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Subject[PATCH] Per-superblock unused dentry LRU lists V3
Per superblock dentry LRU lists.

As originally described in:

http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=linux-kernel&m=114491661527656&w=2

shrink_dcache_sb() becomes a severe bottleneck when the unused dentry
list becomes long and mounts and unmounts occur frequently on the
machine.

The patch attached below is based on the suggestion made by Andrew
Morton here:

http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=linux-fsdevel&m=114499224412427&w=2

I've attempted to make reclaim fair by keeping track of the last superblock
we pruned, and starting from the next one in the list each time.

Signed-off-by: Dave Chinner <dgc@sgi.com>

Version 3:

o fix found count in select_parent() so that shrink_dcache_parent
works again
o minor comment fixes

Version 2:

o cleaned up coding style
o added comments where required
o ported to 2.6.17-rc4-mm3
o added s_umount locking to prune_dcache()
o added counter for number of dentries on a superblock

---

fs/dcache.c | 291 +++++++++++++++++++++++++----------------------------
fs/super.c | 1
include/linux/fs.h | 2
3 files changed, 145 insertions(+), 149 deletions(-)

Index: linux-2.6.16/fs/dcache.c
===================================================================
--- linux-2.6.16.orig/fs/dcache.c 2006-05-26 09:30:38.920092626 +1000
+++ linux-2.6.16/fs/dcache.c 2006-05-26 12:26:21.783459767 +1000
@@ -61,7 +61,6 @@ static kmem_cache_t *dentry_cache __read
static unsigned int d_hash_mask __read_mostly;
static unsigned int d_hash_shift __read_mostly;
static struct hlist_head *dentry_hashtable __read_mostly;
-static LIST_HEAD(dentry_unused);

/* Statistics gathering. */
struct dentry_stat_t dentry_stat = {
@@ -113,6 +112,38 @@ static void dentry_iput(struct dentry *
}
}

+static void dentry_lru_add(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+ list_add(&dentry->d_lru, &dentry->d_sb->s_dentry_lru);
+ dentry->d_sb->s_dentry_lru_nr++;
+ dentry_stat.nr_unused++;
+}
+
+static void dentry_lru_add_tail(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+ list_add_tail(&dentry->d_lru, &dentry->d_sb->s_dentry_lru);
+ dentry->d_sb->s_dentry_lru_nr++;
+ dentry_stat.nr_unused++;
+}
+
+static void dentry_lru_del(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+ if (!list_empty(&dentry->d_lru)) {
+ list_del(&dentry->d_lru);
+ dentry->d_sb->s_dentry_lru_nr--;
+ dentry_stat.nr_unused--;
+ }
+}
+
+static void dentry_lru_del_init(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+ if (likely(!list_empty(&dentry->d_lru))) {
+ list_del_init(&dentry->d_lru);
+ dentry->d_sb->s_dentry_lru_nr--;
+ dentry_stat.nr_unused--;
+ }
+}
+
/*
* This is dput
*
@@ -172,8 +203,7 @@ repeat:
goto kill_it;
if (list_empty(&dentry->d_lru)) {
dentry->d_flags |= DCACHE_REFERENCED;
- list_add(&dentry->d_lru, &dentry_unused);
- dentry_stat.nr_unused++;
+ dentry_lru_add(dentry);
}
spin_unlock(&dentry->d_lock);
spin_unlock(&dcache_lock);
@@ -185,13 +215,8 @@ unhash_it:
kill_it: {
struct dentry *parent;

- /* If dentry was on d_lru list
- * delete it from there
- */
- if (!list_empty(&dentry->d_lru)) {
- list_del(&dentry->d_lru);
- dentry_stat.nr_unused--;
- }
+ /* If dentry was on d_lru list delete it from there */
+ dentry_lru_del(dentry);
list_del(&dentry->d_u.d_child);
dentry_stat.nr_dentry--; /* For d_free, below */
/*drops the locks, at that point nobody can reach this dentry */
@@ -267,10 +292,7 @@ int d_invalidate(struct dentry * dentry)
static inline struct dentry * __dget_locked(struct dentry *dentry)
{
atomic_inc(&dentry->d_count);
- if (!list_empty(&dentry->d_lru)) {
- dentry_stat.nr_unused--;
- list_del_init(&dentry->d_lru);
- }
+ dentry_lru_del_init(dentry);
return dentry;
}

@@ -380,11 +402,57 @@ static void prune_one_dentry(struct dent
spin_lock(&dcache_lock);
}

+/*
+ * Shrink the dentry LRU on a given superblock.
+ *
+ * If flags is non-zero, we need to do special processing based on
+ * which flags are set. This means we don't need to maintain multiple
+ * similar copies of this loop.
+ */
+static void __shrink_dcache_sb(struct super_block *sb, int *count, int flags)
+{
+ struct dentry *dentry;
+ int cnt = *count;
+
+ spin_lock(&dcache_lock);
+ while (!list_empty(&sb->s_dentry_lru) && cnt--) {
+ dentry = list_entry(sb->s_dentry_lru.prev,
+ struct dentry, d_lru);
+ dentry_lru_del_init(dentry);
+ BUG_ON(dentry->d_sb != sb);
+ prefetch(sb->s_dentry_lru.prev);
+
+ spin_lock(&dentry->d_lock);
+ /*
+ * We found an inuse dentry which was not removed from
+ * the LRU because of laziness during lookup. Do not free
+ * it - just keep it off the LRU list.
+ */
+ if (atomic_read(&dentry->d_count)) {
+ spin_unlock(&dentry->d_lock);
+ continue;
+ }
+ /*
+ * If we are honouring the DCACHE_REFERENCED flag and the
+ * dentry has this flag set, don't free it. Clear the flag
+ * and put it back on the LRU
+ */
+ if ((flags & DCACHE_REFERENCED) &&
+ (dentry->d_flags & DCACHE_REFERENCED)) {
+ dentry->d_flags &= ~DCACHE_REFERENCED;
+ dentry_lru_add(dentry);
+ spin_unlock(&dentry->d_lock);
+ continue;
+ }
+ prune_one_dentry(dentry);
+ }
+ spin_unlock(&dcache_lock);
+ *count = cnt;
+}
+
/**
* prune_dcache - shrink the dcache
* @count: number of entries to try and free
- * @sb: if given, ignore dentries for other superblocks
- * which are being unmounted.
*
* Shrink the dcache. This is done when we need
* more memory, or simply when we need to unmount
@@ -395,110 +463,64 @@ static void prune_one_dentry(struct dent
* all the dentries are in use.
*/

-static void prune_dcache(int count, struct super_block *sb)
+static void prune_dcache(int count)
{
- spin_lock(&dcache_lock);
- for (; count ; count--) {
- struct dentry *dentry;
- struct list_head *tmp;
- struct rw_semaphore *s_umount;
-
- cond_resched_lock(&dcache_lock);
-
- tmp = dentry_unused.prev;
- if (unlikely(sb)) {
- /* Try to find a dentry for this sb, but don't try
- * too hard, if they aren't near the tail they will
- * be moved down again soon
- */
- int skip = count;
- while (skip && tmp != &dentry_unused &&
- list_entry(tmp, struct dentry, d_lru)->d_sb != sb) {
- skip--;
- tmp = tmp->prev;
- }
- }
- if (tmp == &dentry_unused)
- break;
- list_del_init(tmp);
- prefetch(dentry_unused.prev);
- dentry_stat.nr_unused--;
- dentry = list_entry(tmp, struct dentry, d_lru);
-
- spin_lock(&dentry->d_lock);
- /*
- * We found an inuse dentry which was not removed from
- * dentry_unused because of laziness during lookup. Do not free
- * it - just keep it off the dentry_unused list.
- */
- if (atomic_read(&dentry->d_count)) {
- spin_unlock(&dentry->d_lock);
- continue;
- }
- /* If the dentry was recently referenced, don't free it. */
- if (dentry->d_flags & DCACHE_REFERENCED) {
- dentry->d_flags &= ~DCACHE_REFERENCED;
- list_add(&dentry->d_lru, &dentry_unused);
- dentry_stat.nr_unused++;
- spin_unlock(&dentry->d_lock);
+ struct super_block *sb;
+ static struct super_block *sb_hand = NULL;
+ int work_done = 0;
+
+ spin_lock(&sb_lock);
+ if (sb_hand == NULL)
+ sb_hand = sb_entry(super_blocks.next);
+restart:
+ list_for_each_entry(sb, &super_blocks, s_list) {
+ if (sb != sb_hand)
continue;
- }
/*
- * If the dentry is not DCACHED_REFERENCED, it is time
- * to remove it from the dcache, provided the super block is
- * NULL (which means we are trying to reclaim memory)
- * or this dentry belongs to the same super block that
- * we want to shrink.
+ * Found the next superblock to work on. Move the hand
+ * forwards so that parallel pruners work on a different sb
*/
+ work_done++;
+ sb_hand = sb_entry(sb->s_list.next);
+ sb->s_count++;
+ spin_unlock(&sb_lock);
+
/*
- * If this dentry is for "my" filesystem, then I can prune it
- * without taking the s_umount lock (I already hold it).
+ * We need to be sure this filesystem isn't being unmounted,
+ * otherwise we could race with generic_shutdown_super(), and
+ * end up holding a reference to an inode while the filesystem
+ * is unmounted. So we try to get s_umount, and make sure
+ * s_root isn't NULL.
*/
- if (sb && dentry->d_sb == sb) {
- prune_one_dentry(dentry);
- continue;
+ if (down_read_trylock(&sb->s_umount)) {
+ if ((sb->s_root != NULL) &&
+ (!list_empty(&sb->s_dentry_lru))) {
+ __shrink_dcache_sb(sb, &count,
+ DCACHE_REFERENCED);
+ }
+ up_read(&sb->s_umount);
}
+
/*
- * ...otherwise we need to be sure this filesystem isn't being
- * unmounted, otherwise we could race with
- * generic_shutdown_super(), and end up holding a reference to
- * an inode while the filesystem is unmounted.
- * So we try to get s_umount, and make sure s_root isn't NULL.
- * (Take a local copy of s_umount to avoid a use-after-free of
- * `dentry').
+ * restart only when sb is no longer on the list and
+ * we have more work to do.
*/
- s_umount = &dentry->d_sb->s_umount;
- if (down_read_trylock(s_umount)) {
- if (dentry->d_sb->s_root != NULL) {
- prune_one_dentry(dentry);
- up_read(s_umount);
- continue;
- }
- up_read(s_umount);
- }
- spin_unlock(&dentry->d_lock);
- /* Cannot remove the first dentry, and it isn't appropriate
- * to move it to the head of the list, so give up, and try
- * later
+ spin_lock(&sb_lock);
+ if (__put_super_and_need_restart(sb) && count)
+ goto restart;
+ if (count <= 0)
+ break;
+ }
+ if (!work_done) {
+ /*
+ * sb_hand is stale. Start and the beginning of the list again.
*/
- break;
+ sb_hand = sb_entry(super_blocks.next);
+ goto restart;
}
- spin_unlock(&dcache_lock);
+ spin_unlock(&sb_lock);
}

-/*
- * Shrink the dcache for the specified super block.
- * This allows us to unmount a device without disturbing
- * the dcache for the other devices.
- *
- * This implementation makes just two traversals of the
- * unused list. On the first pass we move the selected
- * dentries to the most recent end, and on the second
- * pass we free them. The second pass must restart after
- * each dput(), but since the target dentries are all at
- * the end, it's really just a single traversal.
- */
-
/**
* shrink_dcache_sb - shrink dcache for a superblock
* @sb: superblock
@@ -507,44 +529,9 @@ static void prune_dcache(int count, stru
* is used to free the dcache before unmounting a file
* system
*/
-
void shrink_dcache_sb(struct super_block * sb)
{
- struct list_head *tmp, *next;
- struct dentry *dentry;
-
- /*
- * Pass one ... move the dentries for the specified
- * superblock to the most recent end of the unused list.
- */
- spin_lock(&dcache_lock);
- list_for_each_safe(tmp, next, &dentry_unused) {
- dentry = list_entry(tmp, struct dentry, d_lru);
- if (dentry->d_sb != sb)
- continue;
- list_move(tmp, &dentry_unused);
- }
-
- /*
- * Pass two ... free the dentries for this superblock.
- */
-repeat:
- list_for_each_safe(tmp, next, &dentry_unused) {
- dentry = list_entry(tmp, struct dentry, d_lru);
- if (dentry->d_sb != sb)
- continue;
- dentry_stat.nr_unused--;
- list_del_init(tmp);
- spin_lock(&dentry->d_lock);
- if (atomic_read(&dentry->d_count)) {
- spin_unlock(&dentry->d_lock);
- continue;
- }
- prune_one_dentry(dentry);
- cond_resched_lock(&dcache_lock);
- goto repeat;
- }
- spin_unlock(&dcache_lock);
+ __shrink_dcache_sb(sb, &sb->s_dentry_lru_nr, 0);
}

/*
@@ -628,17 +615,14 @@ resume:
struct dentry *dentry = list_entry(tmp, struct dentry, d_u.d_child);
next = tmp->next;

- if (!list_empty(&dentry->d_lru)) {
- dentry_stat.nr_unused--;
- list_del_init(&dentry->d_lru);
- }
+ dentry_lru_del_init(dentry);
+
/*
* move only zero ref count dentries to the end
* of the unused list for prune_dcache
*/
if (!atomic_read(&dentry->d_count)) {
- list_add_tail(&dentry->d_lru, &dentry_unused);
- dentry_stat.nr_unused++;
+ dentry_lru_add_tail(dentry);
found++;
}

@@ -680,10 +664,11 @@ out:

void shrink_dcache_parent(struct dentry * parent)
{
+ struct super_block *sb = parent->d_sb;
int found;

while ((found = select_parent(parent)) != 0)
- prune_dcache(found, parent->d_sb);
+ __shrink_dcache_sb(sb, &found, 0);
}

/**
@@ -701,29 +686,27 @@ void shrink_dcache_anon(struct super_blo
struct hlist_node *lp;
struct hlist_head *head = &sb->s_anon;
int found;
- do {
+ for (;;) {
found = 0;
spin_lock(&dcache_lock);
hlist_for_each(lp, head) {
struct dentry *this = hlist_entry(lp, struct dentry, d_hash);
- if (!list_empty(&this->d_lru)) {
- dentry_stat.nr_unused--;
- list_del_init(&this->d_lru);
- }

+ dentry_lru_del_init(this);
/*
* move only zero ref count dentries to the end
* of the unused list for prune_dcache
*/
if (!atomic_read(&this->d_count)) {
- list_add_tail(&this->d_lru, &dentry_unused);
- dentry_stat.nr_unused++;
+ dentry_lru_add_tail(this);
found++;
}
}
spin_unlock(&dcache_lock);
- prune_dcache(found, sb);
- } while(found);
+ if (!found)
+ break;
+ __shrink_dcache_sb(sb, &found, 0);
+ }
}

/*
@@ -743,7 +726,7 @@ static int shrink_dcache_memory(int nr,
if (nr) {
if (!(gfp_mask & __GFP_FS))
return -1;
- prune_dcache(nr, NULL);
+ prune_dcache(nr);
}
return (dentry_stat.nr_unused / 100) * sysctl_vfs_cache_pressure;
}
@@ -1072,7 +1055,7 @@ struct dentry *d_splice_alias(struct ino
* rcu_read_lock() and rcu_read_unlock() are used to disable preemption while
* lookup is going on.
*
- * dentry_unused list is not updated even if lookup finds the required dentry
+ * The dentry unused LRU is not updated even if lookup finds the required dentry
* in there. It is updated in places such as prune_dcache, shrink_dcache_sb,
* select_parent and __dget_locked. This laziness saves lookup from dcache_lock
* acquisition.
Index: linux-2.6.16/include/linux/fs.h
===================================================================
--- linux-2.6.16.orig/include/linux/fs.h 2006-05-26 09:30:38.920092626 +1000
+++ linux-2.6.16/include/linux/fs.h 2006-05-26 10:04:42.025881468 +1000
@@ -846,6 +846,8 @@ struct super_block {
struct list_head s_io; /* parked for writeback */
struct hlist_head s_anon; /* anonymous dentries for (nfs) exporting */
struct list_head s_files;
+ struct list_head s_dentry_lru; /* unused dentry lru */
+ int s_dentry_lru_nr;/* # of dentries on lru */

struct block_device *s_bdev;
struct list_head s_instances;
Index: linux-2.6.16/fs/super.c
===================================================================
--- linux-2.6.16.orig/fs/super.c 2006-05-26 09:30:38.920092626 +1000
+++ linux-2.6.16/fs/super.c 2006-05-26 10:04:42.025881468 +1000
@@ -71,6 +71,7 @@ static struct super_block *alloc_super(v
INIT_LIST_HEAD(&s->s_instances);
INIT_HLIST_HEAD(&s->s_anon);
INIT_LIST_HEAD(&s->s_inodes);
+ INIT_LIST_HEAD(&s->s_dentry_lru);
init_rwsem(&s->s_umount);
mutex_init(&s->s_lock);
down_write(&s->s_umount);
-
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