct net_device *dev,
unsigned int length)
{
- return __netdev_alloc_skb(dev, length, GFP_ATOMIC);
+ return __netdev_alloc_skb_internal(dev, length, 0, GFP_ATOMIC);
+}
+static inline struct sk_buff *netdev_alloc_skb_flags(struct net_device *dev,
+ unsigned int length, int flags)
+{
+ return __netdev_alloc_skb_internal(dev, length, flags, GFP_ATOMIC);
}

extern struct page *__netdev_alloc_page(struct net_device *dev, gfp_t gfp_mask);
@@ -1733,6 +1889,11 @@ static inline void skb_copy_to_linear_data_offset(struct sk_buff *skb,

extern void skb_init(void);

+static inline ktime_t skb_get_ktime(const struct sk_buff *skb)
+{
+ return skb->tstamp;
+}
+
/**
* skb_get_timestamp - get timestamp from a skb
* @skb: skb to get stamp from
@@ -1747,6 +1908,11 @@ static inline void skb_get_timestamp(const struct sk_buff *skb, struct timeval *
*stamp = ktime_to_timeval(skb->tstamp);
}

+static inline void skb_get_timestampns(const struct sk_buff *skb, struct timespec *stamp)
+{
+ *stamp = ktime_to_timespec(skb->tstamp);
+}
+
static inline void __net_timestamp(struct sk_buff *skb)
{
skb->tstamp = ktime_get_real();
@@ -1762,6 +1928,22 @@ static inline ktime_t net_invalid_timestamp(void)
return ktime_set(0, 0);
}

+/**
+ * skb_tstamp_tx - queue clone of skb with send time stamps
+ * @orig_skb: the original outgoing packet
+ * @hwtstamps: hardware time stamps, may be NULL if not available
+ *
+ * If the skb has a socket associated, then this function clones the
+ * skb (thus sharing the actual data and optional structures), stores
+ * the optional hardware time stamping information (if non NULL) or
+ * generates a software time stamp (otherwise), then queues the clone
+ * to the error queue of the socket. Errors are silently ignored.
+ *
+ * May only be called on skbs which have a skb_shared_tx!
+ */
+extern void skb_tstamp_tx(struct sk_buff *orig_skb,
+ struct skb_shared_hwtstamps *hwtstamps);
+
extern __sum16 __skb_checksum_complete_head(struct sk_buff *skb, int len);
extern __sum16 __skb_checksum_complete(struct sk_buff *skb);

diff --git a/net/core/dev.c b/net/core/dev.c
index f54cac7..94d95a8 100644
--- a/net/core/dev.c
+++ b/net/core/dev.c
@@ -1657,12 +1657,25 @@ static int dev_gso_segment(struct sk_buff *skb)
return 0;
}

+static void tstamp_tx(struct sk_buff *skb)
+{
+ union skb_shared_tx *shtx =
+ skb_tx(skb);
+ if (unlikely(shtx &&
+ shtx->software &&
+ !shtx->in_progress)) {
+ skb_tstamp_tx(skb, NULL);
+ }
+}
+
int dev_hard_start_xmit(struct sk_buff *skb, struct net_device *dev,
struct netdev_queue *txq)
{
const struct net_device_ops *ops = dev->netdev_ops;
+ int rc;

prefetch(&dev->netdev_ops->ndo_start_xmit);
+
if (likely(!skb->next)) {
if (!list_empty(&ptype_all))
dev_queue_xmit_nit(skb, dev);
@@ -1674,13 +1687,29 @@ int dev_hard_start_xmit(struct sk_buff *skb, struct net_device *dev,
goto gso;
}

- return ops->ndo_start_xmit(skb, dev);
+ rc = ops->ndo_start_xmit(skb, dev);
+ /*
+ * TODO: if skb_orphan() was called by
+ * dev->hard_start_xmit() (for example, the unmodified
+ * igb driver does that; bnx2 doesn't), then
+ * skb_tx_software_timestamp() will be unable to send
+ * back the time stamp.
+ *
+ * How can this be prevented? Always create another
+ * reference to the socket before calling
+ * dev->hard_start_xmit()? Prevent that skb_orphan()
+ * does anything in dev->hard_start_xmit() by clearing
+ * the skb destructor before the call and restoring it
+ * afterwards, then doing the skb_orphan() ourselves?
+ */
+ if (likely(!rc))
+ tstamp_tx(skb);
+ return rc;
}

gso:
do {
struct sk_buff *nskb = skb->next;
- int rc;

skb->next = nskb->next;
nskb->next = NULL;
@@ -1690,6 +1719,7 @@ gso:
skb->next = nskb;
return rc;
}
+ tstamp_tx(skb);
if (unlikely(netif_tx_queue_stopped(txq) && skb->next))
return NETDEV_TX_BUSY;
} while (skb->next);
diff --git a/net/core/skbuff.c b/net/core/skbuff.c
index b1f6287..6f5fcc7 100644
--- a/net/core/skbuff.c
+++ b/net/core/skbuff.c
@@ -55,6 +55,7 @@
#include <linux/rtnetlink.h>
#include <linux/init.h>
#include <linux/scatterlist.h>
+#include <linux/errqueue.h>

#include <net/protocol.h>
#include <net/dst.h>
@@ -155,6 +156,49 @@ void skb_truesize_bug(struct sk_buff *skb)
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(skb_truesize_bug);

+/*
+ * The size of each struct that corresponds to a SKB_FLAGS_OPTIONAL_*
+ * flag.
+ */
+static const unsigned int skb_optional_sizes[] =
+{
+ /*
+ * hwtstamps and tx are special: the space allocated for tx
+ * is reused for hwtstamps in skb_tstamp_tx(). This avoids copying
+ * the complete packet data.
+ *
+ * max() cannot be used here because it contains a code block,
+ * which gcc doesn't accept.
+ */
+#define MAX_SHARED_TIMESTAMPING ((sizeof(struct skb_shared_hwtstamps) > \
+ sizeof(union skb_shared_tx)) ? \
+ sizeof(struct skb_shared_hwtstamps) : \
+ sizeof(union skb_shared_tx))
+
+ MAX_SHARED_TIMESTAMPING,
+ MAX_SHARED_TIMESTAMPING
+};
+
+void *__skb_get_optional(struct sk_buff *skb, int optional)
+{
+ unsigned int offset = (unsigned int)(skb_end_pointer(skb) - skb->head +
+ sizeof(struct skb_shared_info));
+ int i = 0;
+
+ while(1) {
+ if (skb->optional & (1 << i)) {
+ unsigned int struct_size = skb_optional_sizes[i];
+ offset = (offset + struct_size - 1) & ~(struct_size - 1);
+ if ((1 << i) == optional)
+ break;
+ offset += struct_size;
+ }
+ i++;
+ }
+ return skb->head + offset;
+}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(__skb_get_optional);
+
/* Allocate a new skbuff. We do this ourselves so we can fill in a few
* 'private' fields and also do memory statistics to find all the
* [BEEP] leaks.
@@ -162,9 +206,10 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL(skb_truesize_bug);
*/

/**
- * __alloc_skb - allocate a network buffer
+ * __alloc_skb_flags - allocate a network buffer
* @size: size to allocate
* @gfp_mask: allocation mask
+ * @flags: SKB_FLAGS_* mask
* @fclone: allocate from fclone cache instead of head cache
* and allocate a cloned (child) skb
* @node: numa node to allocate memory on
@@ -176,13 +221,16 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL(skb_truesize_bug);
* Buffers may only be allocated from interrupts using a @gfp_mask of
* %GFP_ATOMIC.
*/
-struct sk_buff *__alloc_skb(unsigned int size, gfp_t gfp_mask,
- int fclone, int node)
+struct sk_buff *__alloc_skb_flags(unsigned int size, gfp_t gfp_mask,
+ int flags, int node)
{
struct kmem_cache *cache;
struct skb_shared_info *shinfo;
struct sk_buff *skb;
u8 *data;
+ int fclone = flags & SKB_FLAGS_CLONE;
+ unsigned int total_size;
+ int i;

cache = fclone ? skbuff_fclone_cache : skbuff_head_cache;

@@ -192,7 +240,15 @@ struct sk_buff *__alloc_skb(unsigned int size, gfp_t gfp_mask,
goto out;

size = SKB_DATA_ALIGN(size);
- data = kmalloc_node_track_caller(size + sizeof(struct skb_shared_info),
+ total_size = size + sizeof(struct skb_shared_info);
+ for (i = 0; i < SKB_FLAGS_OPTIONAL_NUM; i++) {
+ if (flags & (1 << i)) {
+ unsigned int struct_size = skb_optional_sizes[i];
+ total_size = (total_size + struct_size - 1) & ~(struct_size - 1);
+ total_size += struct_size;
+ }
+ }
+ data = kmalloc_node_track_caller(total_size,
gfp_mask, node);
if (!data)
goto nodata;
@@ -228,6 +284,8 @@ struct sk_buff *__alloc_skb(unsigned int size, gfp_t gfp_mask,

child->fclone = SKB_FCLONE_UNAVAILABLE;
}
+ skb->optional = flags;
+
out:
return skb;
nodata:
@@ -236,26 +294,14 @@ nodata:
goto out;
}

-/**
- * __netdev_alloc_skb - allocate an skbuff for rx on a specific device
- * @dev: network device to receive on
- * @length: length to allocate
- * @gfp_mask: get_free_pages mask, passed to alloc_skb
- *
- * Allocate a new &sk_buff and assign it a usage count of one. The
- * buffer has unspecified headroom built in. Users should allocate
- * the headroom they think they need without accounting for the
- * built in space. The built in space is used for optimisations.
- *
- * %NULL is returned if there is no free memory.
- */
-struct sk_buff *__netdev_alloc_skb(struct net_device *dev,
- unsigned int length, gfp_t gfp_mask)
+struct sk_buff *__netdev_alloc_skb_internal(struct net_device *dev,
+ unsigned int length, int flags,
+ gfp_t gfp_mask)
{
int node = dev->dev.parent ? dev_to_node(dev->dev.parent) : -1;
struct sk_buff *skb;

- skb = __alloc_skb(length + NET_SKB_PAD, gfp_mask, 0, node);
+ skb = __alloc_skb_flags(length + NET_SKB_PAD, gfp_mask, flags, node);
if (likely(skb)) {
skb_reserve(skb, NET_SKB_PAD);
skb->dev = dev;
@@ -548,6 +594,7 @@ static struct sk_buff *__skb_clone(struct sk_buff *n, struct sk_buff *skb)
n->cloned = 1;
n->nohdr = 0;
n->destructor = NULL;
+ C(optional);
C(iif);
C(tail);
C(end);
@@ -2743,6 +2790,54 @@ int skb_cow_data(struct sk_buff *skb, int tailbits, struct sk_buff **trailer)
return elt;
}

+void skb_tstamp_tx(struct sk_buff *orig_skb,
+ struct skb_shared_hwtstamps *hwtstamps)
+{
+ struct sock *sk = orig_skb->sk;
+ struct sock_exterr_skb *serr;
+ struct sk_buff *skb;
+ int err = -ENOMEM;
+ union skb_shared_tx *shtx =
+ skb_tx(orig_skb);
+
+ if (!sk)
+ return;
+
+ skb = skb_clone(orig_skb, GFP_ATOMIC);
+ if (!skb)
+ return;
+
+ if (hwtstamps) {
+ /*
+ * reuse the existing space for time stamping
+ * instructions for storing the results
+ */
+ struct skb_shared_hwtstamps *shhwtstamps =
+ (struct skb_shared_hwtstamps *)shtx;
+ *shhwtstamps = *hwtstamps;
+ skb->optional = (skb->optional &
+ ~SKB_FLAGS_OPTIONAL_TX) |
+ SKB_FLAGS_OPTIONAL_HWTSTAMPS;
+ } else {
+ /*
+ * no hardware time stamps available,
+ * so keep the skb_shared_tx and only
+ * store software time stamp
+ */
+ skb->tstamp = ktime_get_real();
+ }
+
+ serr = SKB_EXT_ERR(skb);
+ memset(serr, 0, sizeof(*serr));
+ serr->ee.ee_errno = ENOMSG;
+ serr->ee.ee_origin = SO_EE_ORIGIN_TIMESTAMPING;
+ err = sock_queue_err_skb(sk, skb);
+ if (err)
+ kfree_skb(skb);
+}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(skb_tstamp_tx);
+
+
/**
* skb_partial_csum_set - set up and verify partial csum values for packet
* @skb: the skb to set
@@ -2782,8 +2877,8 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL(___pskb_trim);
EXPORT_SYMBOL(__kfree_skb);
EXPORT_SYMBOL(kfree_skb);
EXPORT_SYMBOL(__pskb_pull_tail);
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(__alloc_skb);
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(__netdev_alloc_skb);
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(__alloc_skb_flags);
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(__netdev_alloc_skb_internal);
EXPORT_SYMBOL(pskb_copy);
EXPORT_SYMBOL(pskb_expand_head);
EXPORT_SYMBOL(skb_checksum);
--
1.5.5.3


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