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    Subject[PATCH 2/2] Kprobes: Move kprobes examples to samples/
    From: Ananth N Mavinakayanahalli <ananth@in.ibm.com>

    Move kprobes examples from Documentation/kprobes.txt to under samples/.
    Patch originally by Randy Dunlap.

    o Updated the patch to apply on 2.6.24-rc6-mm1
    o Modified examples code to build on multiple architectures. Currently,
    the examples code works for x86 and powerpc
    o Cleaned up unneeded #includes
    o Cleaned up Kconfig per Sam Ravnborg's suggestions to fix build break
    on archs that don't have kretprobes
    o Implemented suggestions by Mathieu Desnoyers on CONFIG_KRETPROBES
    o Included Andrew Morton's cleanup based on x86-git

    Signed-off-by: Randy Dunlap <randy.dunlap@oracle.com>
    Signed-off-by: Ananth N Mavinakayanahalli <ananth@in.ibm.com>
    Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
    Acked-by: Mathieu Desnoyers <mathieu.desnoyers@polymtl.ca>
    ---
    Documentation/kprobes.txt | 206 ------------------------------------
    samples/Kconfig | 11 +
    samples/Makefile | 2
    samples/kprobes/Makefile | 5
    samples/kprobes/jprobe_example.c | 65 +++++++++++
    samples/kprobes/kprobe_example.c | 88 +++++++++++++++
    samples/kprobes/kretprobe_example.c | 61 ++++++++++
    7 files changed, 236 insertions(+), 202 deletions(-)

    Index: linux-2.6.24-rc6/Documentation/kprobes.txt
    ===================================================================
    --- linux-2.6.24-rc6.orig/Documentation/kprobes.txt
    +++ linux-2.6.24-rc6/Documentation/kprobes.txt
    @@ -166,7 +166,8 @@ code mapping.
    The Kprobes API includes a "register" function and an "unregister"
    function for each type of probe. Here are terse, mini-man-page
    specifications for these functions and the associated probe handlers
    -that you'll write. See the latter half of this document for examples.
    +that you'll write. See the files in the samples/kprobes/ sub-directory
    +for examples.

    4.1 register_kprobe

    @@ -392,220 +393,15 @@ e. Watchpoint probes (which fire on data

    8. Kprobes Example

    -Here's a sample kernel module showing the use of kprobes to dump a
    -stack trace and selected i386 registers when do_fork() is called.
    ------ cut here -----
    -/*kprobe_example.c*/
    -#include <linux/kernel.h>
    -#include <linux/module.h>
    -#include <linux/kprobes.h>
    -#include <linux/sched.h>
    -
    -/*For each probe you need to allocate a kprobe structure*/
    -static struct kprobe kp;
    -
    -/*kprobe pre_handler: called just before the probed instruction is executed*/
    -int handler_pre(struct kprobe *p, struct pt_regs *regs)
    -{
    - printk("pre_handler: p->addr=0x%p, eip=%lx, eflags=0x%lx\n",
    - p->addr, regs->eip, regs->eflags);
    - dump_stack();
    - return 0;
    -}
    -
    -/*kprobe post_handler: called after the probed instruction is executed*/
    -void handler_post(struct kprobe *p, struct pt_regs *regs, unsigned long flags)
    -{
    - printk("post_handler: p->addr=0x%p, eflags=0x%lx\n",
    - p->addr, regs->eflags);
    -}
    -
    -/* fault_handler: this is called if an exception is generated for any
    - * instruction within the pre- or post-handler, or when Kprobes
    - * single-steps the probed instruction.
    - */
    -int handler_fault(struct kprobe *p, struct pt_regs *regs, int trapnr)
    -{
    - printk("fault_handler: p->addr=0x%p, trap #%dn",
    - p->addr, trapnr);
    - /* Return 0 because we don't handle the fault. */
    - return 0;
    -}
    -
    -static int __init kprobe_init(void)
    -{
    - int ret;
    - kp.pre_handler = handler_pre;
    - kp.post_handler = handler_post;
    - kp.fault_handler = handler_fault;
    - kp.symbol_name = "do_fork";
    -
    - ret = register_kprobe(&kp);
    - if (ret < 0) {
    - printk("register_kprobe failed, returned %d\n", ret);
    - return ret;
    - }
    - printk("kprobe registered\n");
    - return 0;
    -}
    -
    -static void __exit kprobe_exit(void)
    -{
    - unregister_kprobe(&kp);
    - printk("kprobe unregistered\n");
    -}
    -
    -module_init(kprobe_init)
    -module_exit(kprobe_exit)
    -MODULE_LICENSE("GPL");
    ------ cut here -----
    -
    -You can build the kernel module, kprobe-example.ko, using the following
    -Makefile:
    ------ cut here -----
    -obj-m := kprobe-example.o
    -KDIR := /lib/modules/$(shell uname -r)/build
    -PWD := $(shell pwd)
    -default:
    - $(MAKE) -C $(KDIR) SUBDIRS=$(PWD) modules
    -clean:
    - rm -f *.mod.c *.ko *.o
    ------ cut here -----
    -
    -$ make
    -$ su -
    -...
    -# insmod kprobe-example.ko
    -
    -You will see the trace data in /var/log/messages and on the console
    -whenever do_fork() is invoked to create a new process.
    +See samples/kprobes/kprobe_example.c.

    9. Jprobes Example

    -Here's a sample kernel module showing the use of jprobes to dump
    -the arguments of do_fork().
    ------ cut here -----
    -/*jprobe-example.c */
    -#include <linux/kernel.h>
    -#include <linux/module.h>
    -#include <linux/fs.h>
    -#include <linux/uio.h>
    -#include <linux/kprobes.h>
    -
    -/*
    - * Jumper probe for do_fork.
    - * Mirror principle enables access to arguments of the probed routine
    - * from the probe handler.
    - */
    -
    -/* Proxy routine having the same arguments as actual do_fork() routine */
    -long jdo_fork(unsigned long clone_flags, unsigned long stack_start,
    - struct pt_regs *regs, unsigned long stack_size,
    - int __user * parent_tidptr, int __user * child_tidptr)
    -{
    - printk("jprobe: clone_flags=0x%lx, stack_size=0x%lx, regs=0x%p\n",
    - clone_flags, stack_size, regs);
    - /* Always end with a call to jprobe_return(). */
    - jprobe_return();
    - /*NOTREACHED*/
    - return 0;
    -}
    -
    -static struct jprobe my_jprobe = {
    - .entry = jdo_fork
    -};
    -
    -static int __init jprobe_init(void)
    -{
    - int ret;
    - my_jprobe.kp.symbol_name = "do_fork";
    -
    - if ((ret = register_jprobe(&my_jprobe)) <0) {
    - printk("register_jprobe failed, returned %d\n", ret);
    - return -1;
    - }
    - printk("Planted jprobe at %p, handler addr %p\n",
    - my_jprobe.kp.addr, my_jprobe.entry);
    - return 0;
    -}
    -
    -static void __exit jprobe_exit(void)
    -{
    - unregister_jprobe(&my_jprobe);
    - printk("jprobe unregistered\n");
    -}
    -
    -module_init(jprobe_init)
    -module_exit(jprobe_exit)
    -MODULE_LICENSE("GPL");
    ------ cut here -----
    -
    -Build and insert the kernel module as shown in the above kprobe
    -example. You will see the trace data in /var/log/messages and on
    -the console whenever do_fork() is invoked to create a new process.
    -(Some messages may be suppressed if syslogd is configured to
    -eliminate duplicate messages.)
    +See samples/kprobes/jprobe_example.c.

    10. Kretprobes Example

    -Here's a sample kernel module showing the use of return probes to
    -report failed calls to sys_open().
    ------ cut here -----
    -/*kretprobe-example.c*/
    -#include <linux/kernel.h>
    -#include <linux/module.h>
    -#include <linux/kprobes.h>
    -
    -static const char *probed_func = "sys_open";
    -
    -/* Return-probe handler: If the probed function fails, log the return value. */
    -static int ret_handler(struct kretprobe_instance *ri, struct pt_regs *regs)
    -{
    - int retval = regs_return_value(regs);
    - if (retval < 0) {
    - printk("%s returns %d\n", probed_func, retval);
    - }
    - return 0;
    -}
    -
    -static struct kretprobe my_kretprobe = {
    - .handler = ret_handler,
    - /* Probe up to 20 instances concurrently. */
    - .maxactive = 20
    -};
    -
    -static int __init kretprobe_init(void)
    -{
    - int ret;
    - my_kretprobe.kp.symbol_name = (char *)probed_func;
    -
    - if ((ret = register_kretprobe(&my_kretprobe)) < 0) {
    - printk("register_kretprobe failed, returned %d\n", ret);
    - return -1;
    - }
    - printk("Planted return probe at %p\n", my_kretprobe.kp.addr);
    - return 0;
    -}
    -
    -static void __exit kretprobe_exit(void)
    -{
    - unregister_kretprobe(&my_kretprobe);
    - printk("kretprobe unregistered\n");
    - /* nmissed > 0 suggests that maxactive was set too low. */
    - printk("Missed probing %d instances of %s\n",
    - my_kretprobe.nmissed, probed_func);
    -}
    -
    -module_init(kretprobe_init)
    -module_exit(kretprobe_exit)
    -MODULE_LICENSE("GPL");
    ------ cut here -----
    -
    -Build and insert the kernel module as shown in the above kprobe
    -example. You will see the trace data in /var/log/messages and on the
    -console whenever sys_open() returns a negative value. (Some messages
    -may be suppressed if syslogd is configured to eliminate duplicate
    -messages.)
    +See samples/kprobes/kretprobe_example.c.

    For additional information on Kprobes, refer to the following URLs:
    http://www-106.ibm.com/developerworks/library/l-kprobes.html?ca=dgr-lnxw42Kprobe
    Index: linux-2.6.24-rc6/samples/Kconfig
    ===================================================================
    --- linux-2.6.24-rc6.orig/samples/Kconfig
    +++ linux-2.6.24-rc6/samples/Kconfig
    @@ -22,5 +22,16 @@ config SAMPLE_KOBJECT

    If in doubt, say "N" here.

    +config SAMPLE_KPROBES
    + tristate "Build kprobes examples -- loadable modules only"
    + depends on KPROBES && m
    + help
    + This build several kprobes example modules.
    +
    +config SAMPLE_KRETPROBES
    + tristate "Build kretprobes example -- loadable modules only"
    + default m
    + depends on SAMPLE_KPROBES && KRETPROBES
    +
    endif # SAMPLES

    Index: linux-2.6.24-rc6/samples/Makefile
    ===================================================================
    --- linux-2.6.24-rc6.orig/samples/Makefile
    +++ linux-2.6.24-rc6/samples/Makefile
    @@ -1,3 +1,3 @@
    # Makefile for Linux samples code

    -obj-$(CONFIG_SAMPLES) += markers/ kobject/
    +obj-$(CONFIG_SAMPLES) += markers/ kobject/ kprobes/
    Index: linux-2.6.24-rc6/samples/kprobes/Makefile
    ===================================================================
    --- /dev/null
    +++ linux-2.6.24-rc6/samples/kprobes/Makefile
    @@ -0,0 +1,5 @@
    +# builds the kprobes example kernel modules;
    +# then to use one (as root): insmod <module_name.ko>
    +
    +obj-$(CONFIG_SAMPLE_KPROBES) += kprobe_example.o jprobe_example.o
    +obj-$(CONFIG_SAMPLE_KRETPROBES) += kretprobe_example.o
    Index: linux-2.6.24-rc6/samples/kprobes/jprobe_example.c
    ===================================================================
    --- /dev/null
    +++ linux-2.6.24-rc6/samples/kprobes/jprobe_example.c
    @@ -0,0 +1,65 @@
    +/*
    + * Here's a sample kernel module showing the use of jprobes to dump
    + * the arguments of do_fork().
    + *
    + * Build and insert the kernel module as done in the kprobe example.
    + * You will see the trace data in /var/log/messages and on the
    + * console whenever do_fork() is invoked to create a new process.
    + * (Some messages may be suppressed if syslogd is configured to
    + * eliminate duplicate messages.)
    + */
    +
    +#include <linux/kernel.h>
    +#include <linux/module.h>
    +#include <linux/kprobes.h>
    +
    +/*
    + * Jumper probe for do_fork.
    + * Mirror principle enables access to arguments of the probed routine
    + * from the probe handler.
    + */
    +
    +/* Proxy routine having the same arguments as actual do_fork() routine */
    +static long jdo_fork(unsigned long clone_flags, unsigned long stack_start,
    + struct pt_regs *regs, unsigned long stack_size,
    + int __user *parent_tidptr, int __user *child_tidptr)
    +{
    + printk(KERN_INFO "jprobe: clone_flags = 0x%lx, stack_size = 0x%lx,"
    + " regs = 0x%p\n",
    + clone_flags, stack_size, regs);
    +
    + /* Always end with a call to jprobe_return(). */
    + jprobe_return();
    + return 0;
    +}
    +
    +static struct jprobe my_jprobe = {
    + .entry = jdo_fork,
    + .kp = {
    + .symbol_name = "do_fork",
    + },
    +};
    +
    +static int __init jprobe_init(void)
    +{
    + int ret;
    +
    + ret = register_jprobe(&my_jprobe);
    + if (ret < 0) {
    + printk(KERN_INFO "register_jprobe failed, returned %d\n", ret);
    + return -1;
    + }
    + printk(KERN_INFO "Planted jprobe at %p, handler addr %p\n",
    + my_jprobe.kp.addr, my_jprobe.entry);
    + return 0;
    +}
    +
    +static void __exit jprobe_exit(void)
    +{
    + unregister_jprobe(&my_jprobe);
    + printk(KERN_INFO "jprobe at %p unregistered\n", my_jprobe.kp.addr);
    +}
    +
    +module_init(jprobe_init)
    +module_exit(jprobe_exit)
    +MODULE_LICENSE("GPL");
    Index: linux-2.6.24-rc6/samples/kprobes/kprobe_example.c
    ===================================================================
    --- /dev/null
    +++ linux-2.6.24-rc6/samples/kprobes/kprobe_example.c
    @@ -0,0 +1,88 @@
    +/*
    + * NOTE: This example is works on x86 and powerpc.
    + * Here's a sample kernel module showing the use of kprobes to dump a
    + * stack trace and selected registers when do_fork() is called.
    + *
    + * You will see the trace data in /var/log/messages and on the console
    + * whenever do_fork() is invoked to create a new process.
    + */
    +
    +#include <linux/kernel.h>
    +#include <linux/module.h>
    +#include <linux/kprobes.h>
    +
    +/* For each probe you need to allocate a kprobe structure */
    +static struct kprobe kp = {
    + .symbol_name = "do_fork",
    +};
    +
    +/* kprobe pre_handler: called just before the probed instruction is executed */
    +static int handler_pre(struct kprobe *p, struct pt_regs *regs)
    +{
    +#ifdef CONFIG_X86
    + printk(KERN_INFO "pre_handler: p->addr = 0x%p, ip = %lx,"
    + " flags = 0x%lx\n",
    + p->addr, regs->ip, regs->flags);
    +#endif
    +#ifdef CONFIG_PPC
    + printk(KERN_INFO "pre_handler: p->addr = 0x%p, nip = 0x%lx,"
    + " msr = 0x%lx\n",
    + p->addr, regs->nip, regs->msr);
    +#endif
    +
    + /* A dump_stack() here will give a stack backtrace */
    + return 0;
    +}
    +
    +/* kprobe post_handler: called after the probed instruction is executed */
    +static void handler_post(struct kprobe *p, struct pt_regs *regs,
    + unsigned long flags)
    +{
    +#ifdef CONFIG_X86
    + printk(KERN_INFO "post_handler: p->addr = 0x%p, flags = 0x%lx\n",
    + p->addr, regs->flags);
    +#endif
    +#ifdef CONFIG_PPC
    + printk(KERN_INFO "post_handler: p->addr = 0x%p, msr = 0x%lx\n",
    + p->addr, regs->msr);
    +#endif
    +}
    +
    +/*
    + * fault_handler: this is called if an exception is generated for any
    + * instruction within the pre- or post-handler, or when Kprobes
    + * single-steps the probed instruction.
    + */
    +static int handler_fault(struct kprobe *p, struct pt_regs *regs, int trapnr)
    +{
    + printk(KERN_INFO "fault_handler: p->addr = 0x%p, trap #%dn",
    + p->addr, trapnr);
    + /* Return 0 because we don't handle the fault. */
    + return 0;
    +}
    +
    +static int __init kprobe_init(void)
    +{
    + int ret;
    + kp.pre_handler = handler_pre;
    + kp.post_handler = handler_post;
    + kp.fault_handler = handler_fault;
    +
    + ret = register_kprobe(&kp);
    + if (ret < 0) {
    + printk(KERN_INFO "register_kprobe failed, returned %d\n", ret);
    + return ret;
    + }
    + printk(KERN_INFO "Planted kprobe at %p\n", kp.addr);
    + return 0;
    +}
    +
    +static void __exit kprobe_exit(void)
    +{
    + unregister_kprobe(&kp);
    + printk(KERN_INFO "kprobe at %p unregistered\n", kp.addr);
    +}
    +
    +module_init(kprobe_init)
    +module_exit(kprobe_exit)
    +MODULE_LICENSE("GPL");
    Index: linux-2.6.24-rc6/samples/kprobes/kretprobe_example.c
    ===================================================================
    --- /dev/null
    +++ linux-2.6.24-rc6/samples/kprobes/kretprobe_example.c
    @@ -0,0 +1,61 @@
    +/*
    + * Here's a sample kernel module showing the use of return probes to
    + * report the return value from do_fork().
    + *
    + * Build and insert the kernel module as done in the kprobe example.
    + * You will see the trace data in /var/log/messages and on the console
    + * whenever sys_open() returns a negative value. (Some messages
    + * may be suppressed if syslogd is configured to eliminate duplicate
    + * messages.)
    + */
    +
    +#include <linux/kernel.h>
    +#include <linux/module.h>
    +#include <linux/kprobes.h>
    +
    +/* Return-probe handler: If the probed function fails, log the return value. */
    +static int ret_handler(struct kretprobe_instance *ri, struct pt_regs *regs)
    +{
    + int retval = regs_return_value(regs);
    +
    + printk(KERN_INFO "do_fork returns %d\n", retval);
    + return 0;
    +}
    +
    +static struct kretprobe my_kretprobe = {
    + .handler = ret_handler,
    + .kp = {
    + .symbol_name = "do_fork",
    + },
    + /* Probe up to 20 instances concurrently. */
    + .maxactive = 20,
    +};
    +
    +static int __init kretprobe_init(void)
    +{
    + int ret;
    +
    + ret = register_kretprobe(&my_kretprobe);
    + if (ret < 0) {
    + printk(KERN_INFO "register_kretprobe failed, returned %d\n",
    + ret);
    + return -1;
    + }
    + printk(KERN_INFO "Planted return probe at %p\n", my_kretprobe.kp.addr);
    + return 0;
    +}
    +
    +static void __exit kretprobe_exit(void)
    +{
    + unregister_kretprobe(&my_kretprobe);
    + printk(KERN_INFO "kretprobe at %p unregistered\n",
    + my_kretprobe.kp.addr);
    +
    + /* nmissed > 0 suggests that maxactive was set too low. */
    + printk(KERN_INFO "Missed probing %d instances of do_fork()\n",
    + my_kretprobe.nmissed);
    +}
    +
    +module_init(kretprobe_init)
    +module_exit(kretprobe_exit)
    +MODULE_LICENSE("GPL");

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