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SubjectRe: [ANNOUNCE] RSDL completely fair starvation free interactive cpu scheduler
Hi Con
It would be nice if you could rebase this patch to latest git or at
least to 2.6.21-rc3.

On 3/4/07, Con Kolivas <> wrote:
> This message is to announce the first general public release of the "Rotating
> Staircase DeadLine" cpu scheduler.
> Based on previous work from the staircase cpu scheduler I set out to design,
> from scratch, a new scheduling policy design which satisfies every
> requirement for SCHED_NORMAL (otherwise known as SCHED_OTHER) task management.
> Available for download are:
> A full rollup of the patch for 2.6.20:
> Split patches for 2.6.20(which will follow this email):
> The readme (which will also constitute the rest of this email):
> The following readme is also included as documentation in
> Documentation/sched-design.txt
> Rotating Staircase Deadline cpu scheduler policy
> ================================================
> Design summary
> ==============
> A novel design which incorporates a foreground-background descending priority
> system (the staircase) with runqueue managed minor and major epochs (rotation
> and deadline).
> Features
> ========
> A starvation free, strict fairness O(1) scalable design with interactivity
> as good as the above restrictions can provide. There is no interactivity
> estimator, no sleep/run measurements and only simple fixed accounting.
> The design has strict enough a design and accounting that task behaviour
> can be modelled and maximum scheduling latencies can be predicted by
> the virtual deadline mechanism that manages runqueues. The prime concern
> in this design is to maintain fairness at all costs determined by nice level,
> yet to maintain as good interactivity as can be allowed within the
> constraints of strict fairness.
> Design description
> ==================
> RSDL works off the principle of providing each task a quota of runtime that
> it is allowed to run at each priority level equal to its static priority
> (ie. its nice level) and every priority below that. When each task is queued,
> the cpu that it is queued onto also keeps a record of that quota. If the
> task uses up its quota it is decremented one priority level. Also, if the cpu
> notices a quota full has been used for that priority level, it pushes
> everything remaining at that priority level to the next lowest priority
> level. Once every runtime quota has been consumed of every priority level,
> a task is queued on the "expired" array. When no other tasks exist with
> quota, the expired array is activated and fresh quotas are handed out. This
> is all done in O(1).
> Design details
> ==============
> Each cpu has its own runqueue which micromanages its own epochs, and each
> task keeps a record of its own entitlement of cpu time. Most of the rest
> of these details apply to non-realtime tasks as rt task management is
> straight forward.
> Each runqueue keeps a record of what major epoch it is up to in the
> rq->prio_rotation field which is incremented on each major epoch. It also
> keeps a record of quota available to each priority value valid for that
> major epoch in rq->prio_quota[].
> Each task keeps a record of what major runqueue epoch it was last running
> on in p->rotation. It also keeps a record of what priority levels it has
> already been allocated quota from during this epoch in a bitmap p->bitmap.
> The only tunable that determines all other details is the RR_INTERVAL. This
> is set to 6ms (minimum on 1000HZ, higher at different HZ values).
> All tasks are initially given a quota based on RR_INTERVAL. This is equal to
> RR_INTERVAL between nice values of 0 and 19, and progressively larger for
> nice values from -1 to -20. This is assigned to p->quota and only changes
> with changes in nice level.
> As a task is first queued, it checks in recalc_task_prio to see if it has
> run at this runqueue's current priority rotation. If it has not, it will
> have its p->prio level set to equal its p->static_prio (nice level) and will
> be given a p->time_slice equal to the p->quota, and has its allocation
> bitmap bit set in p->bitmap for its static priority (nice value). This
> quota is then also added to the current runqueue's rq->prio_quota[p->prio].
> It is then queued on the current active priority array.
> If a task has already been running during this major epoch, if it has
> p->time_slice left and the rq->prio_quota for the task's p->prio still
> has quota, it will be placed back on the active array, but no more quota
> will be added to either the task or the runqueue quota.
> If a task has been running during this major epoch, but does not have
> p->time_slice left or the runqueue's prio_quota for this task's p->prio
> does not have quota, it will find the next lowest priority in its bitmap
> that it has not been allocated quota from. It then gets the a full quota
> in p->time_slice and adds that to the quota value for the relevant priority
> rq->prio_quota. It is then queued on the current active priority array at
> the newly determined lower priority.
> If a task has been running during this major epoch, and does not have
> any entitlement left in p->bitmap and no time_slice left, it will have its
> bitmap cleared, and be queued at its p->static_prio again, but on the expired
> priority array. No quota will be allocated until this task is scheduled.
> When a task is queued, it has its static_prio bit set in the current
> runqueue's rq->static_bitmap, and the relevant bit in the rq->dyn_bitmap.
> In order to minimise the number of bitmap lookups, the bitmap of queued
> tasks on the expired array is at the end of the same bitmap as the active
> array. The number of tasks queued at the current static_prio is kept in
> rq->prio_queued[].
> During a scheduler_tick where a task is running, the p->time_slice is
> decremented, and if it reaches zero then the recalc_task_prio is readjusted
> and the task rescheduled.
> During a task running tick, the runqueue prio_quota is also decremented. If
> it empties then a priority rotation occurs (a major or minor epoch). If the
> current runqueue's priority level is better than that of nice 19 tasks, a
> minor rotation is performed, otherwise a major rotation will occur.
> A minor rotation takes the remaining tasks at this priority level queue and
> merges them with a list_splice_tail with the queue from the next lowest
> priority level. At this time, any tasks that have been merged will now
> have invalid values in p->prio so this must be considered when dequeueing
> the task, and for testing for preemption.
> A major rotation takes the remaining tasks at this priority level queue and
> merges them with a list_splice_tail with the best priority task running on
> the expired array, and swaps the priority arrays. The priority quotas are
> reset at this time. Any tasks that have been merged will now have invalid
> values in p->array and possibly p->prio so this must be considered. The
> rq->prio_rotation is incremented at this time.
> When a task is dequeued, the dyn_bitmap bit is unset only after testing
> that the relevant queue is actually empty since p->prio may be inaccurate
> and no hard accounting of the number of tasks at that level is possible.
> When selecting a new task for scheduling, after the first dynamic bit is
> found on the dyn_bitmap, it is checked to see that a task is really queued
> at that priority or if it is a false positive due to the task being
> dequeued at a time when its p->prio does not match which queue it is on
> after some form of priority rotation. This is a rare occurrence as it tends
> to only occur if a task that is already waiting on a runqueue gets dequeued.
> If the bitmap value is in the expired array range, a major priority rotation
> is performed. If the chosen task has not been running during this major or
> minor rotation it has new quota allocated at this time, and added to the
> runqueue's quota.
> Modelling deadline behaviour
> ============================
> As the accounting in this design is hard and not modified by sleep average
> calculations or interactivity modifiers, it is possible to accurately
> predict the maximum latency that a task may experience under different
> conditions. This is a virtual deadline mechanism enforced by mandatory
> runqueue epochs, and not by trying to keep complicated accounting of each
> task.
> The maximum duration a task can run during one major epoch is determined
> by its nice value. Nice 0 tasks can run at 19 different priority levels
> for RR_INTERVAL duration during each epoch (the equivalent of nice 0 to nice
> 19). Nice 10 tasks can run at 9 priority levels for each epoch, and so on.
> Therefore the maximum duration a runqueue epoch can take is determined by
> the number of tasks running, and their nice level. After that, the maximum
> duration it can take before a task can wait before it get scheduled is
> determined by the difference between its nice value and the nice value of
> the highest priority task queued.
> In the following examples, these are _worst case scenarios_ and would rarely
> occur, but can be modelled nonetheless to determine the maximum possible
> latency.
> So for example, if two nice 0 tasks are running, and one has just expired as
> another is activated for the first time receiving a full quota for this
> runqueue rotation, the first task will wait:
> nr_tasks * max_duration + nice_difference * rr_interval
> 1 * 19 * RR_INTERVAL + 0 = 114ms
> In the presence of a nice 10 task, a nice 0 task would wait a maximum of
> 1 * 10 * RR_INTERVAL + 0 = 60ms
> In the presence of a nice 0 task, a nice 10 task would wait a maximum of
> 1 * 19 * RR_INTERVAL + 9 * RR_INTERVAL = 168ms
> Using a more complicated example, if there are 4 tasks running fully cpu
> bound, one each at nice -20, nice 0, nice 10 and nice 19, we can calculate
> the maximum latency possible for the nice 10 task. Note that -20 tasks are
> heavily biased for so this will be a long time, but can be modelled.
> The nice -20 task has quota = RR_INTERVAL + 20*RR_INTERVAL = 21*RR_INTERVAL.
> It can run at 39 priority levels so its maximum duration =
> 39 * 21 * RR_INTERVAL.
> The nice 0 task works out to
> The nice 19 task works out to
> So major epoch can take up a maximum of
> Then before the nice 10 task will run, the nice -20 and nice 0 task will
> run for 28 * 21 * RR_INTERVAL and 9 * RR_INTERVAL respectively for a total
> of 597 * RR_INTERVAL.
> This means the maximum duration a nice 10 task can wait in the presence of
> these other tasks is 1826*RR_INTERVAL. This is a long time of course and is
> heavily penalised by the presence of nice -20 tasks which would not be part
> of a normal environment.
> While this section describes the maximum latency a task can have, this size
> latencies will only be seen by fully cpu bound tasks.
> Achieving interactivity
> =======================
> A requirement of this scheduler design was to achieve good interactivity
> despite being a completely fair deadline based design. The disadvantage of
> designs that try to achieve interactivity is that they usually do so at
> the expense of maintaining fairness. As cpu speeds increase, the requirement
> for some sort of metered unfairness towards interactive tasks becomes a less
> desirable phenomenon, but low latency and fairness remains mandatory to
> good interactive performance.
> This design relies on the fact that interactive tasks, by their nature,
> sleep often. Most fair scheduling designs end up penalising such tasks
> indirectly giving them less than their fair possible share because of the
> sleep, and have to use a mechanism of bonusing their priority to offset
> this based on the duration they sleep. This becomes increasingly inaccurate
> as the number of running tasks rises and more tasks spend time waiting on
> runqueues rather than sleeping, and it is impossible to tell whether the
> task that's waiting on a runqueue only intends to run for a short period and
> then sleep again after than runqueue wait. Furthermore, all such designs rely
> on a period of time to pass to accumulate some form of statistic on the task
> before deciding on how much to give them preference. The shorter this period,
> the more rapidly bursts of cpu ruin the interactive tasks behaviour. The
> longer this period, the longer it takes for interactive tasks to get low
> scheduling latencies and fair cpu.
> This design does not measure sleep time at all. Interactive tasks that sleep
> often will wake up having consumed very little if any of their quota for
> the current major priority rotation. The longer they have slept, the less
> likely they are to even be on the current major priority rotation. Once
> woken up, though, they get to use up a their full quota for that epoch,
> whether part of a quota remains or a full quota. Overall, however, they
> can still only run as much cpu time for that epoch as any other task of the
> same nice level. This means that two tasks behaving completely differently
> from fully cpu bound to waking/sleeping extremely frequently will still
> get the same quota of cpu, but the latter will be using its quota for that
> epoch in bursts rather than continuously. This guarantees that interactive
> tasks get the same amount of cpu as cpu bound ones.
> The other requirement of interactive tasks is also to obtain low latencies
> for when they are scheduled. Unlike fully cpu bound tasks and the maximum
> latencies possible described in the modelling deadline behaviour section
> above, tasks that sleep will wake up with quota available usually at the
> current runqueue's priority_level or better. This means that the most latency
> they are likely to see is one RR_INTERVAL, and often they will preempt the
> current task if it is not of a sleeping nature. This then guarantees very
> low latency for interactive tasks, and the lowest latencies for the least
> cpu bound tasks.
> Sunday, 4th March 2007
> Con Kolivas
> --
> -ck
> -
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