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SubjectRe: [PATCH 4/4] Twofish cipher - x86_64 assembler
Date
On Thursday 08 June 2006 09:13, linux@horizon.com wrote:
> The following seem to me to be simplifications, and so
> make the code more readable. For what it's worth...
>
> - It would be nice to delete the R6 and R7 definitions in order to
> make clear that %esp and %ebp are NOT used as general-purpose registers.
Sounds reasonable
> - ctx, tmp1, tmp2, new1 and new2 are only used in "## D" form.
> It would be simpler to include the D suffix at the call site
> and remove 5 characters per use from the macro expansion.
Could lead to some additional confusion because it masks all the different
8,32 and 64 bit operations from the users. One could not just look at the
macro and see what "subregister" is used.
> - That would let you get rid of half of the macro definitions.
> You only need R0, R1, R2, R3, R8 and R9.
> The rest could simply be replaced by %r10d, etc.
Would lead to a mixed names. Don't know if that would really help.
> - Changing the argument order to (a, b, newa, newb, olda, oldb)
> would make it clearer what's changing and what's staying the
> same between rounds.
>
> - You could also get rid of the ## D sufixes on olda and oldb, but that's
> of more dubious benefit.
>
> - How about making the macros more specific and not passing in the
> constant arguments ctx, tmp1, tmp2, key1 and key2?

I like to pass all registers i use as parameters. That way you can always keep
track of what registers are used. That way it's harder to screw up with
unwanted sideeffects.
>
>
> Having looked at the code that much, I started seeing potential
> code improvements:
>
> - Why schedule the loading of the round keys so far in advance?
> They're going to be L1 hits anyway, and anything amd64 can do lots
> of code reordering. There are no stores to act as fences.
> You could just to an xor stright into where you need the values.
I guess you are right. Will be fixed
> - Why copy a -> olda and b->oldb at the end of each round? Why not
> just do
>
> + encrypt_last_round(R0,R1,R8,R9,R2,R3,R5, 0,R10,R11,R12,R13);
> + encrypt_last_round(R2,R3,R0,R1,R8,R9,R5, 8,R10,R11,R12,R13);
> + encrypt_last_round(R8,R9,R2,R3,R0,R1,R5,2*8,R10,R11,R12,R13);
> + encrypt_last_round(R0,R1,R8,R9,R2,R3,R5,3*8,R10,R11,R12,R13);
> + encrypt_last_round(R2,R3,R0,R1,R8,R9,R5,4*8,R10,R11,R12,R13);
> etc.?
>
> Oh, but wait! The ONLY inputs, AFAICT, to newa are
> + mov olda ## D, newa ## D;\
> + mov oldb ## D, newb ## D;\
> + xor key1 ## D, newa ## D;\
> + xor key2 ## D, newb ## D;\
>
> So why not just make newa and olda the same register, thereby removing that
> mov as well, and replace the other uses of newa and newb in the loop
> with appropriate temps?
>
>
> That would make the round function:
> +/*
> + * The twofish round function.
> + * This is very close to a standard Feistel cipher:
> + * (c,d) ^= F(a,b,round_key)
> + * But twofish adds one-bit rotations.
> + * Other registers used:
> + * %rdi points to the context structure including the key schedule
> * * %r9d is a temporary.
> + * %r10d and %r11d hold the F() function output.
> + */
> +#define\
> + encrypt_round(a,b,c,d,round)\
> + movzx a ## B, %r9d;\
> + mov s0(%rdi,%r9,4), %r10d;\
> + movzx a ## H, %r9d;\
> + ror $16, a ## D;\
> + xor s1(%rdi,%r9,4), %r10d;\
> + movzx a ## B, %r9d;\
> + xor s2(%rdi,%r9,4), %r10d;\
> + movzx a ## H, %r9d;\
> + xor s3(%rdi,%r9,4), %r10d;\
> + ror $16, a ## D;\
> + movzx b ## B, %r9d;\
> + mov s1(%rdi,%r9,4), %r11d;\
> + movzx b ## H, %r9d;\
> + ror $16, b ## D;\
> + xor s2(%rdi,%r9,4), %r11d;\
> + movzx b ## B, %r9d;\
> + xor s3(%rdi,%r9,4), %r11d;\
> + movzx b ## H, %r9d;\
> + xor s0(%rdi,%r9,4), %r11d;\
> + ror $15, b ## D;\
> + add %r11d, %r10d;\
> + add %r10d, %r11d;\
> + add k+round(%rdi), %r10d;\
> + add k+4+round(%rdi),%r11d;\
> + xor %r10d, c ## D;\
> + xor %r11d, d ## D;\
> + ror $1, c ## D
>
> Notice that this has saved three registers (%r8, %r12, %r13) and
> eliminated six mov instructions.
>
> (Admittedly, unbenchmarked and untested.)
You can't use the 8bit high register with rex prefix registers ( r8+ and any
64bit register). I guess this could be fixed be moving the crypto ctx or the
output adress to a rex register and have %esi or %edi as temp register for
the sbox-index. Somehow i never considered %esi or %edi as a possible target
for the 8bit high operation and was convinced the only way to avoid using 4 *
8bit rotates was using temporary registers.
> If I wanted to worry about scheduling, I might move the b-side S-box
> lookups ahead of the a-side to give that "ror $1,c" a smidgen more time
> to complete, and then interleave them:
>
> +#define\
> + encrypt_round(a,b,c,d,round)\
> + movzx b ## B, %r9d;\
> + mov s1(%rdi,%r9,4), %r11d;\
> + movzx a ## B, %r9d;\
> + mov s0(%rdi,%r9,4), %r10d;\
> + movzx b ## H, %r9d;\
> + xor s2(%rdi,%r9,4), %r11d;\
> + ror $16, b ## D;\
> + movzx a ## H, %r9d;\
> + xor s1(%rdi,%r9,4), %r10d;\
> + ror $16, a ## D;\
> + movzx b ## B, %r9d;\
> + xor s3(%rdi,%r9,4), %r11d;\
> + movzx a ## B, %r9d;\
> + xor s2(%rdi,%r9,4), %r10d;\
> + movzx b ## H, %r9d;\
> + xor s0(%rdi,%r9,4), %r11d;\
> + ror $15, b ## D;\
> + movzx a ## H, %r9d;\
> + xor s3(%rdi,%r9,4), %r10d;\
> + ror $16, a ## D;\
> + add %r11d, %r10d;\
> + add %r10d, %r11d;\
> + add k+round(%rdi), %r10d;\
> + add k+4+round(%rdi),%r11d;\
> + xor %r10d, c ## D;\
> + xor %r11d, d ## D;\
> + ror $1, c ## D
>
> And you could eliminate one more instruction by re-ordering the a-side
> S box lookups to do the "high half" lookups first, and then merging the
> resultant leading ror $16 with the trailing ror $1:
> (Note that this changes the required loop setup slightly.)
>
> +#define\
> + encrypt_round(a,b,c,d,round)\
> + rol $15, a ## D;\
> + movzx b ## B, %r9d;\
> + mov s1(%rdi,%r9,4), %r11d;\
> + movzx a ## B, %r9d;\
> + mov s2(%rdi,%r9,4), %r10d;\
> + movzx b ## H, %r9d;\
> + xor s2(%rdi,%r9,4), %r11d;\
> + ror $16, b ## D;\
> + movzx a ## H, %r9d;\
> + xor s3(%rdi,%r9,4), %r10d;\
> + ror $16, a ## D;\
> + movzx b ## B, %r9d;\
> + xor s3(%rdi,%r9,4), %r11d;\
> + movzx a ## B, %r9d;\
> + xor s0(%rdi,%r9,4), %r10d;\
> + movzx b ## H, %r9d;\
> + xor s0(%rdi,%r9,4), %r11d;\
> + ror $15, b ## D;\
> + movzx a ## H, %r9d;\
> + xor s1(%rdi,%r9,4), %r10d;\
> + add %r11d, %r10d;\
> + add %r10d, %r11d;\
> + add k+round(%rdi), %r10d;\
> + add k+4+round(%rdi),%r11d;\
> + xor %r10d, c ## D;\
> + xor %r11d, d ## D
Very neat. I think i will run with this idea. Need some fixing for the rex
thing and some modifications in the first and last round.
> I haven't looked at the x86_32 code to see how many of these ideas
> could be adapted there. Unfortunately, even with the reduction, this
> still uses 8 registers, one more than possible on x86_32.
Yes. I think i got some ideas on how to fix it up a bit.
> Probably the best thing to do there would be to de-interleave the
> a->%r10d and b->%r11d computations and spill (push/pop) the
> necessary register around the second block. Something like:
>
> ctx in %edi
> %ebp and %esi are temps
>
> +#define\
> + encrypt_round(a,b,c,d,round)\
> + rol $15, a ## D;\
> + movzx b ## B, %esi;\
> + mov s1(%edi,%esi,4),%ebp;\
> + movzx b ## H, %esi;\
> + xor s2(%edi,%esi,4),%ebp;\
> + ror $16, b ## D;\
> + movzx b ## B, %esi;\
> + xor s3(%edi,%esi,4),%ebp;\
> + movzx b ## H, %esi;\
> + xor s0(%edi,%esi,4),%ebp;\
> + ror $15, b ## D;\
> + push %ebp;\
> + movzx a ## B, %esi;\
> + mov s2(%edi,%esi,4),%ebp;\
> + movzx a ## H, %esi;\
> + xor s3(%edi,%esi,4),%ebp;\
> + ror $16, a ## D;\
> + movzx a ## B, %esi;\
> + xor s0(%edi,%esi,4),%ebp;\
> + movzx a ## H, %esi;\
> + xor s1(%edi,%esi,4),%ebp;\
> + pop %esi;\
> + add %esi, %ebp;\
> + add %ebp, %esi;\
> + add k+round(%edi), %ebp;\
> + add k+4+round(%edi),%esi;\
> + xor %ebp, c ## D;\
> + xor %esi, d ## D
>
> (Legalese: These code changes are in the public domain. All of the code
> modifications presented here are simply the straightforward execution
> of the (uncopyrightable) ideas presented in the text, and therefore
> not protectable. The only "creative" portions are the comment, the use
> of the variable names "c" and "d", and the choice of registers in the
> 32-bit code, for which copyright is abandoned.)
>
>
> And even bigger hack would be to rearrange the context structure to
> have the key first, then interleave the s0 and s1 boxes and use the
> (%rdi,%r9,8) addressing mode to access them. That would, if you
> pre-offset %rdi a little bit so the key was at a negative offset,
> allow you to use a byte-offset addressing mode on 6 of the 10 loads in
> each round. (Compared to 2 of 10 without.)
>
> In fact, on x86_64, you could go to the extreme of dedicating a register
> to point to the base of each of the S-boxes, so there is no displacement
> byte in the opcode at all. That has to help the I-cache and the
> instruction decoders enough to pay for the additional setup instructions.
I already had that in mind and since you freed up some registers that is
finally possible.

Seems like i have a lot of work ahead :D
Thanks for your very valuable comments.

-Joachim

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