lkml.org 
[lkml]   [2008]   [Nov]   [12]   [last100]   RSS Feed
Views: [wrap][no wrap]   [headers]  [forward] 
 
Messages in this thread
Patch in this message
/
Date
Subject[PATCH 3/8] dm-ioband: Document
From
This patch is the documentation of dm-ioband, design overview,
installation, command, reference and examples.

Signed-off-by: Ryo Tsuruta <ryov@valinux.co.jp>
Signed-off-by: Hirokazu Takahashi <taka@valinux.co.jp>

diff -uprN linux-2.6.28-rc2-mm1.orig/Documentation/device-mapper/ioband.txt linux-2.6.28-rc2-mm1/Documentation/device-mapper/ioband.txt
--- linux-2.6.28-rc2-mm1.orig/Documentation/device-mapper/ioband.txt 1970-01-01 09:00:00.000000000 +0900
+++ linux-2.6.28-rc2-mm1/Documentation/device-mapper/ioband.txt 2008-11-13 09:37:55.000000000 +0900
@@ -0,0 +1,961 @@
+ Block I/O bandwidth control: dm-ioband
+
+ -------------------------------------------------------
+
+ Table of Contents
+
+ [1]What's dm-ioband all about?
+
+ [2]Differences from the CFQ I/O scheduler
+
+ [3]How dm-ioband works.
+
+ [4]Setup and Installation
+
+ [5]Getting started
+
+ [6]Command Reference
+
+ [7]Examples
+
+What's dm-ioband all about?
+
+ dm-ioband is an I/O bandwidth controller implemented as a device-mapper
+ driver. Several jobs using the same physical device have to share the
+ bandwidth of the device. dm-ioband gives bandwidth to each job according
+ to its weight, which each job can set its own value to.
+
+ A job is a group of processes with the same pid or pgrp or uid or a
+ virtual machine such as KVM or Xen. A job can also be a cgroup by applying
+ the bio-cgroup patch, which can be found at
+ [8]http://people.valinux.co.jp/~ryov/bio-cgroup/.
+
+ +------+ +------+ +------+ +------+ +------+ +------+
+ |cgroup| |cgroup| | the | | pid | | pid | | the | jobs
+ | A | | B | |others| | X | | Y | |others|
+ +--|---+ +--|---+ +--|---+ +--|---+ +--|---+ +--|---+
+ +--V----+---V---+----V---+ +--V----+---V---+----V---+
+ | group | group | default| | group | group | default| ioband groups
+ | | | group | | | | group |
+ +-------+-------+--------+ +-------+-------+--------+
+ | ioband1 | | ioband2 | ioband devices
+ +-----------|------------+ +-----------|------------+
+ +-----------V--------------+-------------V------------+
+ | | |
+ | sdb1 | sdb2 | physical devices
+ +--------------------------+--------------------------+
+
+
+ --------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+Differences from the CFQ I/O scheduler
+
+ Dm-ioband is flexible to configure the bandwidth settings.
+
+ Dm-ioband can work with any type of I/O scheduler such as the NOOP
+ scheduler, which is often chosen for high-end storages, since it is
+ implemented outside the I/O scheduling layer. It allows both of partition
+ based bandwidth control and job --- a group of processes --- based
+ control. In addition, it can set different configuration on each physical
+ device to control its bandwidth.
+
+ Meanwhile the current implementation of the CFQ scheduler has 8 IO
+ priority levels and all jobs whose processes have the same IO priority
+ share the bandwidth assigned to this level between them. And IO priority
+ is an attribute of a process so that it equally effects to all block
+ devices.
+
+ --------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+How dm-ioband works.
+
+ Every ioband device has one ioband group, which by default is called the
+ default group.
+
+ Ioband devices can also have extra ioband groups in them. Each ioband
+ group has a job to support and a weight. Proportional to the weight,
+ dm-ioband gives tokens to the group.
+
+ A group passes on I/O requests that its job issues to the underlying
+ layer so long as it has tokens left, while requests are blocked if there
+ aren't any tokens left in the group. Tokens are refilled once all of
+ groups that have requests on a given physical device use up their tokens.
+
+ There are two policies for token consumption. One is that a token is
+ consumed for each I/O request. The other is that a token is consumed for
+ each I/O sector, for example, one I/O request which consists of
+ 4Kbytes(512bytes * 8 sectors) read consumes 8 tokens. A user can choose
+ either policy.
+
+ With this approach, a job running on an ioband group with large weight
+ is guaranteed a wide I/O bandwidth.
+
+ --------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+Setup and Installation
+
+ Build a kernel with these options enabled:
+
+ CONFIG_MD
+ CONFIG_BLK_DEV_DM
+ CONFIG_DM_IOBAND
+
+
+ If compiled as module, use modprobe to load dm-ioband.
+
+ # make modules
+ # make modules_install
+ # depmod -a
+ # modprobe dm-ioband
+
+
+ "dmsetup targets" command shows all available device-mapper targets.
+ "ioband" and the version number are displayed when dm-ioband has been
+ loaded.
+
+ # dmsetup targets | grep ioband
+ ioband v1.9.0
+
+
+ --------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+Getting started
+
+ The following is a brief description how to control the I/O bandwidth of
+ disks. In this description, we'll take one disk with two partitions as an
+ example target.
+
+ --------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+ Create and map ioband devices
+
+ Create two ioband devices "ioband1" and "ioband2". "ioband1" is mapped
+ to "/dev/sda1" and has a weight of 40. "ioband2" is mapped to "/dev/sda2"
+ and has a weight of 10. "ioband1" can use 80% --- 40/(40+10)*100 --- of
+ the bandwidth of the physical disk "/dev/sda" while "ioband2" can use 20%.
+
+ # echo "0 $(blockdev --getsize /dev/sda1) ioband /dev/sda1 1 0 0 none" \
+ "weight 0 :40" | dmsetup create ioband1
+ # echo "0 $(blockdev --getsize /dev/sda2) ioband /dev/sda2 1 0 0 none" \
+ "weight 0 :10" | dmsetup create ioband2
+
+
+ If the commands are successful then the device files
+ "/dev/mapper/ioband1" and "/dev/mapper/ioband2" will have been created.
+
+ --------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+ Additional bandwidth control
+
+ In this example two extra ioband groups are created on "ioband1". The
+ first group consists of all the processes with user-id 1000 and the second
+ group consists of all the processes with user-id 2000. Their weights are
+ 30 and 20 respectively.
+
+ # dmsetup message ioband1 0 type user
+ # dmsetup message ioband1 0 attach 1000
+ # dmsetup message ioband1 0 attach 2000
+ # dmsetup message ioband1 0 weight 1000:30
+ # dmsetup message ioband1 0 weight 2000:20
+
+
+ Now the processes in the user-id 1000 group can use 30% ---
+ 30/(30+20+40+10)*100 --- of the bandwidth of the physical disk.
+
+ Table 1. Weight assignments
+
+ +----------------------------------------------------------------+
+ | ioband device | ioband group | ioband weight |
+ |---------------+--------------------------------+---------------|
+ | ioband1 | user id 1000 | 30 |
+ |---------------+--------------------------------+---------------|
+ | ioband1 | user id 2000 | 20 |
+ |---------------+--------------------------------+---------------|
+ | ioband1 | default group(the other users) | 40 |
+ |---------------+--------------------------------+---------------|
+ | ioband2 | default group | 10 |
+ +----------------------------------------------------------------+
+
+ --------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+ Remove the ioband devices
+
+ Remove the ioband devices when no longer used.
+
+ # dmsetup remove ioband1
+ # dmsetup remove ioband2
+
+
+ --------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+Command Reference
+
+ Create an ioband device
+
+ SYNOPSIS
+
+ dmsetup create IOBAND_DEVICE
+
+ DESCRIPTION
+
+ Create an ioband device with the given name IOBAND_DEVICE.
+ Generally, dmsetup reads a table from standard input. Each line of
+ the table specifies a single target and is of the form:
+
+ start_sector num_sectors "ioband" device_file ioband_device_id \
+ io_throttle io_limit ioband_group_type policy token_base \
+ :weight [ioband_group_id:weight...]
+
+
+ start_sector, num_sectors
+
+ The sector range of the underlying device where
+ dm-ioband maps.
+
+ ioband
+
+ Specify the string "ioband" as a target type.
+
+ device_file
+
+ Underlying device name.
+
+ ioband_device_id
+
+ The ID number for an ioband device. The same ID
+ must be set among the ioband devices that share the
+ same bandwidth, which means they work on the same
+ physical disk.
+
+ io_throttle
+
+ Dm-ioband starts to control the bandwidth when the
+ number of BIOs in progress exceeds this value. If 0
+ is specified, dm-ioband uses the default value.
+
+ io_limit
+
+ Dm-ioband blocks all I/O requests for the
+ IOBAND_DEVICE when the number of BIOs in progress
+ exceeds this value. If 0 is specified, dm-ioband uses
+ the default value.
+
+ ioband_group_type
+
+ Specify how to evaluate the ioband group ID. The
+ type must be one of "none", "user", "gid", "pid" or
+ "pgrp." The type "cgroup" is enabled by applying the
+ bio-cgroup patch. Specify "none" if you don't need
+ any ioband groups other than the default ioband
+ group.
+
+ policy
+
+ Specify bandwidth control policy. A user can choose
+ either policy "weight" or "weight-iosize."
+
+ weight
+
+ This policy controls bandwidth
+ according to the proportional to the
+ weight of each ioband group based on the
+ number of I/O requests.
+
+ weight-iosize
+
+ This policy controls bandwidth
+ according to the proportional to the
+ weight of each ioband group based on the
+ number of I/O sectors.
+
+ token_base
+
+ The number of tokens which specified by token_base
+ will be distributed to all ioband groups according to
+ the proportional to the weight of each ioband group.
+ If 0 is specified, dm-ioband uses the default value.
+
+ ioband_group_id:weight
+
+ Set the weight of the ioband group specified by
+ ioband_group_id. If ioband_group_id is omitted, the
+ weight is assigned to the default ioband group.
+
+ EXAMPLE
+
+ Create an ioband device with the following parameters:
+
+ * Starting sector = "0"
+
+ * The number of sectors = "$(blockdev --getsize /dev/sda1)"
+
+ * Target type = "ioband"
+
+ * Underlying device name = "/dev/sda1"
+
+ * Ioband device ID = "128"
+
+ * I/O throttle = "10"
+
+ * I/O limit = "400"
+
+ * Ioband group type = "user"
+
+ * Bandwidth control policy = "weight"
+
+ * Token base = "2048"
+
+ * Weight for the default ioband group = "100"
+
+ * Weight for the ioband group 1000 = "80"
+
+ * Weight for the ioband group 2000 = "20"
+
+ * Ioband device name = "ioband1"
+
+ # echo "0 $(blockdev --getsize /dev/sda1) ioband" \
+ "/dev/sda1 128 10 400 user weight 2048 :100 1000:80 2000:20" \
+ | dmsetup create ioband1
+
+
+ Create two device groups (ID=1,2). The bandwidths of these
+ device groups will be individually controlled.
+
+ # echo "0 $(blockdev --getsize /dev/sda1) ioband /dev/sda1 1" \
+ "0 0 none weight 0 :80" | dmsetup create ioband1
+ # echo "0 $(blockdev --getsize /dev/sda2) ioband /dev/sda2 1" \
+ "0 0 none weight 0 :20" | dmsetup create ioband2
+ # echo "0 $(blockdev --getsize /dev/sdb3) ioband /dev/sdb3 2" \
+ "0 0 none weight 0 :60" | dmsetup create ioband3
+ # echo "0 $(blockdev --getsize /dev/sdb4) ioband /dev/sdb4 2" \
+ "0 0 none weight 0 :40" | dmsetup create ioband4
+
+
+ --------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+ Remove the ioband device
+
+ SYNOPSIS
+
+ dmsetup remove IOBAND_DEVICE
+
+ DESCRIPTION
+
+ Remove the specified ioband device IOBAND_DEVICE. All the band
+ groups attached to the ioband device are also removed
+ automatically.
+
+ EXAMPLE
+
+ Remove ioband device "ioband1."
+
+ # dmsetup remove ioband1
+
+
+ --------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+ Set an ioband group type
+
+ SYNOPSIS
+
+ dmsetup message IOBAND_DEVICE 0 type TYPE
+
+ DESCRIPTION
+
+ Set the ioband group type of the specified ioband device
+ IOBAND_DEVICE. TYPE must be one of "none", "user", "gid", "pid" or
+ "pgrp." The type "cgroup" is enabled by applying the bio-cgroup
+ patch. Once the type is set, new ioband groups can be created on
+ IOBAND_DEVICE.
+
+ EXAMPLE
+
+ Set the ioband group type of ioband device "ioband1" to "user."
+
+ # dmsetup message ioband1 0 type user
+
+
+ --------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+ Create an ioband group
+
+ SYNOPSIS
+
+ dmsetup message IOBAND_DEVICE 0 attach ID
+
+ DESCRIPTION
+
+ Create an ioband group and attach it to IOBAND_DEVICE. ID
+ specifies user-id, group-id, process-id or process-group-id
+ depending the ioband group type of IOBAND_DEVICE.
+
+ EXAMPLE
+
+ Create an ioband group which consists of all processes with
+ user-id 1000 and attach it to ioband device "ioband1."
+
+ # dmsetup message ioband1 0 type user
+ # dmsetup message ioband1 0 attach 1000
+
+
+ --------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+ Detach the ioband group
+
+ SYNOPSIS
+
+ dmsetup message IOBAND_DEVICE 0 detach ID
+
+ DESCRIPTION
+
+ Detach the ioband group specified by ID from ioband device
+ IOBAND_DEVICE.
+
+ EXAMPLE
+
+ Detach the ioband group with ID "2000" from ioband device
+ "ioband2."
+
+ # dmsetup message ioband2 0 detach 1000
+
+
+ --------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+ Set bandwidth control policy
+
+ SYNOPSIS
+
+ dmsetup message IOBAND_DEVICE 0 policy policy
+
+ DESCRIPTION
+
+ Set bandwidth control policy. This command applies to all ioband
+ devices which have the same ioband device ID as IOBAND_DEVICE. A
+ user can choose either policy "weight" or "weight-iosize."
+
+ weight
+
+ This policy controls bandwidth according to the
+ proportional to the weight of each ioband group based
+ on the number of I/O requests.
+
+ weight-iosize
+
+ This policy controls bandwidth according to the
+ proportional to the weight of each ioband group based
+ on the number of I/O sectors.
+
+ EXAMPLE
+
+ Set bandwidth control policy of ioband devices which have the
+ same ioband device ID as "ioband1" to "weight-iosize."
+
+ # dmsetup message ioband1 0 policy weight-iosize
+
+
+ --------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+ Set the weight of an ioband group
+
+ SYNOPSIS
+
+ dmsetup message IOBAND_DEVICE 0 weight VAL
+
+ dmsetup message IOBAND_DEVICE 0 weight ID:VAL
+
+ DESCRIPTION
+
+ Set the weight of the ioband group specified by ID. Set the
+ weight of the default ioband group of IOBAND_DEVICE if ID isn't
+ specified.
+
+ The following example means that "ioband1" can use 80% ---
+ 40/(40+10)*100 --- of the bandwidth of the physical disk while
+ "ioband2" can use 20%.
+
+ # dmsetup message ioband1 0 weight 40
+ # dmsetup message ioband2 0 weight 10
+
+
+ The following lines have the same effect as the above:
+
+ # dmsetup message ioband1 0 weight 4
+ # dmsetup message ioband2 0 weight 1
+
+
+ VAL must be an integer larger than 0. The default value, which
+ is assigned to newly created ioband groups, is 100.
+
+ EXAMPLE
+
+ Set the weight of the default ioband group of "ioband1" to 40.
+
+ # dmsetup message ioband1 0 weight 40
+
+
+ Set the weight of the ioband group of "ioband1" with ID "1000"
+ to 10.
+
+ # dmsetup message ioband1 0 weight 1000:10
+
+
+ --------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+ Set the number of tokens
+
+ SYNOPSIS
+
+ dmsetup message IOBAND_DEVICE 0 token VAL
+
+ DESCRIPTION
+
+ Set the number of tokens to VAL. According to their weight, this
+ number of tokens will be distributed to all the ioband groups on
+ the physical device to which ioband device IOBAND_DEVICE belongs
+ when they use up their tokens. If 0 is specified, the default
+ value is used.
+
+ EXAMPLE
+
+ Set the number of tokens of the physical device to which
+ "ioband1" belongs to 256.
+
+ # dmsetup message ioband1 0 token 256
+
+
+ --------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+ Set a limit of how many tokens are carried over
+
+ SYNOPSIS
+
+ dmsetup message IOBAND_DEVICE 0 carryover VAL
+
+ DESCRIPTION
+
+ When dm-ioband tries to refill an ioband group with tokens after
+ another ioband group is already refilled several times, dm-ioband
+ determines the number of tokens to refill by multiplying the
+ number of tokens refilled once by the smaller of how many times
+ the other group is already refilled or this limit. If 0 is
+ specified, the default value is used.
+
+ EXAMPLE
+
+ Set a limit for "ioband1" to 2.
+
+ # dmsetup message ioband1 0 carryover 2
+
+
+ --------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+ Set I/O throttling
+
+ SYNOPSIS
+
+ dmsetup message IOBAND_DEVICE 0 io_throttle VAL
+
+ DESCRIPTION
+
+ Set the I/O throttling value of the physical disk to which
+ ioband device IOBAND_DEVICE belongs to VAL. Dm-ioband start to
+ control the bandwidth when the number of BIOs in progress on the
+ physical disk exceeds this value.
+
+ EXAMPLE
+
+ Set the I/O throttling value of "ioband1" to 16.
+
+ # dmsetup message ioband1 0 io_throttle 16
+
+
+ --------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+ Set I/O limiting
+
+ SYNOPSIS
+
+ dmsetup message IOBAND_DEVICE 0 io_limit VAL
+
+ DESCRIPTION
+
+ Set the I/O limiting value of the physical disk to which ioband
+ device IOBAND_DEVICE belongs to VAL. Dm-ioband will block all I/O
+ requests for the physical device if the number of BIOs in progress
+ on the physical disk exceeds this value.
+
+ EXAMPLE
+
+ Set the I/O limiting value of "ioband1" to 128.
+
+ # dmsetup message ioband1 0 io_limit 128
+
+
+ --------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+ Display settings
+
+ SYNOPSIS
+
+ dmsetup table --target ioband
+
+ DESCRIPTION
+
+ Display the current table for the ioband device in a format. See
+ "dmsetup create" command for information on the table format.
+
+ EXAMPLE
+
+ The following output shows the current table of "ioband1."
+
+ # dmsetup table --target ioband
+ ioband: 0 32129937 ioband1 8:29 128 10 400 user weight \
+ 2048 :100 1000:80 2000:20
+
+
+ --------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+ Display Statistics
+
+ SYNOPSIS
+
+ dmsetup status --target ioband
+
+ DESCRIPTION
+
+ Display the statistics of all the ioband devices whose target
+ type is "ioband."
+
+ The output format is as below. the first five columns shows:
+
+ * ioband device name
+
+ * logical start sector of the device (must be 0)
+
+ * device size in sectors
+
+ * target type (must be "ioband")
+
+ * device group ID
+
+ The remaining columns show the statistics of each ioband group
+ on the band device. Each group uses seven columns for its
+ statistics.
+
+ * ioband group ID (-1 means default)
+
+ * total read requests
+
+ * delayed read requests
+
+ * total read sectors
+
+ * total write requests
+
+ * delayed write requests
+
+ * total write sectors
+
+ EXAMPLE
+
+ The following output shows the statistics of two ioband devices.
+ Ioband2 only has the default ioband group and ioband1 has three
+ (default, 1001, 1002) ioband groups.
+
+ # dmsetup status
+ ioband2: 0 44371467 ioband 128 -1 143 90 424 122 78 352
+ ioband1: 0 44371467 ioband 128 -1 223 172 408 211 136 600 1001 \
+ 166 107 472 139 95 352 1002 211 146 520 210 147 504
+
+
+ --------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+ Reset status counter
+
+ SYNOPSIS
+
+ dmsetup message IOBAND_DEVICE 0 reset
+
+ DESCRIPTION
+
+ Reset the statistics of ioband device IOBAND_DEVICE.
+
+ EXAMPLE
+
+ Reset the statistics of "ioband1."
+
+ # dmsetup message ioband1 0 reset
+
+
+ --------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+Examples
+
+ Example #1: Bandwidth control on Partitions
+
+ This example describes how to control the bandwidth with disk
+ partitions. The following diagram illustrates the configuration of this
+ example. You may want to run a database on /dev/mapper/ioband1 and web
+ applications on /dev/mapper/ioband2.
+
+ /mnt1 /mnt2 mount points
+ | |
+ +-------------V------------+ +-------------V------------+
+ | /dev/mapper/ioband1 | | /dev/mapper/ioband2 | ioband devices
+ +--------------------------+ +--------------------------+
+ | default group | | default group | ioband groups
+ | (80) | | (40) | (weight)
+ +-------------|------------+ +-------------|------------+
+ | |
+ +-------------V-------------+--------------V------------+
+ | /dev/sda1 | /dev/sda2 | physical devices
+ +---------------------------+---------------------------+
+
+
+ To setup the above configuration, follow these steps:
+
+ 1. Create ioband devices with the same device group ID and assign
+ weights of 80 and 40 to the default ioband groups respectively.
+
+ # echo "0 $(blockdev --getsize /dev/sda1) ioband /dev/sda1 1 0 0" \
+ "none weight 0 :80" | dmsetup create ioband1
+ # echo "0 $(blockdev --getsize /dev/sda2) ioband /dev/sda2 1 0 0" \
+ "none weight 0 :40" | dmsetup create ioband2
+
+
+ 2. Create filesystems on the ioband devices and mount them.
+
+ # mkfs.ext3 /dev/mapper/ioband1
+ # mount /dev/mapper/ioband1 /mnt1
+
+ # mkfs.ext3 /dev/mapper/ioband2
+ # mount /dev/mapper/ioband2 /mnt2
+
+
+ --------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+ Example #2: Bandwidth control on Logical Volumes
+
+ This example is similar to the example #1 but it uses LVM logical
+ volumes instead of disk partitions. This example shows how to configure
+ ioband devices on two striped logical volumes.
+
+ /mnt1 /mnt2 mount points
+ | |
+ +-------------V------------+ +-------------V------------+
+ | /dev/mapper/ioband1 | | /dev/mapper/ioband2 | ioband devices
+ +--------------------------+ +--------------------------+
+ | default group | | default group | ioband groups
+ | (80) | | (40) | (weight)
+ +-------------|------------+ +-------------|------------+
+ | |
+ +-------------V------------+ +-------------V------------+
+ | /dev/mapper/lv0 | | /dev/mapper/lv1 | striped logical
+ | | | | volumes
+ +-------------------------------------------------------+
+ | vg0 | volume group
+ +-------------|----------------------------|------------+
+ | |
+ +-------------V------------+ +-------------V------------+
+ | /dev/sdb | | /dev/sdc | physical devices
+ +--------------------------+ +--------------------------+
+
+
+ To setup the above configuration, follow these steps:
+
+ 1. Initialize the partitions for use by LVM.
+
+ # pvcreate /dev/sdb
+ # pvcreate /dev/sdc
+
+
+ 2. Create a new volume group named "vg0" with /dev/sdb and /dev/sdc.
+
+ # vgcreate vg0 /dev/sdb /dev/sdc
+
+
+ 3. Create two logical volumes in "vg0." The volumes have to be striped.
+
+ # lvcreate -n lv0 -i 2 -I 64 vg0 -L 1024M
+ # lvcreate -n lv1 -i 2 -I 64 vg0 -L 1024M
+
+
+ The rest is the same as the example #1.
+
+ 4. Create ioband devices corresponding to each logical volume and
+ assign weights of 80 and 40 to the default ioband groups respectively.
+
+ # echo "0 $(blockdev --getsize /dev/mapper/vg0-lv0)" \
+ "ioband /dev/mapper/vg0-lv0 1 0 0 none weight 0 :80" | \
+ dmsetup create ioband1
+ # echo "0 $(blockdev --getsize /dev/mapper/vg0-lv1)" \
+ "ioband /dev/mapper/vg0-lv1 1 0 0 none weight 0 :40" | \
+ dmsetup create ioband2
+
+
+ 5. Create filesystems on the ioband devices and mount them.
+
+ # mkfs.ext3 /dev/mapper/ioband1
+ # mount /dev/mapper/ioband1 /mnt1
+
+ # mkfs.ext3 /dev/mapper/ioband2
+ # mount /dev/mapper/ioband2 /mnt2
+
+
+ --------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+ Example #3: Bandwidth control on processes
+
+ This example describes how to control the bandwidth with groups of
+ processes. You may also want to run an additional application on the same
+ machine described in the example #1. This example shows how to add a new
+ ioband group for this application.
+
+ /mnt1 /mnt2 mount points
+ | |
+ +-------------V------------+ +-------------V------------+
+ | /dev/mapper/ioband1 | | /dev/mapper/ioband2 | ioband devices
+ +-------------+------------+ +-------------+------------+
+ | default | | user=1000 | default | ioband groups
+ | (80) | | (20) | (40) | (weight)
+ +-------------+------------+ +-------------+------------+
+ | |
+ +-------------V-------------+--------------V------------+
+ | /dev/sda1 | /dev/sda2 | physical device
+ +---------------------------+---------------------------+
+
+
+ The following shows to set up a new ioband group on the machine that is
+ already configured as the example #1. The application will have a weight
+ of 20 and run with user-id 1000 on /dev/mapper/ioband2.
+
+ 1. Set the type of ioband2 to "user."
+
+ # dmsetup message ioband2 0 type user.
+
+
+ 2. Create a new ioband group on ioband2.
+
+ # dmsetup message ioband2 0 attach 1000
+
+
+ 3. Assign weight of 10 to this newly created ioband group.
+
+ # dmsetup message ioband2 0 weight 1000:20
+
+
+ --------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+ Example #4: Bandwidth control for Xen virtual block devices
+
+ This example describes how to control the bandwidth for Xen virtual
+ block devices. The following diagram illustrates the configuration of this
+ example.
+
+ Virtual Machine 1 Virtual Machine 2 virtual machines
+ | |
+ +-------------V------------+ +-------------V------------+
+ | /dev/xvda1 | | /dev/xvda1 | virtual block
+ +-------------|------------+ +-------------|------------+ devices
+ | |
+ +-------------V------------+ +-------------V------------+
+ | /dev/mapper/ioband1 | | /dev/mapper/ioband2 | ioband devices
+ +--------------------------+ +--------------------------+
+ | default group | | default group | ioband groups
+ | (80) | | (40) | (weight)
+ +-------------|------------+ +-------------|------------+
+ | |
+ +-------------V-------------+--------------V------------+
+ | /dev/sda1 | /dev/sda2 | physical device
+ +---------------------------+---------------------------+
+
+
+ The followings shows how to map ioband device "ioband1" and "ioband2" to
+ virtual block device "/dev/xvda1 on Virtual Machine 1" and "/dev/xvda1 on
+ Virtual Machine 2" respectively on the machine configured as the example
+ #1. Add the following lines to the configuration files that are referenced
+ when creating "Virtual Machine 1" and "Virtual Machine 2."
+
+ For "Virtual Machine 1"
+ disk = [ 'phy:/dev/mapper/ioband1,xvda,w' ]
+
+ For "Virtual Machine 2"
+ disk = [ 'phy:/dev/mapper/ioband2,xvda,w' ]
+
+
+ --------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+ Example #5: Bandwidth control for Xen blktap devices
+
+ This example describes how to control the bandwidth for Xen virtual
+ block devices when Xen blktap devices are used. The following diagram
+ illustrates the configuration of this example.
+
+ Virtual Machine 1 Virtual Machine 2 virtual machines
+ | |
+ +-------------V------------+ +-------------V------------+
+ | /dev/xvda1 | | /dev/xvda1 | virtual block
+ +-------------|------------+ +-------------|------------+ devices
+ | |
+ +-------------V----------------------------V------------+
+ | /dev/mapper/ioband1 | ioband device
+ +---------------------------+---------------------------+
+ | default group | default group | ioband groups
+ | (80) | (40) | (weight)
+ +-------------|-------------+--------------|------------+
+ | |
+ +-------------|----------------------------|------------+
+ | +----------V----------+ +----------V---------+ |
+ | | vm1.img | | vm2.img | | disk image files
+ | +---------------------+ +--------------------+ |
+ | /vmdisk | mount point
+ +---------------------------|---------------------------+
+ |
+ +---------------------------V---------------------------+
+ | /dev/sda1 | physical device
+ +-------------------------------------------------------+
+
+
+ To setup the above configuration, follow these steps:
+
+ 1. Create an ioband device.
+
+ # echo "0 $(blockdev --getsize /dev/sda1) ioband /dev/sda1" \
+ "1 0 0 none weight 0 :100" | dmsetup create ioband1
+
+
+ 2. Add the following lines to the configuration files that are
+ referenced when creating "Virtual Machine 1" and "Virtual Machine 2."
+ Disk image files "/vmdisk/vm1.img" and "/vmdisk/vm2.img" will be used.
+
+ For "Virtual Machine 1"
+ disk = [ 'tap:aio:/vmdisk/vm1.img,xvda,w', ]
+
+ For "Virtual Machine 1"
+ disk = [ 'tap:aio:/vmdisk/vm2.img,xvda,w', ]
+
+
+ 3. Run the virtual machines.
+
+ # xm create vm1
+ # xm create vm2
+
+
+ 4. Find out the process IDs of the daemons which control the blktap
+ devices.
+
+ # lsof /vmdisk/disk[12].img
+ COMMAND PID USER FD TYPE DEVICE SIZE NODE NAME
+ tapdisk 15011 root 11u REG 253,0 2147483648 48961 /vmdisk/vm1.img
+ tapdisk 15276 root 13u REG 253,0 2147483648 48962 /vmdisk/vm2.img
+
+
+ 5. Create new ioband groups of pid 15011 and pid 15276, which are
+ process IDs of the tapdisks, and assign weight of 80 and 40 to the
+ groups respectively.
+
+ # dmsetup message ioband1 0 type pid
+ # dmsetup message ioband1 0 attach 15011
+ # dmsetup message ioband1 0 weight 15011:80
+ # dmsetup message ioband1 0 attach 15276
+ # dmsetup message ioband1 0 weight 15276:40

\
 
 \ /
  Last update: 2008-11-13 04:15    [from the cache]
©2003-2011 Jasper Spaans