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Subject[PATCH 22/28] readahead: call scheme
The read-ahead logic is called when the reading hits
- a PG_readahead marked page;
- a non-present page.

ra.prev_page should be properly setup on entrance, and readahead_cache_hit()
should be called on every page reference as a feedback.

This call scheme achieves the following goals:
- makes all stateful/stateless methods happy;
- eliminates the cache hit problem naturally;
- lives in harmony with application managed read-aheads via
fadvise/madvise.

Signed-off-by: Wu Fengguang <wfg@mail.ustc.edu.cn>
DESC
readahead: initial method - expected read size - fix fastcall
EDESC
From: Fengguang Wu <wfg@mail.ustc.edu.cn>

Remove 'fastcall' directive for function readahead_close().

It has drawn concerns from Andrew Morton. Now I have some benchmarks
on it, and proved it as a _false_ optimization.

The tests are simple runs of the following command over _cached_ dirs:
time find / > /dev/null
Table of summary(averages):
user sys cpu total
fastcall: 1.236 4.39 89% 6.2936
non-fastcall: 1.18 4.14166667 92% 5.75416667
stock: 1.25833333 4.14666667 93.3% 5.75866667
Detailed outputs:

readahead patched kernel with fastcall:
noglob find / > /dev/null 1.21s user 4.58s system 90% cpu 6.378 total
noglob find / > /dev/null 1.25s user 4.47s system 86% cpu 6.623 total
noglob find / > /dev/null 1.23s user 4.36s system 90% cpu 6.173 total
noglob find / > /dev/null 1.25s user 4.33s system 92% cpu 6.067 total
noglob find / > /dev/null 1.24s user 4.21s system 87% cpu 6.227 total
readahead patched kernel without fastcall:
noglob find / > /dev/null 1.21s user 4.46s system 95% cpu 5.962 total
noglob find / > /dev/null 1.26s user 4.58s system 94% cpu 6.142 total
noglob find / > /dev/null 1.10s user 3.80s system 86% cpu 5.661 total
noglob find / > /dev/null 1.13s user 3.98s system 95% cpu 5.355 total
noglob find / > /dev/null 1.18s user 4.00s system 89% cpu 5.805 total
noglob find / > /dev/null 1.22s user 4.03s system 93% cpu 5.600 total
stock kernel:
noglob find / > /dev/null 1.22s user 4.24s system 94% cpu 5.803 total
noglob find / > /dev/null 1.31s user 4.21s system 95% cpu 5.784 total
noglob find / > /dev/null 1.27s user 4.24s system 97% cpu 5.676 total
noglob find / > /dev/null 1.34s user 4.21s system 94% cpu 5.844 total
noglob find / > /dev/null 1.26s user 4.08s system 89% cpu 5.935 total
noglob find / > /dev/null 1.15s user 3.90s system 91% cpu 5.510 total
Similar regression has also been found by Voluspa <lista1@comhem.se>:
> "cd /usr ; time find . -type f -exec md5sum {} \;"
>
> 2.6.17-rc5 ------- 2.6.17-rc5-ar
>
> real 21m21.009s -- 21m37.663s
> user 3m20.784s -- 3m20.701s
> sys 6m34.261s -- 6m41.735s

Signed-off-by: Wu Fengguang <wfg@mail.ustc.edu.cn>
DESC
readahead: call scheme - no fastcall for readahead_cache_hit()
EDESC
From: Wu Fengguang <wfg@mail.ustc.edu.cn>

Remove 'fastcall' directive for readahead_cache_hit().

It leads to unfavorable performance in the following micro benchmark on i386
with CONFIG_REGPARM=n:

Command:
time cp cold /dev/null

Summary:
user sys cpu total
no-fastcall 1.24 24.88 90.9 28.57
fastcall 1.16 25.69 91.5 29.23

Details:
without fastcall:
cp cold /dev/null 1.27s user 24.63s system 91% cpu 28.348 total
cp cold /dev/null 1.17s user 25.09s system 91% cpu 28.653 total
cp cold /dev/null 1.24s user 24.75s system 91% cpu 28.448 total
cp cold /dev/null 1.20s user 25.04s system 91% cpu 28.614 total
cp cold /dev/null 1.31s user 24.67s system 91% cpu 28.499 total
cp cold /dev/null 1.30s user 24.87s system 91% cpu 28.530 total
cp cold /dev/null 1.26s user 24.84s system 91% cpu 28.542 total
cp cold /dev/null 1.16s user 25.15s system 90% cpu 28.925 total

with fastcall:
cp cold /dev/null 1.16s user 26.39s system 91% cpu 30.061 total
cp cold /dev/null 1.25s user 26.53s system 91% cpu 30.378 total
cp cold /dev/null 1.10s user 25.32s system 92% cpu 28.679 total
cp cold /dev/null 1.15s user 25.20s system 91% cpu 28.747 total
cp cold /dev/null 1.19s user 25.38s system 92% cpu 28.841 total
cp cold /dev/null 1.11s user 25.75s system 92% cpu 29.126 total
cp cold /dev/null 1.17s user 25.49s system 91% cpu 29.042 total
cp cold /dev/null 1.17s user 25.49s system 92% cpu 28.970 total

Signed-off-by: Wu Fengguang <wfg@mail.ustc.edu.cn>
DESC
readahead-call-scheme fix
EDESC
From: Mike Galbraith <efault@gmx.de>

On Thu, 2006-08-10 at 02:19 -0700, Andrew Morton wrote:

> It would be interesting to try disabling CONFIG_ADAPTIVE_READAHEAD -
> perhaps that got broken.

A typo was pinning pagecache. Fixes leak encountered with rpm -qaV.

Signed-off-by: Mike Galbraith <efault@gmx.de>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
--- linux-2.6.19-rc5-mm2.orig/include/linux/mm.h
+++ linux-2.6.19-rc5-mm2/include/linux/mm.h
@@ -1067,6 +1067,22 @@ unsigned long page_cache_readahead(struc
void handle_ra_miss(struct address_space *mapping,
struct file_ra_state *ra, pgoff_t offset);
unsigned long max_sane_readahead(unsigned long nr);
+unsigned long
+page_cache_readahead_adaptive(struct address_space *mapping,
+ struct file_ra_state *ra,
+ struct file *filp,
+ struct page *page,
+ pgoff_t offset,
+ unsigned long size);
+
+#if defined(CONFIG_DEBUG_READAHEAD)
+void readahead_cache_hit(struct file_ra_state *ra, struct page *page);
+#else
+static inline void readahead_cache_hit(struct file_ra_state *ra,
+ struct page *page)
+{
+}
+#endif

#ifdef CONFIG_ADAPTIVE_READAHEAD
extern int readahead_ratio;
--- linux-2.6.19-rc5-mm2.orig/mm/filemap.c
+++ linux-2.6.19-rc5-mm2/mm/filemap.c
@@ -974,16 +974,33 @@ void do_generic_mapping_read(struct addr
nr = nr - offset;

cond_resched();
- if (index == next_index)
+
+ if (!prefer_adaptive_readahead() && index == next_index)
next_index = page_cache_readahead(mapping, &ra, filp,
index, last_index - index);

find_page:
page = find_get_page(mapping, index);
+ if (prefer_adaptive_readahead()) {
+ if (unlikely(page == NULL)) {
+ ra.prev_page = prev_index;
+ page_cache_readahead_adaptive(mapping,
+ &ra, filp, NULL,
+ index, last_index - index);
+ page = find_get_page(mapping, index);
+ } else if (PageReadahead(page)) {
+ ra.prev_page = prev_index;
+ page_cache_readahead_adaptive(mapping,
+ &ra, filp, page,
+ index, last_index - index);
+ }
+ }
if (unlikely(page == NULL)) {
- handle_ra_miss(mapping, &ra, index);
+ if (!prefer_adaptive_readahead())
+ handle_ra_miss(mapping, &ra, index);
goto no_cached_page;
}
+ readahead_cache_hit(&ra, page);
if (!PageUptodate(page))
goto page_not_up_to_date;
page_ok:
@@ -1131,6 +1148,8 @@ no_cached_page:

out:
*_ra = ra;
+ if (prefer_adaptive_readahead())
+ _ra->prev_page = prev_index;

*ppos = ((loff_t) index << PAGE_CACHE_SHIFT) + offset;
if (cached_page)
@@ -1401,6 +1420,7 @@ struct page *filemap_nopage(struct vm_ar
unsigned long size, pgoff;
int did_readaround = 0, majmin = VM_FAULT_MINOR;

+ ra->flags |= RA_FLAG_MMAP;
pgoff = ((address-area->vm_start) >> PAGE_CACHE_SHIFT) + area->vm_pgoff;

retry_all:
@@ -1418,7 +1438,7 @@ retry_all:
*
* For sequential accesses, we use the generic readahead logic.
*/
- if (VM_SequentialReadHint(area))
+ if (!prefer_adaptive_readahead() && VM_SequentialReadHint(area))
page_cache_readahead(mapping, ra, file, pgoff, 1);

/*
@@ -1426,11 +1446,22 @@ retry_all:
*/
retry_find:
page = find_get_page(mapping, pgoff);
+ if (prefer_adaptive_readahead() && VM_SequentialReadHint(area)) {
+ if (!page) {
+ page_cache_readahead_adaptive(mapping, ra, file, NULL,
+ pgoff, 1);
+ page = find_get_page(mapping, pgoff);
+ } else if (PageReadahead(page)) {
+ page_cache_readahead_adaptive(mapping, ra, file, page,
+ pgoff, 1);
+ }
+ }
if (!page) {
unsigned long ra_pages;

if (VM_SequentialReadHint(area)) {
- handle_ra_miss(mapping, ra, pgoff);
+ if (!prefer_adaptive_readahead())
+ handle_ra_miss(mapping, ra, pgoff);
goto no_cached_page;
}
ra->mmap_miss++;
@@ -1466,6 +1497,7 @@ retry_find:

if (!did_readaround)
ra->mmap_hit++;
+ readahead_cache_hit(ra, page);

/*
* Ok, found a page in the page cache, now we need to check
@@ -1481,6 +1513,8 @@ success:
mark_page_accessed(page);
if (type)
*type = majmin;
+ if (prefer_adaptive_readahead())
+ ra->prev_page = page->index;
return page;

outside_data_content:
--- linux-2.6.19-rc5-mm2.orig/mm/readahead.c
+++ linux-2.6.19-rc5-mm2/mm/readahead.c
@@ -1591,6 +1591,149 @@ static inline void get_readahead_bounds(

#endif /* CONFIG_ADAPTIVE_READAHEAD */

+/**
+ * page_cache_readahead_adaptive - thrashing safe adaptive read-ahead
+ * @mapping, @ra, @filp, @offset, @req_size: the same as page_cache_readahead()
+ * @page: the page at @offset, or NULL if non-present
+ *
+ * page_cache_readahead_adaptive() is the entry point of the adaptive
+ * read-ahead logic. It tries a set of methods in turn to determine the
+ * appropriate readahead action and submits the readahead I/O.
+ *
+ * This function is expected to be called on two conditions:
+ * 1. @page == NULL
+ * A cache miss happened, some pages have to be read in
+ * 2. @page != NULL && PageReadahead(@page)
+ * A look-ahead mark encountered, this is set by a previous read-ahead
+ * invocation to instruct the caller to give the function a chance to
+ * check up and do next read-ahead in advance.
+ */
+unsigned long
+page_cache_readahead_adaptive(struct address_space *mapping,
+ struct file_ra_state *ra, struct file *filp,
+ struct page *page,
+ pgoff_t offset, unsigned long req_size)
+{
+ unsigned long ra_size;
+ unsigned long ra_min;
+ unsigned long ra_max;
+ int ret;
+
+ if (page) {
+ ClearPageReadahead(page);
+
+ /*
+ * Defer read-ahead on IO congestion.
+ */
+ if (bdi_read_congested(mapping->backing_dev_info)) {
+ ra_account(ra, RA_EVENT_IO_CONGESTION, req_size);
+ return 0;
+ }
+ }
+
+ if (page)
+ ra_account(ra, RA_EVENT_LOOKAHEAD_HIT, ra_lookahead_size(ra));
+ else if (offset)
+ ra_account(ra, RA_EVENT_CACHE_MISS, req_size);
+
+ get_readahead_bounds(ra, &ra_min, &ra_max);
+
+ /* read-ahead disabled? */
+ if (unlikely(!ra_max || !readahead_ratio)) {
+ ra_size = max_sane_readahead(req_size);
+ goto readit;
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * Start of file.
+ */
+ if (offset == 0)
+ return initial_readahead(mapping, filp, ra, req_size);
+
+ /*
+ * State based sequential read-ahead.
+ */
+ if (offset == ra->prev_page + 1 &&
+ offset == ra->lookahead_index &&
+ !debug_option(disable_stateful_method))
+ return state_based_readahead(mapping, filp, ra, page,
+ offset, req_size, ra_max);
+
+ /*
+ * Recover from possible thrashing.
+ */
+ if (!page && offset == ra->prev_page + 1 && ra_has_index(ra, offset))
+ return thrashing_recovery_readahead(mapping, filp, ra,
+ offset, ra_max);
+
+ /*
+ * Backward read-ahead.
+ */
+ if (!page && try_backward_prefetching(ra, offset, req_size, ra_max))
+ return ra_submit(ra, mapping, filp);
+
+ /*
+ * Context based sequential read-ahead.
+ */
+ ret = try_context_based_readahead(mapping, ra, page,
+ offset, ra_min, ra_max);
+ if (ret > 0)
+ return ra_submit(ra, mapping, filp);
+ if (ret < 0)
+ return 0;
+
+ /* No action on look-ahead time? */
+ if (page) {
+ ra_account(ra, RA_EVENT_LOOKAHEAD_NOACTION,
+ ra->readahead_index - offset);
+ return 0;
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * Random read.
+ */
+ ra_size = min(req_size, ra_max);
+readit:
+ ra_size = __do_page_cache_readahead(mapping, filp, offset, ra_size, 0);
+
+ ra_account(ra, RA_EVENT_RANDOM_READ, ra_size);
+ dprintk("random_read(ino=%lu, req=%lu+%lu) = %lu\n",
+ mapping->host->i_ino, offset, req_size, ra_size);
+
+ return ra_size;
+}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(page_cache_readahead_adaptive);
+
+#if CONFIG_DEBUG_READAHEAD
+/**
+ * readahead_cache_hit - adaptive read-ahead feedback function
+ * @ra: file_ra_state which holds the readahead state
+ * @page: the page just accessed
+ *
+ * This is the optional feedback route of the adaptive read-ahead logic.
+ * It must be called on every access on the read-ahead pages.
+ */
+void readahead_cache_hit(struct file_ra_state *ra, struct page *page)
+{
+ if (!prefer_adaptive_readahead())
+ return;
+
+ if (PageActive(page) || PageReferenced(page))
+ return;
+
+ if (!PageUptodate(page))
+ ra_account(ra, RA_EVENT_IO_BLOCK, 1);
+
+ if (!ra_has_index(ra, page->index))
+ return;
+
+ if (page->index >= ra->ra_index)
+ ra_account(ra, RA_EVENT_READAHEAD_HIT, 1);
+ else
+ ra_account(ra, RA_EVENT_READAHEAD_HIT, -1);
+}
+#endif /* CONFIG_DEBUG_READAHEAD */
+
/*
* Read-ahead events accounting.
*/
--
-
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