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SubjectSRCU-based notifier chains
On Fri, 7 Jul 2006, Matt Helsley wrote:

> On Fri, 2006-07-07 at 15:59 -0400, Alan Stern wrote:
> > On Fri, 7 Jul 2006, Paul E. McKenney wrote:
>
> <snip>
>
> > > So, a fourth possibility -- can a call from start_kernel() invoke some
> > > function in yours and Matt's code invoke init_srcu_struct() to get a
> > > statically allocated srcu_struct initialized? Or, if this is part of
> > > a module, can the module initialization function do this work?
> > >
> > > (Hey, I had to ask!)
> >
> > That is certainly a viable approach: just force everyone to use dynamic
> > initialization. Changes to existing code would be relatively few.
>
> Works for me. I've been working on patches for Andrew's multi-chain
> proposal and I could use an init function there anyway. Should be faster
> too -- dynamically-allocated per-cpu memory can take advantage of
> node-local memory whereas, to my knowledge, statically-allocated cannot.
>
> > I'm not sure where the right place would be to add these initialization
> > calls. After kmalloc is working but before the relevant notifier chains
> > get used at all. Is there such a place? I guess it depends on which
> > notifier chains we convert.
> >
> > We might want to leave some chains using the existing rw-semaphore API.
> > It's more appropriate when there's a high frequency of write-locking
> > (i.e., things registering or unregistering on the notifier chain). The
> > SRCU approach is more appropriate when the chain is called a lot and
> > needs to have low overhead, but (un)registration is uncommon. Matt's task
> > notifiers are a good example.
>
> Yes, it is an excellent example.

Okay, here is a patch -- completely untested but it compiles -- that adds
a new kind of notifier head, using SRCU to manage the list consistency.

At the moment I don't have any good candidates for blocking notifier
chains that should be converted to SRCU notifier chains, although some of
the things in the neworking core probably qualify.

Anyway, you can try this out with your task notifiers to make sure it
works as desired.

Alan Stern

P.S.: For this to work, the patch had to add "#ifndef _LINUX_SRCU_H"
guards to include/linux/srcu.h. They undoubtedly belong there regardless.


Index: usb-2.6/kernel/sys.c
===================================================================
--- usb-2.6.orig/kernel/sys.c
+++ usb-2.6/kernel/sys.c
@@ -151,7 +151,7 @@ static int __kprobes notifier_call_chain

/*
* Atomic notifier chain routines. Registration and unregistration
- * use a mutex, and call_chain is synchronized by RCU (no locks).
+ * use a spinlock, and call_chain is synchronized by RCU (no locks).
*/

/**
@@ -399,6 +399,128 @@ int raw_notifier_call_chain(struct raw_n

EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(raw_notifier_call_chain);

+/*
+ * SRCU notifier chain routines. Registration and unregistration
+ * use a mutex, and call_chain is synchronized by SRCU (no locks).
+ */
+
+/**
+ * srcu_notifier_chain_register - Add notifier to an SRCU notifier chain
+ * @nh: Pointer to head of the SRCU notifier chain
+ * @n: New entry in notifier chain
+ *
+ * Adds a notifier to an SRCU notifier chain.
+ * Must be called in process context.
+ *
+ * Currently always returns zero.
+ */
+
+int srcu_notifier_chain_register(struct srcu_notifier_head *nh,
+ struct notifier_block *n)
+{
+ int ret;
+
+ /*
+ * This code gets used during boot-up, when task switching is
+ * not yet working and interrupts must remain disabled. At
+ * such times we must not call mutex_lock().
+ */
+ if (unlikely(system_state == SYSTEM_BOOTING))
+ return notifier_chain_register(&nh->head, n);
+
+ mutex_lock(&nh->mutex);
+ ret = notifier_chain_register(&nh->head, n);
+ mutex_unlock(&nh->mutex);
+ return ret;
+}
+
+EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(srcu_notifier_chain_register);
+
+/**
+ * srcu_notifier_chain_unregister - Remove notifier from an SRCU notifier chain
+ * @nh: Pointer to head of the SRCU notifier chain
+ * @n: Entry to remove from notifier chain
+ *
+ * Removes a notifier from an SRCU notifier chain.
+ * Must be called from process context.
+ *
+ * Returns zero on success or %-ENOENT on failure.
+ */
+int srcu_notifier_chain_unregister(struct srcu_notifier_head *nh,
+ struct notifier_block *n)
+{
+ int ret;
+
+ /*
+ * This code gets used during boot-up, when task switching is
+ * not yet working and interrupts must remain disabled. At
+ * such times we must not call mutex_lock().
+ */
+ if (unlikely(system_state == SYSTEM_BOOTING))
+ return notifier_chain_unregister(&nh->head, n);
+
+ mutex_lock(&nh->mutex);
+ ret = notifier_chain_unregister(&nh->head, n);
+ mutex_unlock(&nh->mutex);
+ synchronize_srcu(&nh->srcu);
+ return ret;
+}
+
+EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(srcu_notifier_chain_unregister);
+
+/**
+ * srcu_notifier_call_chain - Call functions in an SRCU notifier chain
+ * @nh: Pointer to head of the SRCU notifier chain
+ * @val: Value passed unmodified to notifier function
+ * @v: Pointer passed unmodified to notifier function
+ *
+ * Calls each function in a notifier chain in turn. The functions
+ * run in a process context, so they are allowed to block.
+ *
+ * If the return value of the notifier can be and'ed
+ * with %NOTIFY_STOP_MASK then srcu_notifier_call_chain
+ * will return immediately, with the return value of
+ * the notifier function which halted execution.
+ * Otherwise the return value is the return value
+ * of the last notifier function called.
+ */
+
+int srcu_notifier_call_chain(struct srcu_notifier_head *nh,
+ unsigned long val, void *v)
+{
+ int ret;
+ int idx;
+
+ idx = srcu_read_lock(&nh->srcu);
+ ret = notifier_call_chain(&nh->head, val, v);
+ srcu_read_unlock(&nh->srcu, idx);
+ return ret;
+}
+
+EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(srcu_notifier_call_chain);
+
+/**
+ * srcu_init_notifier_head - Initialize an SRCU notifier head
+ * @nh: Pointer to head of the srcu notifier chain
+ *
+ * Unlike other sorts of notifier heads, SRCU notifier heads require
+ * dynamic initialization. Be sure to call this routine before
+ * calling any of the other SRCU notifier routines for this head.
+ *
+ * If an SRCU notifier head is deallocated, it must first be cleaned
+ * up by calling srcu_cleanup_notifier_head(). Otherwise the head's
+ * per-cpu data (used by the SRCU mechanism) will leak.
+ */
+
+void srcu_init_notifier_head(struct srcu_notifier_head *nh)
+{
+ mutex_init(&nh->mutex);
+ init_srcu_struct(&nh->srcu);
+ nh->head = NULL;
+}
+
+EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(srcu_init_notifier_head);
+
/**
* register_reboot_notifier - Register function to be called at reboot time
* @nb: Info about notifier function to be called
Index: usb-2.6/include/linux/notifier.h
===================================================================
--- usb-2.6.orig/include/linux/notifier.h
+++ usb-2.6/include/linux/notifier.h
@@ -12,9 +12,10 @@
#include <linux/errno.h>
#include <linux/mutex.h>
#include <linux/rwsem.h>
+#include <linux/srcu.h>

/*
- * Notifier chains are of three types:
+ * Notifier chains are of four types:
*
* Atomic notifier chains: Chain callbacks run in interrupt/atomic
* context. Callouts are not allowed to block.
@@ -23,13 +24,27 @@
* Raw notifier chains: There are no restrictions on callbacks,
* registration, or unregistration. All locking and protection
* must be provided by the caller.
+ * SRCU notifier chains: A variant of blocking notifier chains, with
+ * the same restrictions.
*
* atomic_notifier_chain_register() may be called from an atomic context,
- * but blocking_notifier_chain_register() must be called from a process
- * context. Ditto for the corresponding _unregister() routines.
+ * but blocking_notifier_chain_register() and srcu_notifier_chain_register()
+ * must be called from a process context. Ditto for the corresponding
+ * _unregister() routines.
*
- * atomic_notifier_chain_unregister() and blocking_notifier_chain_unregister()
- * _must not_ be called from within the call chain.
+ * atomic_notifier_chain_unregister(), blocking_notifier_chain_unregister(),
+ * and srcu_notifier_chain_unregister() _must not_ be called from within
+ * the call chain.
+ *
+ * SRCU notifier chains are an alternative form of blocking notifier chains.
+ * They use SRCU (Sleepable Read-Copy Update) instead of rw-semaphores for
+ * protection of the chain links. This means there is _very_ low overhead
+ * in srcu_notifier_call_chain(): no cache misses and no memory barriers.
+ * As compensation, srcu_notifier_chain_unregister() is rather expensive.
+ * SRCU notifier chains should be used when the chain will be called very
+ * often but notifier_blocks will seldom be removed. Also, SRCU notifier
+ * chains are slightly more difficult to use because they require dynamic
+ * runtime initialization.
*/

struct notifier_block {
@@ -52,6 +67,12 @@ struct raw_notifier_head {
struct notifier_block *head;
};

+struct srcu_notifier_head {
+ struct mutex mutex;
+ struct srcu_struct srcu;
+ struct notifier_block *head;
+};
+
#define ATOMIC_INIT_NOTIFIER_HEAD(name) do { \
spin_lock_init(&(name)->lock); \
(name)->head = NULL; \
@@ -64,6 +85,11 @@ struct raw_notifier_head {
(name)->head = NULL; \
} while (0)

+/* srcu_notifier_heads must be initialized and cleaned up dynamically */
+extern void srcu_init_notifier_head(struct srcu_notifier_head *nh);
+#define srcu_cleanup_notifier_head(name) \
+ cleanup_srcu_struct(&(name)->srcu);
+
#define ATOMIC_NOTIFIER_INIT(name) { \
.lock = __SPIN_LOCK_UNLOCKED(name.lock), \
.head = NULL }
@@ -72,6 +98,7 @@ struct raw_notifier_head {
.head = NULL }
#define RAW_NOTIFIER_INIT(name) { \
.head = NULL }
+/* srcu_notifier_heads cannot be initialized statically */

#define ATOMIC_NOTIFIER_HEAD(name) \
struct atomic_notifier_head name = \
@@ -91,6 +118,8 @@ extern int blocking_notifier_chain_regis
struct notifier_block *);
extern int raw_notifier_chain_register(struct raw_notifier_head *,
struct notifier_block *);
+extern int srcu_notifier_chain_register(struct srcu_notifier_head *,
+ struct notifier_block *);

extern int atomic_notifier_chain_unregister(struct atomic_notifier_head *,
struct notifier_block *);
@@ -98,6 +127,8 @@ extern int blocking_notifier_chain_unreg
struct notifier_block *);
extern int raw_notifier_chain_unregister(struct raw_notifier_head *,
struct notifier_block *);
+extern int srcu_notifier_chain_unregister(struct srcu_notifier_head *,
+ struct notifier_block *);

extern int atomic_notifier_call_chain(struct atomic_notifier_head *,
unsigned long val, void *v);
@@ -105,6 +136,8 @@ extern int blocking_notifier_call_chain(
unsigned long val, void *v);
extern int raw_notifier_call_chain(struct raw_notifier_head *,
unsigned long val, void *v);
+extern int srcu_notifier_call_chain(struct srcu_notifier_head *,
+ unsigned long val, void *v);

#define NOTIFY_DONE 0x0000 /* Don't care */
#define NOTIFY_OK 0x0001 /* Suits me */
Index: usb-2.6/include/linux/srcu.h
===================================================================
--- usb-2.6.orig/include/linux/srcu.h
+++ usb-2.6/include/linux/srcu.h
@@ -24,6 +24,9 @@
*
*/

+#ifndef _LINUX_SRCU_H
+#define _LINUX_SRCU_H
+
struct srcu_struct_array {
int c[2];
};
@@ -47,3 +50,5 @@ void srcu_read_unlock(struct srcu_struct
void synchronize_srcu(struct srcu_struct *sp);
long srcu_batches_completed(struct srcu_struct *sp);
void cleanup_srcu_struct(struct srcu_struct *sp);
+
+#endif
-
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