[lkml]   [2006]   [Dec]   [6]   [last100]   RSS Feed
Views: [wrap][no wrap]   [headers]  [forward] 
Messages in this thread
SubjectRe: [PATCH] Add __GFP_MOVABLE for callers to flag allocations that may be migrated
On Tue, 5 Dec 2006, Christoph Lameter wrote:

> On Tue, 5 Dec 2006, Mel Gorman wrote:
>> There are times you want to reclaim just part of a zone - specifically
>> satisfying a high-order allocations. See sitations 1 and 2 from elsewhere
>> in this thread. On a similar vein, there will be times when you want to
>> migrate a PFN range for similar reasons.
> This is confusing reclaim with defragmentation.

No, I'm not. What is important is the objective.

Objective: Get contiguous block of free pages
Required: Pages that can move
Move means: Migrating them or reclaiming
How we do it for high-order allocations: Take a page from the LRU, move
the pages within that high-order block
How we do it for unplug: Take the pages within the range of interest, move
all the pages out of that range

In both cases, you are taking a subsection of a zone and doing something
to it. In the beginning, we'll be reclaiming because it's easier and it's
relatively well understood. Once stable, then work can start on defrag

> I think we are in
> conceptually unclean territory because we mix the two. If you must use
> reclaim to get a portion of contiguous memory free then yes we have this
> problem.

The way I see it working is that defragmentation is a kernel thread starts
compacting memory (possibly kswapd) when external fragmentation gets above
a watermark. This is to avoid multiple defragment processes migrating into
each others area of interest which would be locking hilarity. When a
process fails to allocate a high-order block, it's because defragmentation
was ineffective, probably due to low memory, and it enters direct reclaim
as normal - just like a process enters direct reclaim because kswapd was
not able to keep enough free memory.

> If you can migrate pages then no there is no need for reclaiming
> a part of a zone. You can occasionally shuffle pages around to
> get a large continous chunk. If there is not enough memory then an
> independent reclaim subsystem can take care of freeing a sufficient amount
> of memory. Marrying the two seems to be getting a bit complex and maybe
> very difficult to get right.

I don't intend to marry the two. However, I intend to handle reclaim first
because it's needed whether defrag exists or not.

> The classification of the memory allocations is useful
> to find a potential starting point to reduce the minimum number of pages
> to move to open up that hole.


>>> Why would one want to allocate from the 1/4th of a zone? (Are we still
>>> discussing Mel's antifrag scheme or what is this about?)
>> Because you wanted contiguous blocks of pages. This is related to anti-frag
>> because with anti-frag, reclaiming memory or migration memory will free up
>> contiguous blocks. Without it, you're probably wasting your time.
> I am still not sure how this should work. Reclaim in a portion of the
> reclaimable/movable portion of the zone? Or pick a huge page and simply
> reclaim all the pages in that range?

Reclaim in a portion of the reclaimable/movable portion of the zone by;

1. Take a leader page from the LRU lists
2. Move the pages within that order-aligned block

> This is required for anti-frag regardless of additonal zones right?


> BTW If one would successfully do this partial reclaim thing then we also
> have no need anymore DMA zones because we can free up memory in the DMA
> area of a zone at will if we run short on memory there.

Possibly, but probably not. As well as providing an easy way to reclaim
within a PFN range and have range-specific LRU lists, zones help keep
pages from a PFN range that could have used a different PFN range. If the
DMA range got filled with kmalloc() slab pages that could have been
allocated from ZONE_NORMAL, directed reclaim won't help you.

Mel Gorman
Part-time Phd Student Linux Technology Center
University of Limerick IBM Dublin Software Lab
To unsubscribe from this list: send the line "unsubscribe linux-kernel" in
the body of a message to
More majordomo info at
Please read the FAQ at

 \ /
  Last update: 2006-12-06 10:33    [W:0.075 / U:1.900 seconds]
©2003-2020 Jasper Spaans|hosted at Digital Ocean and TransIP|Read the blog|Advertise on this site