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SubjectRe: [patch 9/9] mm: fix pagecache write deadlocks
On Fri, Feb 02, 2007 at 03:53:11PM -0800, Andrew Morton wrote:
> On Mon, 29 Jan 2007 11:33:03 +0100 (CET)
> Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de> wrote:
>
> > Modify the core write() code so that it won't take a pagefault while holding a
> > lock on the pagecache page. There are a number of different deadlocks possible
> > if we try to do such a thing:
> >
> > 1. generic_buffered_write
> > 2. lock_page
> > 3. prepare_write
> > 4. unlock_page+vmtruncate
> > 5. copy_from_user
> > 6. mmap_sem(r)
> > 7. handle_mm_fault
> > 8. lock_page (filemap_nopage)
> > 9. commit_write
> > 10. unlock_page
> >
> > a. sys_munmap / sys_mlock / others
> > b. mmap_sem(w)
> > c. make_pages_present
> > d. get_user_pages
> > e. handle_mm_fault
> > f. lock_page (filemap_nopage)
> >
> > 2,8 - recursive deadlock if page is same
> > 2,8;2,8 - ABBA deadlock is page is different
> > 2,6;b,f - ABBA deadlock if page is same
> >
> > The solution is as follows:
> > 1. If we find the destination page is uptodate, continue as normal, but use
> > atomic usercopies which do not take pagefaults and do not zero the uncopied
> > tail of the destination. The destination is already uptodate, so we can
> > commit_write the full length even if there was a partial copy: it does not
> > matter that the tail was not modified, because if it is dirtied and written
> > back to disk it will not cause any problems (uptodate *means* that the
> > destination page is as new or newer than the copy on disk).
> >
> > 1a. The above requires that fault_in_pages_readable correctly returns access
> > information, because atomic usercopies cannot distinguish between
> > non-present pages in a readable mapping, from lack of a readable mapping.
> >
> > 2. If we find the destination page is non uptodate, unlock it (this could be
> > made slightly more optimal), then find and pin the source page with
> > get_user_pages. Relock the destination page and continue with the copy.
> > However, instead of a usercopy (which might take a fault), copy the data
> > via the kernel address space.
> >
>
> Oh what a mess we're making :(
>
> Unfortunately, write() into a non-uptodate page is very much the common
> case. We've always tried to avoid doing a pte-walk in the write() path to
> fix this bug. Careful performance testing is needed here so we can assess
> the impact. For threaded applications, simply the taking of mmap_sem might
> be the biggest problem.
>
> And I can't think of any tricks we can play to avoid doing the pte-walk in
> most cases. For example, we don't yet have a page to run page_mapped()
> against.

After this patch series, I am working on another that will allow filesystems
to specifically code around the problem (eg. by handling short usercopies
properly).

I tried to take this approach generically the first time, but it turns out
lots of filesystems had subtle problems, so if we do it this way instead,
then filesystem developers who actually care enough can improve their
code, and those that don't won't hold them back (or prevent this bug from
being fixed).

> > break;
> > }
> >
> > + /*
> > + * non-uptodate pages cannot cope with short copies, and we
> > + * cannot take a pagefault with the destination page locked.
> > + * So pin the source page to copy it.
> > + */
> > + if (!PageUptodate(page)) {
> > + unlock_page(page);
> > +
> > + bytes = min(bytes, PAGE_CACHE_SIZE -
> > + ((unsigned long)buf & ~PAGE_CACHE_MASK));
> > +
> > + /*
> > + * Cannot get_user_pages with a page locked for the
> > + * same reason as we can't take a page fault with a
> > + * page locked (as explained below).
> > + */
> > + down_read(&current->mm->mmap_sem);
> > + status = get_user_pages(current, current->mm,
> > + (unsigned long)buf & PAGE_CACHE_MASK, 1,
> > + 0, 0, &src_page, NULL);
> > + up_read(&current->mm->mmap_sem);
> > + if (status != 1) {
> > + page_cache_release(page);
> > + break;
> > + }
> > +
> > + lock_page(page);
> > + if (!page->mapping) {
>
> Hopefully this can't happen? If it can, who went and took our page off the
> mapping? Reclaim? The elevated page_count will prevent that?

Truncate/invalidate?

> > + unlock_page(page);
> > + page_cache_release(page);
> > + page_cache_release(src_page);
> > + continue;
> > + }
> > +
> > + }
> > +
> > status = a_ops->prepare_write(file, page, offset, offset+bytes);
> > if (unlikely(status))
> > goto fs_write_aop_error;
> >
> > - copied = filemap_copy_from_user(page, offset,
> > + if (!src_page) {
> > + /*
> > + * Must not enter the pagefault handler here, because
> > + * we hold the page lock, so we might recursively
> > + * deadlock on the same lock, or get an ABBA deadlock
> > + * against a different lock, or against the mmap_sem
> > + * (which nests outside the page lock). So increment
> > + * preempt count, and use _atomic usercopies.
> > + *
> > + * The page is uptodate so we are OK to encounter a
> > + * short copy: if unmodified parts of the page are
> > + * marked dirty and written out to disk, it doesn't
> > + * really matter.
> > + */
> > + pagefault_disable();
> > + copied = filemap_copy_from_user_atomic(page, offset,
> > cur_iov, nr_segs, iov_offset, bytes);
> > + pagefault_enable();
> > + } else {
> > + char *src, *dst;
> > + src = kmap(src_page);
> > + dst = kmap(page);
> > + memcpy(dst + offset,
> > + src + ((unsigned long)buf & ~PAGE_CACHE_MASK),
> > + bytes);
> > + kunmap(page);
> > + kunmap(src_page);
> > + copied = bytes;
> > + }
>
> As you say, we don't want to do this: taking two kmap()s at the same time
> leaves us vulnerable to kmap() deadlocks: we deadlock when there are 512
> tasks (LAST_PKMAP) each holding one kmap, and all waiting for someone else
> to give one back.

Yep, thinko. My updated version uses KM_USER[01].

Thanks for reviewing so far.
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