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Subject[PATCH 1/1] Make the TSC safe to be used by gettimeofday().
This is done by a per-cpu vxtime structure that stores the last TSC and HPET
values.

Whenever we switch to a userland process after a HLT instruction has been
executed or after the CPU frequency has changed, we force a new read of the
TSC, HPET and xtime so that we know the correct frequency we have to deal
with.

We also force a resynch once every second, on every CPU.

With this, we can safely use RDTSC in gettimeofday() in CPUs where the
TSCs are not synchronized, such as Opterons, instead of doing a very expensive
HPET read.

Signed-off-by: Suleiman Souhlal <suleiman@google.com>
---
arch/x86_64/kernel/process.c | 19 ++++++
arch/x86_64/kernel/setup64.c | 3 +
arch/x86_64/kernel/time.c | 39 ++++++++---
arch/x86_64/kernel/vmlinux.lds.S | 6 +-
arch/x86_64/kernel/vsyscall.c | 131 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++------
include/asm-x86_64/pda.h | 3 +
include/asm-x86_64/proto.h | 1
include/asm-x86_64/timex.h | 2 +
include/asm-x86_64/vsyscall.h | 12 +++
include/linux/hrtimer.h | 2 +
10 files changed, 185 insertions(+), 33 deletions(-)
diff --git a/arch/x86_64/kernel/process.c b/arch/x86_64/kernel/process.c
index 49f7fac..2af102a 100644
--- a/arch/x86_64/kernel/process.c
+++ b/arch/x86_64/kernel/process.c
@@ -51,6 +51,7 @@ #include <asm/desc.h>
#include <asm/proto.h>
#include <asm/ia32.h>
#include <asm/idle.h>
+#include <asm/vsyscall.h>

asmlinkage extern void ret_from_fork(void);

@@ -109,6 +110,10 @@ void exit_idle(void)
*/
static void default_idle(void)
{
+ int cpu;
+
+ cpu = smp_processor_id();
+
local_irq_enable();

current_thread_info()->status &= ~TS_POLLING;
@@ -562,6 +567,7 @@ __switch_to(struct task_struct *prev_p,
*next = &next_p->thread;
int cpu = smp_processor_id();
struct tss_struct *tss = &per_cpu(init_tss, cpu);
+ unsigned long rip;

/* we're going to use this soon, after a few expensive things */
if (next_p->fpu_counter>5)
@@ -657,6 +663,19 @@ #endif
*/
if (next_p->fpu_counter>5)
math_state_restore();
+
+ /*
+ * If we are switching away from a process in vsyscall, touch
+ * the vxtime seq lock so that userland is aware that a context switch
+ * has happened.
+ */
+ rip = *(unsigned long *)(prev->rsp0 +
+ offsetof(struct user_regs_struct, rip) - sizeof(struct pt_regs));
+ if (unlikely(rip > VSYSCALL_START) && unlikely(rip < VSYSCALL_END)) {
+ write_seqlock(&vxtime.vx_seq);
+ write_sequnlock(&vxtime.vx_seq);
+ }
+
return prev_p;
}

diff --git a/arch/x86_64/kernel/setup64.c b/arch/x86_64/kernel/setup64.c
index 8c4b80f..a587381 100644
--- a/arch/x86_64/kernel/setup64.c
+++ b/arch/x86_64/kernel/setup64.c
@@ -23,6 +23,7 @@ #include <asm/i387.h>
#include <asm/percpu.h>
#include <asm/proto.h>
#include <asm/sections.h>
+#include <asm/vsyscall.h>

char x86_boot_params[BOOT_PARAM_SIZE] __initdata;

@@ -146,6 +147,8 @@ void pda_init(int cpu)


pda->irqstackptr += IRQSTACKSIZE-64;
+
+ pda->vxtime = &vxtime.pcpu[cpu];
}

char boot_exception_stacks[(N_EXCEPTION_STACKS - 1) * EXCEPTION_STKSZ + DEBUG_STKSZ]
diff --git a/arch/x86_64/kernel/time.c b/arch/x86_64/kernel/time.c
index 88722f1..7908025 100644
--- a/arch/x86_64/kernel/time.c
+++ b/arch/x86_64/kernel/time.c
@@ -118,14 +118,17 @@ unsigned int (*do_gettimeoffset)(void) =

void do_gettimeofday(struct timeval *tv)
{
- unsigned long seq;
+ unsigned long seq, t;
unsigned int sec, usec;
+ struct vxtime_pcpu *pcpu;

+ preempt_disable();
+ pcpu = read_pda(vxtime);
do {
- seq = read_seqbegin(&xtime_lock);
+ seq = read_seqbegin(&vxtime.vx_seq);

- sec = xtime.tv_sec;
- usec = xtime.tv_nsec / NSEC_PER_USEC;
+ sec = pcpu->tv_sec;
+ usec = pcpu->tv_usec;

/* i386 does some correction here to keep the clock
monotonous even when ntpd is fixing drift.
@@ -135,9 +138,11 @@ void do_gettimeofday(struct timeval *tv)
be found. Note when you fix it here you need to do the same
in arch/x86_64/kernel/vsyscall.c and export all needed
variables in vmlinux.lds. -AK */
- usec += do_gettimeoffset();
-
- } while (read_seqretry(&xtime_lock, seq));
+ rdtscll(t);
+ usec += (((t - pcpu->last_tsc) *
+ pcpu->tsc_nsquot) >> NS_SCALE) / NSEC_PER_USEC;
+ } while (read_seqretry(&vxtime.vx_seq, seq));
+ preempt_enable();

tv->tv_sec = sec + usec / USEC_PER_SEC;
tv->tv_usec = usec % USEC_PER_SEC;
@@ -624,10 +629,17 @@ #endif
cpufreq_scale(loops_per_jiffy_ref, ref_freq, freq->new);

cpu_khz = cpufreq_scale(cpu_khz_ref, ref_freq, freq->new);
- if (!(freq->flags & CPUFREQ_CONST_LOOPS))
+ if (!(freq->flags & CPUFREQ_CONST_LOOPS)) {
vxtime.tsc_quot = (USEC_PER_MSEC << US_SCALE) / cpu_khz;
+
+ vxtime.pcpu[freq->cpu].tsc_nsquot =
+ (NSEC_PER_SEC << NS_SCALE)
+ / (cpufreq_scale(cpu_khz_ref, ref_freq, freq->new) *
+ NSEC_PER_USEC);
+ vxtime_update_pcpu();
+ }
}
-
+
set_cyc2ns_scale(cpu_khz_ref);

return 0;
@@ -887,6 +899,9 @@ time_cpu_notifier(struct notifier_block

void __init time_init(void)
{
+ char *timename;
+ int i;
+
if (nohpet)
vxtime.hpet_address = 0;

@@ -931,13 +946,17 @@ #endif
#ifndef CONFIG_SMP
time_init_gtod();
#endif
+
+ for (i = 0; i < NR_CPUS; i++)
+ vxtime.pcpu[i].tsc_nsquot = (NSEC_PER_SEC << NS_SCALE)
+ / (cpu_khz * NSEC_PER_USEC);
}

/*
* Make an educated guess if the TSC is trustworthy and synchronized
* over all CPUs.
*/
-__cpuinit int unsynchronized_tsc(void)
+int unsynchronized_tsc(void)
{
#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
if (apic_is_clustered_box())
diff --git a/arch/x86_64/kernel/vmlinux.lds.S b/arch/x86_64/kernel/vmlinux.lds.S
index edb24aa..b1a39d1 100644
--- a/arch/x86_64/kernel/vmlinux.lds.S
+++ b/arch/x86_64/kernel/vmlinux.lds.S
@@ -96,9 +96,6 @@ #define VVIRT(x) (ADDR(x) - VVIRT_OFFSET
.xtime_lock : AT(VLOAD(.xtime_lock)) { *(.xtime_lock) }
xtime_lock = VVIRT(.xtime_lock);

- .vxtime : AT(VLOAD(.vxtime)) { *(.vxtime) }
- vxtime = VVIRT(.vxtime);
-
.vgetcpu_mode : AT(VLOAD(.vgetcpu_mode)) { *(.vgetcpu_mode) }
vgetcpu_mode = VVIRT(.vgetcpu_mode);

@@ -119,6 +116,9 @@ #define VVIRT(x) (ADDR(x) - VVIRT_OFFSET
.vsyscall_2 ADDR(.vsyscall_0) + 2048: AT(VLOAD(.vsyscall_2)) { *(.vsyscall_2) }
.vsyscall_3 ADDR(.vsyscall_0) + 3072: AT(VLOAD(.vsyscall_3)) { *(.vsyscall_3) }

+ .vxtime : AT(VLOAD(.vxtime)) { *(.vxtime) }
+ vxtime = VVIRT(.vxtime);
+
. = VSYSCALL_VIRT_ADDR + 4096;

#undef VSYSCALL_ADDR
diff --git a/arch/x86_64/kernel/vsyscall.c b/arch/x86_64/kernel/vsyscall.c
index a98b460..873a4e5 100644
--- a/arch/x86_64/kernel/vsyscall.c
+++ b/arch/x86_64/kernel/vsyscall.c
@@ -27,6 +27,8 @@ #include <linux/seqlock.h>
#include <linux/jiffies.h>
#include <linux/sysctl.h>
#include <linux/getcpu.h>
+#include <linux/smp.h>
+#include <linux/kthread.h>

#include <asm/vsyscall.h>
#include <asm/pgtable.h>
@@ -37,6 +39,9 @@ #include <asm/io.h>
#include <asm/segment.h>
#include <asm/desc.h>
#include <asm/topology.h>
+#include <asm/smp.h>
+#include <asm/idle.h>
+#include <asm/proto.h>

#define __vsyscall(nr) __attribute__ ((unused,__section__(".vsyscall_" #nr)))

@@ -46,6 +51,11 @@ int __vgetcpu_mode __section_vgetcpu_mod

#include <asm/unistd.h>

+#define NS_SCALE 10
+#define NSEC_PER_TICK (NSEC_PER_SEC / HZ)
+
+long vgetcpu(unsigned *cpu, unsigned *node, struct getcpu_cache *tcache);
+
static __always_inline void timeval_normalize(struct timeval * tv)
{
time_t __sec;
@@ -57,35 +67,116 @@ static __always_inline void timeval_norm
}
}

+static inline int _vgetcpu(void)
+{
+ int cpu;
+
+ vgetcpu(&cpu, NULL, NULL);
+ return (cpu);
+}
+
static __always_inline void do_vgettimeofday(struct timeval * tv)
{
long sequence, t;
unsigned long sec, usec;
+ int cpu;

do {
- sequence = read_seqbegin(&__xtime_lock);
-
- sec = __xtime.tv_sec;
- usec = __xtime.tv_nsec / 1000;
-
- if (__vxtime.mode != VXTIME_HPET) {
- t = get_cycles_sync();
- if (t < __vxtime.last_tsc)
- t = __vxtime.last_tsc;
- usec += ((t - __vxtime.last_tsc) *
- __vxtime.tsc_quot) >> 32;
- /* See comment in x86_64 do_gettimeofday. */
- } else {
- usec += ((readl((void __iomem *)
- fix_to_virt(VSYSCALL_HPET) + 0xf0) -
- __vxtime.last) * __vxtime.quot) >> 32;
- }
- } while (read_seqretry(&__xtime_lock, sequence));
+ sequence = read_seqbegin(&__vxtime.vx_seq);
+ cpu = _vgetcpu();
+
+ sec = __vxtime.pcpu[cpu].tv_sec;
+ usec = __vxtime.pcpu[cpu].tv_usec;
+ rdtscll(t);
+
+ usec += (((t - __vxtime.pcpu[cpu].last_tsc) *
+ __vxtime.pcpu[cpu].tsc_nsquot) >> NS_SCALE) / NSEC_PER_USEC;
+ /*
+ * If we get a context switch while here, the seq lock will
+ * change, and we'll have to retry.
+ */
+ } while (read_seqretry(&__vxtime.vx_seq, sequence));
+
+ tv->tv_sec = sec + usec / USEC_PER_SEC;
+ tv->tv_usec = usec % USEC_PER_SEC;
+}
+
+void vxtime_update_pcpu(void)
+{
+ unsigned long flags, offset, seq;
+ struct vxtime_pcpu *pcpu;
+
+ write_seqlock_irqsave(&vxtime.vx_seq, flags);
+ pcpu = read_pda(vxtime);
+
+ do {
+ seq = read_seqbegin(&xtime_lock);
+ pcpu->tv_sec = xtime.tv_sec;
+ pcpu->tv_usec = xtime.tv_nsec / 1000;
+ offset = hpet_readl(HPET_COUNTER) - vxtime.last;
+ } while (read_seqretry(&xtime_lock, seq));

- tv->tv_sec = sec + usec / 1000000;
- tv->tv_usec = usec % 1000000;
+ pcpu->tv_usec += (offset * vxtime.quot) >> 32;
+ pcpu->last_tsc = get_cycles_sync();
+
+ write_sequnlock_irqrestore(&vxtime.vx_seq, flags);
}

+static void _vxtime_update_pcpu(void *arg)
+{
+ vxtime_update_pcpu();
+}
+
+static int vxtime_periodic(void *arg)
+{
+ while (1) {
+ set_current_state(TASK_INTERRUPTIBLE);
+ schedule_timeout(msecs_to_jiffies(1000));
+
+ smp_call_function(_vxtime_update_pcpu, NULL, 1, 1);
+ _vxtime_update_pcpu(NULL);
+ }
+
+ return (0); /* NOTREACHED */
+}
+
+void clock_was_set(void)
+{
+ smp_call_function(_vxtime_update_pcpu, NULL, 1, 1);
+ _vxtime_update_pcpu(NULL);
+}
+
+static int vxtime_pcpu_idle_notify(struct notifier_block *self,
+ unsigned long action, void *arg)
+{
+ if (action == IDLE_END)
+ vxtime_update_pcpu();
+
+ return (0);
+}
+
+static struct notifier_block vxtime_pcpu_idle_nb = {
+ .notifier_call = vxtime_pcpu_idle_notify,
+};
+
+static __init int vxtime_init_pcpu(void)
+{
+ seqlock_init(&vxtime.vx_seq);
+
+ /*
+ * Don't bother updating the per-cpu data after each HLT
+ * if we don't need to.
+ */
+ if (!unsynchronized_tsc())
+ idle_notifier_register(&vxtime_pcpu_idle_nb);
+
+ kthread_create(vxtime_periodic, NULL, "vxtime_periodic");
+
+ return (0);
+}
+
+core_initcall(vxtime_init_pcpu);
+
/* RED-PEN may want to readd seq locking, but then the variable should be write-once. */
static __always_inline void do_get_tz(struct timezone * tz)
{
diff --git a/include/asm-x86_64/pda.h b/include/asm-x86_64/pda.h
index 14996d9..462e254 100644
--- a/include/asm-x86_64/pda.h
+++ b/include/asm-x86_64/pda.h
@@ -7,6 +7,8 @@ #include <linux/types.h>
#include <linux/cache.h>
#include <asm/page.h>

+struct vxtime_pcpu;
+
/* Per processor datastructure. %gs points to it while the kernel runs */
struct x8664_pda {
struct task_struct *pcurrent; /* 0 Current process */
@@ -29,6 +31,7 @@ #endif
short isidle;
struct mm_struct *active_mm;
unsigned apic_timer_irqs;
+ struct vxtime_pcpu *vxtime;
} ____cacheline_aligned_in_smp;

extern struct x8664_pda *_cpu_pda[];
diff --git a/include/asm-x86_64/proto.h b/include/asm-x86_64/proto.h
index e72cfcd..f7821a6 100644
--- a/include/asm-x86_64/proto.h
+++ b/include/asm-x86_64/proto.h
@@ -49,6 +49,7 @@ extern unsigned long long monotonic_base
extern int sysctl_vsyscall;
extern int nohpet;
extern unsigned long vxtime_hz;
+extern unsigned long hpet_tick;
extern void time_init_gtod(void);

extern void early_printk(const char *fmt, ...) __attribute__((format(printf,1,2)));
diff --git a/include/asm-x86_64/timex.h b/include/asm-x86_64/timex.h
index b9e5320..91bad25 100644
--- a/include/asm-x86_64/timex.h
+++ b/include/asm-x86_64/timex.h
@@ -46,4 +46,6 @@ #define ARCH_HAS_READ_CURRENT_TIMER 1

extern struct vxtime_data vxtime;

+void clock_was_set(void);
+
#endif
diff --git a/include/asm-x86_64/vsyscall.h b/include/asm-x86_64/vsyscall.h
index fd452fc..df18d6a 100644
--- a/include/asm-x86_64/vsyscall.h
+++ b/include/asm-x86_64/vsyscall.h
@@ -30,6 +30,13 @@ #define VXTIME_PMTMR 3
#define VGETCPU_RDTSCP 1
#define VGETCPU_LSL 2

+struct vxtime_pcpu {
+ time_t tv_sec;
+ long tv_usec;
+ unsigned long tsc_nsquot;
+ unsigned long last_tsc;
+};
+
struct vxtime_data {
long hpet_address; /* HPET base address */
int last;
@@ -37,6 +44,8 @@ struct vxtime_data {
long quot;
long tsc_quot;
int mode;
+ seqlock_t vx_seq;
+ struct vxtime_pcpu pcpu[NR_CPUS] ____cacheline_aligned;
};

#define hpet_readl(a) readl((const void __iomem *)fix_to_virt(FIX_HPET_BASE) + a)
@@ -61,7 +70,10 @@ extern int sysctl_vsyscall;

extern void vsyscall_set_cpu(int cpu);

+void vxtime_update_pcpu(void);
+
#define ARCH_HAVE_XTIME_LOCK 1
+#define ARCH_HAVE_CLOCK_WAS_SET 1

#endif /* __KERNEL__ */

diff --git a/include/linux/hrtimer.h b/include/linux/hrtimer.h
index fca9302..7f59619 100644
--- a/include/linux/hrtimer.h
+++ b/include/linux/hrtimer.h
@@ -95,12 +95,14 @@ struct hrtimer_base {
struct lock_class_key lock_key;
};

+#ifndef ARCH_HAVE_CLOCK_WAS_SET
/*
* clock_was_set() is a NOP for non- high-resolution systems. The
* time-sorted order guarantees that a timer does not expire early and
* is expired in the next softirq when the clock was advanced.
*/
#define clock_was_set() do { } while (0)
+#endif

/* Exported timer functions: */

-
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