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Subject[PATCH 4/4] Implement semaphore latency tracer
Date
Each time a down_read or down_write fails, a unique latency id is generated.
Later when someone releases the semaphore, it is blamed for the latency of all
tasks on the wait_list of the semaphore.
If you would group the output from latency_trace by the latency_id you get all those
who were contending on a lock, and the tasks that were holding the lock.
An entry in latency_trace has the format:
(latency_id) [semaphore_id] read|write
stacktrace <= stacktrace

Signed-off-by: Török Edwin <edwintorok@gmail.com>
---
kernel/trace/Kconfig | 12 +++
kernel/trace/Makefile | 1 +
kernel/trace/trace.c | 105 +++++++++++++++++++++----
kernel/trace/trace.h | 32 ++++++++
kernel/trace/trace_semlat.c | 186 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
5 files changed, 321 insertions(+), 15 deletions(-)
create mode 100644 kernel/trace/trace_semlat.c

diff --git a/kernel/trace/Kconfig b/kernel/trace/Kconfig
index 396aea1..8faac14 100644
--- a/kernel/trace/Kconfig
+++ b/kernel/trace/Kconfig
@@ -144,6 +144,18 @@ config STACK_TRACER
This tracer records the max stack of the kernel, and displays
it in debugfs/tracing/stack_trace

+config SEMLAT_TRACER
+ bool "Semaphore latency tracer"
+ depends on HAVE_FTRACE
+ depends on DEBUG_KERNEL
+ select TRACING
+ select TRACEPOINTS
+ select TRACER_MAX_TRACE
+ help
+ This tracer records the reason for semaphore contention, showing
+ who is holding a lock for too long and causing other tasks to contend
+ on the semaphore. Currently it instruments rwsem and rwsem-spinlock with tracepoints.
+
config DYNAMIC_FTRACE
bool "enable/disable ftrace tracepoints dynamically"
depends on FTRACE
diff --git a/kernel/trace/Makefile b/kernel/trace/Makefile
index a85dfba..d037df3 100644
--- a/kernel/trace/Makefile
+++ b/kernel/trace/Makefile
@@ -24,5 +24,6 @@ obj-$(CONFIG_NOP_TRACER) += trace_nop.o
obj-$(CONFIG_STACK_TRACER) += trace_stack.o
obj-$(CONFIG_MMIOTRACE) += trace_mmiotrace.o
obj-$(CONFIG_BOOT_TRACER) += trace_boot.o
+obj-$(CONFIG_SEMLAT_TRACER) += trace_semlat.o

libftrace-y := ftrace.o
diff --git a/kernel/trace/trace.c b/kernel/trace/trace.c
index 722ab74..bd9145a 100644
--- a/kernel/trace/trace.c
+++ b/kernel/trace/trace.c
@@ -752,26 +752,42 @@ void __trace_stack(struct trace_array *tr,
ftrace_trace_stack(tr, data, flags, skip, preempt_count());
}

-static void __trace_userstack(struct trace_array *tr,
+static void ftrace_trace_userstack(struct trace_array *tr,
struct trace_array_cpu *data,
- unsigned long flags)
+ unsigned long flags, int pc)
{
- struct trace_entry *entry;
+ struct userstack_entry *entry;
struct stack_trace trace;
+ struct ring_buffer_event *event;
+ unsigned long irq_flags;

if (!(trace_flags & TRACE_ITER_USERSTACKTRACE))
return;

- entry = tracing_get_trace_entry(tr, data);
- tracing_generic_entry_update(entry, flags);
- entry->type = TRACE_USER_STACK;
+ event = ring_buffer_lock_reserve(tr->buffer, sizeof(*entry),
+ &irq_flags);
+ if (!event)
+ return;
+ entry = ring_buffer_event_data(event);
+ tracing_generic_entry_update(&entry->ent, flags, pc);
+ entry->ent.type = TRACE_USER_STACK;
+
+ memset(&entry->caller, 0, sizeof(entry->caller));

- memset(&entry->field.stack, 0, sizeof(entry->field.stack));
trace.nr_entries = 0;
trace.max_entries = FTRACE_STACK_ENTRIES;
trace.skip = 0;
- trace.entries = entry->field.stack.caller;
+ trace.entries = entry->caller;
+
save_stack_trace_user(&trace);
+ ring_buffer_unlock_commit(tr->buffer, event, irq_flags);
+}
+
+void __trace_userstack(struct trace_array *tr,
+ struct trace_array_cpu *data,
+ unsigned long flags)
+{
+ ftrace_trace_userstack(tr, data, flags, preempt_count());
}

static void
@@ -810,6 +826,36 @@ __trace_special(void *__tr, void *__data,
}

void
+trace_semlat(struct trace_array *tr, struct trace_array_cpu *data,
+ const struct semlat_data *sdata, int samestack)
+{
+ struct ring_buffer_event *event;
+ struct semlat_entry *entry;
+ unsigned long irq_flags;
+ int pc = preempt_count();
+
+ event = ring_buffer_lock_reserve(tr->buffer, sizeof(*entry),
+ &irq_flags);
+ if (!event)
+ return;
+ entry = ring_buffer_event_data(event);
+ tracing_generic_entry_update(&entry->ent, 0, pc);
+ entry->ent.type = TRACE_SEM;
+ entry->data = *sdata;
+ entry->data.pid = current->pid;
+ ring_buffer_unlock_commit(tr->buffer, event, irq_flags);
+ if (!samestack) {
+ /* show a stack trace only if different from previous */
+ __trace_stack(tr, data, irq_flags, 3);
+ __trace_userstack(tr, data, irq_flags);
+ }
+ ftrace_trace_stack(tr, data, irq_flags, 4, pc);
+ __trace_userstack(tr, data, irq_flags);
+
+ trace_wake_up();
+}
+
+void
tracing_sched_switch_trace(struct trace_array *tr,
struct trace_array_cpu *data,
struct task_struct *prev,
@@ -1192,7 +1238,7 @@ seq_print_ip_sym(struct trace_seq *s, unsigned long ip, unsigned long sym_flags)
}

static int
-seq_print_userip_objs(const struct trace_entry *entry, struct trace_seq *s,
+seq_print_userip_objs(const struct userstack_entry *entry, struct trace_seq *s,
unsigned long sym_flags)
{
struct mm_struct *mm = NULL;
@@ -1204,7 +1250,7 @@ seq_print_userip_objs(const struct trace_entry *entry, struct trace_seq *s,
/* we do the lookup on the thread group leader,
* since individual threads might have already quit! */
rcu_read_lock();
- task = find_task_by_vpid(entry->field.tgid);
+ task = find_task_by_vpid(entry->ent.tgid);
rcu_read_unlock();

if (task)
@@ -1212,7 +1258,7 @@ seq_print_userip_objs(const struct trace_entry *entry, struct trace_seq *s,
}

for (i = 0; i < FTRACE_STACK_ENTRIES; i++) {
- unsigned long ip = entry->field.stack.caller[i];
+ unsigned long ip = entry->caller[i];
unsigned long vmstart = 0;
struct file *file = NULL;

@@ -1532,10 +1578,34 @@ print_lat_fmt(struct trace_iterator *iter, unsigned int trace_idx, int cpu)
trace_seq_print_cont(s, iter);
break;
}
- case TRACE_USER_STACK:
- seq_print_userip_objs(entry, s, sym_flags);
+ case TRACE_USER_STACK: {
+ struct userstack_entry *field;
+
+ trace_assign_type(field, entry);
+
+ seq_print_userip_objs(field, s, sym_flags);
trace_seq_putc(s, '\n');
break;
+ }
+ case TRACE_SEM: {
+ struct semlat_entry *field;
+
+ trace_assign_type(field, entry);
+
+ if (field->data.pid == field->ent.pid) {
+ /* task that suffered the latency */
+ comm = trace_find_cmdline(field->data.pid);
+ trace_seq_printf(s, " (%u) %s["IP_FMT"] %s %s\n",
+ field->data.latency_id,
+ field->data.name ? field->data.name : "",
+ field->data.semaphore,
+ field->data.kind_read ? "read" : "write",
+ comm);
+ } else
+ trace_seq_printf(s, " (%u)\n",
+ field->data.latency_id);
+ break;
+ }
default:
trace_seq_printf(s, "Unknown type %d\n", entry->type);
}
@@ -1671,8 +1741,13 @@ static enum print_line_t print_trace_fmt(struct trace_iterator *iter)
if (entry->flags & TRACE_FLAG_CONT)
trace_seq_print_cont(s, iter);
break;
- case TRACE_USER_STACK:
- ret = seq_print_userip_objs(entry, s, sym_flags);
+ }
+ case TRACE_USER_STACK: {
+ struct userstack_entry *field;
+
+ trace_assign_type(field, entry);
+
+ ret = seq_print_userip_objs(field, s, sym_flags);
if (!ret)
return 0;
ret = trace_seq_putc(s, '\n');
diff --git a/kernel/trace/trace.h b/kernel/trace/trace.h
index 59d3b17..d734561 100644
--- a/kernel/trace/trace.h
+++ b/kernel/trace/trace.h
@@ -23,6 +23,7 @@ enum trace_type {
TRACE_MMIO_MAP,
TRACE_BOOT,
TRACE_USER_STACK,
+ TRACE_SEM,

__TRACE_LAST_TYPE
};
@@ -39,6 +40,7 @@ struct trace_entry {
unsigned char flags;
unsigned char preempt_count;
int pid;
+ int tgid;
};

/*
@@ -86,6 +88,11 @@ struct stack_entry {
unsigned long caller[FTRACE_STACK_ENTRIES];
};

+struct userstack_entry {
+ struct trace_entry ent;
+ unsigned long caller[FTRACE_STACK_ENTRIES];
+};
+
/*
* ftrace_printk entry:
*/
@@ -119,6 +126,25 @@ struct trace_boot {
};

/*
+ * semaphore-latency entry
+ */
+
+struct semlat_data {
+ const void *semaphore;
+ const char *name;
+ unsigned int latency_id; /* a unique id for this latency instance */
+ unsigned int kind_read;
+ unsigned int pid;/* pid of task that suffered the latency */
+ cycle_t t;/* start of latency - lock contention */
+ int cpu;
+};
+
+struct semlat_entry {
+ struct trace_entry ent;
+ struct semlat_data data;
+};
+
+/*
* trace_flag_type is an enumeration that holds different
* states when a trace occurs. These are:
* IRQS_OFF - interrupts were disabled
@@ -211,6 +237,7 @@ extern void __ftrace_bad_type(void);
IF_ASSIGN(var, ent, struct ctx_switch_entry, 0); \
IF_ASSIGN(var, ent, struct trace_field_cont, TRACE_CONT); \
IF_ASSIGN(var, ent, struct stack_entry, TRACE_STACK); \
+ IF_ASSIGN(var, ent, struct userstack_entry, TRACE_USER_STACK);\
IF_ASSIGN(var, ent, struct print_entry, TRACE_PRINT); \
IF_ASSIGN(var, ent, struct special_entry, 0); \
IF_ASSIGN(var, ent, struct trace_mmiotrace_rw, \
@@ -218,6 +245,7 @@ extern void __ftrace_bad_type(void);
IF_ASSIGN(var, ent, struct trace_mmiotrace_map, \
TRACE_MMIO_MAP); \
IF_ASSIGN(var, ent, struct trace_boot, TRACE_BOOT); \
+ IF_ASSIGN(var, ent, struct semlat_entry, TRACE_SEM); \
__ftrace_bad_type(); \
} while (0)

@@ -314,6 +342,10 @@ void trace_special(struct trace_array *tr,
unsigned long arg1,
unsigned long arg2,
unsigned long arg3, int pc);
+
+void trace_semlat(struct trace_array *tr, struct trace_array_cpu *data,
+ const struct semlat_data *sdata, int samestack);
+
void trace_function(struct trace_array *tr,
struct trace_array_cpu *data,
unsigned long ip,
diff --git a/kernel/trace/trace_semlat.c b/kernel/trace/trace_semlat.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..d72e3e3
--- /dev/null
+++ b/kernel/trace/trace_semlat.c
@@ -0,0 +1,186 @@
+/*
+ * Semaphore latency tracer
+ *
+ * Copyright (C) 2008 Török Edwin <edwintorok@gmail.com>
+ *
+ */
+
+#include <linux/module.h>
+#include <linux/fs.h>
+#include <linux/debugfs.h>
+#include <linux/ftrace.h>
+#include <trace/rwsem.h>
+#include "trace.h"
+
+static struct trace_array *ctx_trace;
+static int __read_mostly tracer_enabled;
+
+static struct semlat_data map_pid_to_latency[PID_MAX_DEFAULT+1];
+
+static inline int report_latency(unsigned long delta)
+{
+ if (tracing_thresh) {
+ if (delta < tracing_thresh)
+ return 0;
+ } else {
+ if (delta <= tracing_max_latency)
+ return 0;
+ }
+ return 1;
+}
+
+static inline void probe_rwsem_wake(const struct rw_semaphore *sem,
+ const struct rwsem_waiter *waiter)
+{
+ /* first task in waitlist is oldest, so calculate delta against it */
+ const struct semlat_data *data;
+ struct trace_array_cpu *cpudata;
+ unsigned long T0, T1, delta;
+ int cpu, first;
+
+ if (!tracer_enabled)
+ return;
+ data = &map_pid_to_latency[waiter->task->pid];
+
+ if (data->cpu == -1)
+ return;
+ T0 = data->t;
+ T1 = ftrace_now(data->cpu);
+ delta = T1-T0;
+
+ if (!report_latency(delta))
+ return;
+ cpu = raw_smp_processor_id();
+ cpudata = ctx_trace->data[cpu];
+ /* blame the current task for latency of all tasks on wait list
+ * note that some of those are being woken now, but that doesn't matter
+ * we want to blame this task for their latency too */
+ if (list_empty(&waiter->list)) {
+ /* waiter is not part of wait_list, so process it here */
+ trace_semlat(ctx_trace, cpudata, data, 1);
+ first = 0;
+ } else {
+ first = 1;
+ }
+ list_for_each_entry(waiter, &sem->wait_list, list) {
+ data = &map_pid_to_latency[waiter->task->pid];
+ if (data->cpu != -1)
+ trace_semlat(ctx_trace, cpudata, data, first);
+ first = 0;
+ }
+}
+
+static atomic_t unique_latency_id = ATOMIC_INIT(0);
+
+static void probe_rwsem_lock_failed(const struct rw_semaphore *sem)
+{
+ const struct rwsem_waiter *waiter;
+ struct semlat_data *data;
+ int cpu = raw_smp_processor_id();
+
+ if (!tracer_enabled)
+ return;
+ waiter = list_entry(sem->wait_list.next, struct rwsem_waiter, list);
+ data = &map_pid_to_latency[waiter->task->pid];
+ data->semaphore = sem;
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_LOCK_ALLOC
+ data->name = sem->dep_map.name;
+#else
+ data->name = NULL;
+#endif
+
+ data->latency_id = atomic_inc_return(&unique_latency_id);
+ data->kind_read = waiter->flags == RWSEM_WAITING_FOR_READ;
+ data->t = ftrace_now(cpu);
+ data->cpu = cpu;
+}
+
+static void probe_rwsem_lock_ok(const struct task_struct *tsk)
+{
+ struct semlat_data *data = &map_pid_to_latency[tsk->pid];
+ struct trace_array_cpu *cpudata;
+ int cpu;
+ cpu = raw_smp_processor_id();
+ cpudata = ctx_trace->data[cpu];
+
+ if (!tracer_enabled)
+ return;
+ trace_semlat(ctx_trace, cpudata, data, 1);
+ /* invalidate entry */
+ data->cpu = -1;
+}
+
+static void start_semlat_trace(struct trace_array *tr)
+{
+ int ret;
+ ret = register_trace_rwsem_wake(probe_rwsem_wake);
+ WARN_ON(ret);
+
+ ret = register_trace_rwsem_lock_failed(probe_rwsem_lock_failed);
+ WARN_ON(ret);
+
+ ret = register_trace_rwsem_lock_ok(probe_rwsem_lock_ok);
+ WARN_ON(ret);
+ printk(KERN_INFO "registered semlat\n");
+ tracer_enabled = 1;
+}
+
+static void stop_semlat_trace(struct trace_array *tr)
+{
+ tracer_enabled = 0;
+ unregister_trace_rwsem_wake(probe_rwsem_wake);
+ unregister_trace_rwsem_lock_failed(probe_rwsem_lock_failed);
+ printk(KERN_INFO "unregistered semlat\n");
+}
+
+static void semlat_trace_init(struct trace_array *tr)
+{
+ unsigned int i;
+ int cpu;
+
+ ctx_trace = tr;
+
+ atomic_set(&unique_latency_id, 0);
+ for (i = 0; i <= PID_MAX_DEFAULT; i++)
+ map_pid_to_latency[i].cpu = -1;
+
+ for_each_online_cpu(cpu)
+ tracing_reset(tr, cpu);
+
+ if (tr->ctrl)
+ start_semlat_trace(tr);
+}
+
+static void semlat_trace_reset(struct trace_array *tr)
+{
+
+ if (tr->ctrl)
+ stop_semlat_trace(tr);
+}
+
+static void semlat_trace_ctrl_update(struct trace_array *tr)
+{
+ /* When starting a new trace, reset the buffers */
+ if (tr->ctrl)
+ start_semlat_trace(tr);
+ else
+ stop_semlat_trace(tr);
+}
+
+static struct tracer semlat_trace __read_mostly =
+{
+ .name = "semlat",
+ .init = semlat_trace_init,
+ .reset = semlat_trace_reset,
+ .ctrl_update = semlat_trace_ctrl_update,
+#ifdef CONFIG_FTRACE_SELFTEST
+/* .selftest = trace_selftest_startup_semlat,*/
+#endif
+};
+
+__init static int init_semlat_trace(void)
+{
+ return register_tracer(&semlat_trace);
+}
+device_initcall(init_semlat_trace);
--
1.5.6.5
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