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Subject[PATCH 3/3] build system: section garbage collection for vmlinux
Date
On Wednesday 05 September 2007 14:49, Denys Vlasenko wrote:
> On Wednesday 05 September 2007 14:47, Denys Vlasenko wrote:
> > On Wednesday 05 September 2007 14:43, Denys Vlasenko wrote:
> > > These patches fix section names and add
> > > CONFIG_DISCARD_UNUSED_SECTIONS. It is not enabled
> > > unconditionally because only newest binutils have
> > > ld --gc-sections which is stable enough for kernel use.
> > > IOW: this is an experimental feature for now.
> >
> > Part 1: fix section names over entire source (all arches).
>
> Part 2: fix x86_64 vdso linker script to not produce
> broken vdso image with gcc -ffunction-sections -fdata-sections.

Part 3:

Makefile:
init/Kconfig:
add config DISCARD_UNUSED_SECTIONS with appropriate
big scary warning. It enables gcc and ld options
for section garbage collection.

arch/x86_64/kernel/vmlinux.lds.S:
include/asm-generic/vmlinux.lds.h:
add KEEP and SORT_BY_ALIGNMENT directives, as needed.

arch/frv/Makefile:
had half-baked option similar to DISCARD_UNUSED_SECTIONS,
replace it.

DISCARD_UNUSED_SECTIONS=n should be safe for all arches.

DISCARD_UNUSED_SECTIONS=y is usable only for x86_64 at the moment.
--
vda
diff -urpN linux-2.6.23-rc4.gc2/Makefile linux-2.6.23-rc4.gc3/Makefile
--- linux-2.6.23-rc4.gc2/Makefile 2007-08-31 18:58:29.000000000 +0100
+++ linux-2.6.23-rc4.gc3/Makefile 2007-09-05 14:15:33.000000000 +0100
@@ -508,6 +508,11 @@ CFLAGS += $(call cc-option, -fn
NOSTDINC_FLAGS += -nostdinc -isystem $(shell $(CC) -print-file-name=include)
CHECKFLAGS += $(NOSTDINC_FLAGS)

+ifdef CONFIG_DISCARD_UNUSED_SECTIONS
+CFLAGS += $(call cc-option, -ffunction-sections -fdata-sections)
+LDFLAGS_vmlinux += $(call ld-option, -gc-sections)
+endif
+
# warn about C99 declaration after statement
CFLAGS += $(call cc-option,-Wdeclaration-after-statement,)

diff -urpN linux-2.6.23-rc4.gc2/arch/frv/Makefile linux-2.6.23-rc4.gc3/arch/frv/Makefile
--- linux-2.6.23-rc4.gc2/arch/frv/Makefile 2007-08-31 18:31:02.000000000 +0100
+++ linux-2.6.23-rc4.gc3/arch/frv/Makefile 2007-09-05 14:15:33.000000000 +0100
@@ -52,7 +52,9 @@ endif

#LDFLAGS_vmlinux := -Map linkmap.txt

-ifdef CONFIG_GC_SECTIONS
+# Is this needed? We do this already in kernel's top-level Makefile.
+# $(LINKFLAGS) seems to be unused.
+ifdef CONFIG_DISCARD_UNUSED_SECTIONS
CFLAGS += -ffunction-sections -fdata-sections
LINKFLAGS += --gc-sections
endif
diff -urpN linux-2.6.23-rc4.gc2/arch/x86_64/kernel/vmlinux.lds.S linux-2.6.23-rc4.gc3/arch/x86_64/kernel/vmlinux.lds.S
--- linux-2.6.23-rc4.gc2/arch/x86_64/kernel/vmlinux.lds.S 2007-09-05 14:14:37.000000000 +0100
+++ linux-2.6.23-rc4.gc3/arch/x86_64/kernel/vmlinux.lds.S 2007-09-05 14:32:42.000000000 +0100
@@ -28,14 +28,14 @@ SECTIONS
_text = .; /* Text and read-only data */
.text : AT(ADDR(.text) - LOAD_OFFSET) {
/* First the code that has to be first for bootstrapping */
- *(.text_head)
+ KEEP(*(.text_head))
_stext = .;
/* Then the rest */
TEXT_TEXT
SCHED_TEXT
LOCK_TEXT
KPROBES_TEXT
- *(.fixup)
+ *(.fixup) /* no need to KEEP, every .fixup is referenced by __ex_table */
*(.gnu.warning)
} :text = 0x9090
/* out-of-line lock text */
@@ -44,8 +44,9 @@ SECTIONS
_etext = .; /* End of text section */

. = ALIGN(16); /* Exception table */
+ /* Points to potentially-faulting insns and corresponding .fixups */
__start___ex_table = .;
- __ex_table : AT(ADDR(__ex_table) - LOAD_OFFSET) { *(__ex_table) }
+ __ex_table : AT(ADDR(__ex_table) - LOAD_OFFSET) { KEEP(*(__ex_table)) }
__stop___ex_table = .;

NOTES :text :note
@@ -91,34 +92,34 @@ SECTIONS
#define VVIRT(x) (ADDR(x) - VVIRT_OFFSET)

. = VSYSCALL_ADDR;
- .vsyscall_0 : AT(VSYSCALL_PHYS_ADDR) { *(.vsyscall_0) } :user
+ .vsyscall_0 : AT(VSYSCALL_PHYS_ADDR) { KEEP(*(.vsyscall_0)) } :user
__vsyscall_0 = VSYSCALL_VIRT_ADDR;

. = ALIGN(CONFIG_X86_L1_CACHE_BYTES);
- .vsyscall_fn : AT(VLOAD(.vsyscall_fn)) { *(.vsyscall_fn) }
+ .vsyscall_fn : AT(VLOAD(.vsyscall_fn)) { KEEP(*(.vsyscall_fn)) }
. = ALIGN(CONFIG_X86_L1_CACHE_BYTES);
.vsyscall_gtod_data : AT(VLOAD(.vsyscall_gtod_data))
- { *(.vsyscall_gtod_data) }
+ { KEEP(*(.vsyscall_gtod_data)) }
vsyscall_gtod_data = VVIRT(.vsyscall_gtod_data);
.vsyscall_clock : AT(VLOAD(.vsyscall_clock))
- { *(.vsyscall_clock) }
+ { KEEP(*(.vsyscall_clock)) }
vsyscall_clock = VVIRT(.vsyscall_clock);


- .vsyscall_1 ADDR(.vsyscall_0) + 1024: AT(VLOAD(.vsyscall_1))
- { *(.vsyscall_1) }
- .vsyscall_2 ADDR(.vsyscall_0) + 2048: AT(VLOAD(.vsyscall_2))
- { *(.vsyscall_2) }
+ .vsyscall_1 VSYSCALL_ADDR + 1024: AT(VLOAD(.vsyscall_1))
+ { KEEP(*(.vsyscall_1)) }
+ .vsyscall_2 VSYSCALL_ADDR + 2048: AT(VLOAD(.vsyscall_2))
+ { KEEP(*(.vsyscall_2)) }

- .vgetcpu_mode : AT(VLOAD(.vgetcpu_mode)) { *(.vgetcpu_mode) }
+ .vgetcpu_mode : AT(VLOAD(.vgetcpu_mode)) { KEEP(*(.vgetcpu_mode)) }
vgetcpu_mode = VVIRT(.vgetcpu_mode);

. = ALIGN(CONFIG_X86_L1_CACHE_BYTES);
- .jiffies : AT(VLOAD(.jiffies)) { *(.jiffies) }
+ .jiffies : AT(VLOAD(.jiffies)) { KEEP(*(.jiffies)) }
jiffies = VVIRT(.jiffies);

- .vsyscall_3 ADDR(.vsyscall_0) + 3072: AT(VLOAD(.vsyscall_3))
- { *(.vsyscall_3) }
+ .vsyscall_3 VSYSCALL_ADDR + 3072: AT(VLOAD(.vsyscall_3))
+ { KEEP(*(.vsyscall_3)) }

. = VSYSCALL_VIRT_ADDR + 4096;

@@ -141,11 +142,12 @@ SECTIONS
}

/* might get freed after init */
+
. = ALIGN(4096);
__smp_alt_begin = .;
__smp_locks = .;
.smp_locks : AT(ADDR(.smp_locks) - LOAD_OFFSET) {
- *(.smp_locks)
+ KEEP(*(.smp_locks)) /* points to lock prefixes */
}
__smp_locks_end = .;
. = ALIGN(4096);
@@ -155,15 +157,15 @@ SECTIONS
__init_begin = .;
.init.text : AT(ADDR(.init.text) - LOAD_OFFSET) {
_sinittext = .;
- *(.init.text)
+ *(.init.text) /* no need to KEEP */
_einittext = .;
}
__initdata_begin = .;
- .init.data : AT(ADDR(.init.data) - LOAD_OFFSET) { *(.init.data) }
+ .init.data : AT(ADDR(.init.data) - LOAD_OFFSET) { *(.init.data) } /* no need to KEEP */
__initdata_end = .;
. = ALIGN(16);
__setup_start = .;
- .init.setup : AT(ADDR(.init.setup) - LOAD_OFFSET) { *(.init.setup) }
+ .init.setup : AT(ADDR(.init.setup) - LOAD_OFFSET) { KEEP(*(.init.setup)) } /* obsolete_checksetup() walks it */
__setup_end = .;
__initcall_start = .;
.initcall.init : AT(ADDR(.initcall.init) - LOAD_OFFSET) {
@@ -172,34 +174,34 @@ SECTIONS
__initcall_end = .;
__con_initcall_start = .;
.con_initcall.init : AT(ADDR(.con_initcall.init) - LOAD_OFFSET) {
- *(.con_initcall.init)
+ KEEP(*(.con_initcall.init)) /* console_init() walks it */
}
__con_initcall_end = .;
SECURITY_INIT
. = ALIGN(8);
__alt_instructions = .;
.altinstructions : AT(ADDR(.altinstructions) - LOAD_OFFSET) {
- *(.altinstructions)
+ KEEP(*(.altinstructions)) /* alternative_instructions() walks it */
}
__alt_instructions_end = .;
.altinstr_replacement : AT(ADDR(.altinstr_replacement) - LOAD_OFFSET) {
- *(.altinstr_replacement)
+ KEEP(*(.altinstr_replacement))
}
- /* .exit.text is discard at runtime, not link time, to deal with references
+ /* .exit.text is discarded at runtime, not link time, to deal with references
from .altinstructions and .eh_frame */
.exit.text : AT(ADDR(.exit.text) - LOAD_OFFSET) { *(.exit.text) }
.exit.data : AT(ADDR(.exit.data) - LOAD_OFFSET) { *(.exit.data) }

/* vdso blob that is mapped into user space */
vdso_start = . ;
- .vdso : AT(ADDR(.vdso) - LOAD_OFFSET) { *(.vdso) }
+ .vdso : AT(ADDR(.vdso) - LOAD_OFFSET) { KEEP(*(.vdso)) }
. = ALIGN(4096);
vdso_end = .;

#ifdef CONFIG_BLK_DEV_INITRD
. = ALIGN(4096);
__initramfs_start = .;
- .init.ramfs : AT(ADDR(.init.ramfs) - LOAD_OFFSET) { *(.init.ramfs) }
+ .init.ramfs : AT(ADDR(.init.ramfs) - LOAD_OFFSET) { KEEP(*(.init.ramfs)) }
__initramfs_end = .;
#endif

@@ -210,7 +212,7 @@ SECTIONS

. = ALIGN(4096);
__nosave_begin = .;
- .data_nosave : AT(ADDR(.data_nosave) - LOAD_OFFSET) { *(.data_nosave) }
+ .data_nosave : AT(ADDR(.data_nosave) - LOAD_OFFSET) { *(.data_nosave) } /* not saved by suspend */
. = ALIGN(4096);
__nosave_end = .;

@@ -218,6 +220,7 @@ SECTIONS
.bss : AT(ADDR(.bss) - LOAD_OFFSET) {
*(.bss_page_aligned)
*(.bss)
+ *(SORT_BY_ALIGNMENT(.bss.*))
}
__bss_stop = .;

diff -urpN linux-2.6.23-rc4.gc2/include/asm-generic/vmlinux.lds.h linux-2.6.23-rc4.gc3/include/asm-generic/vmlinux.lds.h
--- linux-2.6.23-rc4.gc2/include/asm-generic/vmlinux.lds.h 2007-09-05 14:14:38.000000000 +0100
+++ linux-2.6.23-rc4.gc3/include/asm-generic/vmlinux.lds.h 2007-09-05 14:26:20.000000000 +0100
@@ -6,19 +6,26 @@
#define VMLINUX_SYMBOL(_sym_) _sym_
#endif

+#ifndef CONFIG_DISCARD_UNUSED_SECTIONS
+/* Don't confuse old ld with new stuff */
+#define KEEP(x) x
+#define SORT_BY_ALIGNMENT(x) x
+#endif
+
/* Align . to a 8 byte boundary equals to maximum function alignment. */
#define ALIGN_FUNCTION() . = ALIGN(8)

/* .data section */
#define DATA_DATA \
*(.data) \
+ *(SORT_BY_ALIGNMENT(.data.*)) \
*(.data_init_refok)

#define RO_DATA(align) \
. = ALIGN((align)); \
.rodata : AT(ADDR(.rodata) - LOAD_OFFSET) { \
VMLINUX_SYMBOL(__start_rodata) = .; \
- *(.rodata) *(.rodata.*) \
+ *(.rodata) *(SORT_BY_ALIGNMENT(.rodata.*)) \
*(__vermagic) /* Kernel version magic */ \
} \
\
@@ -28,109 +35,110 @@
\
/* PCI quirks */ \
.pci_fixup : AT(ADDR(.pci_fixup) - LOAD_OFFSET) { \
+ /* walked by pci_fixup_device() */ \
VMLINUX_SYMBOL(__start_pci_fixups_early) = .; \
- *(.pci_fixup_early) \
+ KEEP(*(.pci_fixup_early)) \
VMLINUX_SYMBOL(__end_pci_fixups_early) = .; \
VMLINUX_SYMBOL(__start_pci_fixups_header) = .; \
- *(.pci_fixup_header) \
+ KEEP(*(.pci_fixup_header)) \
VMLINUX_SYMBOL(__end_pci_fixups_header) = .; \
VMLINUX_SYMBOL(__start_pci_fixups_final) = .; \
- *(.pci_fixup_final) \
+ KEEP(*(.pci_fixup_final)) \
VMLINUX_SYMBOL(__end_pci_fixups_final) = .; \
VMLINUX_SYMBOL(__start_pci_fixups_enable) = .; \
- *(.pci_fixup_enable) \
+ KEEP(*(.pci_fixup_enable)) \
VMLINUX_SYMBOL(__end_pci_fixups_enable) = .; \
VMLINUX_SYMBOL(__start_pci_fixups_resume) = .; \
- *(.pci_fixup_resume) \
+ KEEP(*(.pci_fixup_resume)) \
VMLINUX_SYMBOL(__end_pci_fixups_resume) = .; \
} \
\
/* RapidIO route ops */ \
.rio_route : AT(ADDR(.rio_route) - LOAD_OFFSET) { \
VMLINUX_SYMBOL(__start_rio_route_ops) = .; \
- *(.rio_route_ops) \
+ KEEP(*(.rio_route_ops)) \
VMLINUX_SYMBOL(__end_rio_route_ops) = .; \
} \
\
/* Kernel symbol table: Normal symbols */ \
__ksymtab : AT(ADDR(__ksymtab) - LOAD_OFFSET) { \
VMLINUX_SYMBOL(__start___ksymtab) = .; \
- *(__ksymtab) \
+ KEEP(*(__ksymtab)) \
VMLINUX_SYMBOL(__stop___ksymtab) = .; \
} \
\
/* Kernel symbol table: GPL-only symbols */ \
__ksymtab_gpl : AT(ADDR(__ksymtab_gpl) - LOAD_OFFSET) { \
VMLINUX_SYMBOL(__start___ksymtab_gpl) = .; \
- *(__ksymtab_gpl) \
+ KEEP(*(__ksymtab_gpl)) \
VMLINUX_SYMBOL(__stop___ksymtab_gpl) = .; \
} \
\
/* Kernel symbol table: Normal unused symbols */ \
__ksymtab_unused : AT(ADDR(__ksymtab_unused) - LOAD_OFFSET) { \
VMLINUX_SYMBOL(__start___ksymtab_unused) = .; \
- *(__ksymtab_unused) \
+ KEEP(*(__ksymtab_unused)) \
VMLINUX_SYMBOL(__stop___ksymtab_unused) = .; \
} \
\
/* Kernel symbol table: GPL-only unused symbols */ \
__ksymtab_unused_gpl : AT(ADDR(__ksymtab_unused_gpl) - LOAD_OFFSET) { \
VMLINUX_SYMBOL(__start___ksymtab_unused_gpl) = .; \
- *(__ksymtab_unused_gpl) \
+ KEEP(*(__ksymtab_unused_gpl)) \
VMLINUX_SYMBOL(__stop___ksymtab_unused_gpl) = .; \
} \
\
/* Kernel symbol table: GPL-future-only symbols */ \
__ksymtab_gpl_future : AT(ADDR(__ksymtab_gpl_future) - LOAD_OFFSET) { \
VMLINUX_SYMBOL(__start___ksymtab_gpl_future) = .; \
- *(__ksymtab_gpl_future) \
+ KEEP(*(__ksymtab_gpl_future)) \
VMLINUX_SYMBOL(__stop___ksymtab_gpl_future) = .; \
} \
\
/* Kernel symbol table: Normal symbols */ \
__kcrctab : AT(ADDR(__kcrctab) - LOAD_OFFSET) { \
VMLINUX_SYMBOL(__start___kcrctab) = .; \
- *(__kcrctab) \
+ KEEP(*(__kcrctab)) \
VMLINUX_SYMBOL(__stop___kcrctab) = .; \
} \
\
/* Kernel symbol table: GPL-only symbols */ \
__kcrctab_gpl : AT(ADDR(__kcrctab_gpl) - LOAD_OFFSET) { \
VMLINUX_SYMBOL(__start___kcrctab_gpl) = .; \
- *(__kcrctab_gpl) \
+ KEEP(*(__kcrctab_gpl)) \
VMLINUX_SYMBOL(__stop___kcrctab_gpl) = .; \
} \
\
/* Kernel symbol table: Normal unused symbols */ \
__kcrctab_unused : AT(ADDR(__kcrctab_unused) - LOAD_OFFSET) { \
VMLINUX_SYMBOL(__start___kcrctab_unused) = .; \
- *(__kcrctab_unused) \
+ KEEP(*(__kcrctab_unused)) \
VMLINUX_SYMBOL(__stop___kcrctab_unused) = .; \
} \
\
/* Kernel symbol table: GPL-only unused symbols */ \
__kcrctab_unused_gpl : AT(ADDR(__kcrctab_unused_gpl) - LOAD_OFFSET) { \
VMLINUX_SYMBOL(__start___kcrctab_unused_gpl) = .; \
- *(__kcrctab_unused_gpl) \
+ KEEP(*(__kcrctab_unused_gpl)) \
VMLINUX_SYMBOL(__stop___kcrctab_unused_gpl) = .; \
} \
\
/* Kernel symbol table: GPL-future-only symbols */ \
__kcrctab_gpl_future : AT(ADDR(__kcrctab_gpl_future) - LOAD_OFFSET) { \
VMLINUX_SYMBOL(__start___kcrctab_gpl_future) = .; \
- *(__kcrctab_gpl_future) \
+ KEEP(*(__kcrctab_gpl_future)) \
VMLINUX_SYMBOL(__stop___kcrctab_gpl_future) = .; \
} \
\
/* Kernel symbol table: strings */ \
__ksymtab_strings : AT(ADDR(__ksymtab_strings) - LOAD_OFFSET) { \
- *(__ksymtab_strings) \
+ KEEP(*(__ksymtab_strings)) \
} \
\
/* Built-in module parameters. */ \
__param : AT(ADDR(__param) - LOAD_OFFSET) { \
VMLINUX_SYMBOL(__start___param) = .; \
- *(__param) \
+ KEEP(*(__param)) \
VMLINUX_SYMBOL(__stop___param) = .; \
VMLINUX_SYMBOL(__end_rodata) = .; \
} \
@@ -144,7 +152,7 @@
#define SECURITY_INIT \
.security_initcall.init : AT(ADDR(.security_initcall.init) - LOAD_OFFSET) { \
VMLINUX_SYMBOL(__security_initcall_start) = .; \
- *(.security_initcall.init) \
+ KEEP(*(.security_initcall.init)) \
VMLINUX_SYMBOL(__security_initcall_end) = .; \
}

@@ -153,6 +161,7 @@
#define TEXT_TEXT \
ALIGN_FUNCTION(); \
*(.text) \
+ *(SORT_BY_ALIGNMENT(.text.*)) \
*(.text_init_refok)

/* sched.text is aling to function alignment to secure we have same
@@ -231,23 +240,23 @@
}

#define INITCALLS \
- *(.initcall0.init) \
- *(.initcall0s.init) \
- *(.initcall1.init) \
- *(.initcall1s.init) \
- *(.initcall2.init) \
- *(.initcall2s.init) \
- *(.initcall3.init) \
- *(.initcall3s.init) \
- *(.initcall4.init) \
- *(.initcall4s.init) \
- *(.initcall5.init) \
- *(.initcall5s.init) \
- *(.initcallrootfs.init) \
- *(.initcall6.init) \
- *(.initcall6s.init) \
- *(.initcall7.init) \
- *(.initcall7s.init)
+ KEEP(*(.initcall0.init)) /* do_initcalls() walks them */ \
+ KEEP(*(.initcall0s.init)) \
+ KEEP(*(.initcall1.init)) \
+ KEEP(*(.initcall1s.init)) \
+ KEEP(*(.initcall2.init)) \
+ KEEP(*(.initcall2s.init)) \
+ KEEP(*(.initcall3.init)) \
+ KEEP(*(.initcall3s.init)) \
+ KEEP(*(.initcall4.init)) \
+ KEEP(*(.initcall4s.init)) \
+ KEEP(*(.initcall5.init)) \
+ KEEP(*(.initcall5s.init)) \
+ KEEP(*(.initcallrootfs.init)) \
+ KEEP(*(.initcall6.init)) \
+ KEEP(*(.initcall6s.init)) \
+ KEEP(*(.initcall7.init)) \
+ KEEP(*(.initcall7s.init))

#define PERCPU(align) \
. = ALIGN(align); \
diff -urpN linux-2.6.23-rc4.gc2/init/Kconfig linux-2.6.23-rc4.gc3/init/Kconfig
--- linux-2.6.23-rc4.gc2/init/Kconfig 2007-08-31 18:31:05.000000000 +0100
+++ linux-2.6.23-rc4.gc3/init/Kconfig 2007-09-05 14:15:33.000000000 +0100
@@ -347,6 +347,20 @@ config CC_OPTIMIZE_FOR_SIZE

If unsure, say N.

+config DISCARD_UNUSED_SECTIONS
+ bool "Discard unused code/data sections (DANGEROUS)"
+ default n
+ depends on EXPERIMENTAL
+ help
+ Enabling this option will pass --ffunction-sections -fdata-sections
+ to gcc and --gc-sections to ld, resulting in a smaller kernel.
+
+ WARNING: --gc-sections support is very new and considered highly
+ experimental for now. You need at least binutils 2.18,
+ and even then surprises are likely.
+
+ If unsure, say N.
+
config SYSCTL
bool
\
 
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