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SubjectRe: [RFC][PATCH] SPI subsystem

--- David Brownell <david-b@pacbell.net> wrote:
> > ASCII art time :)
>
> ASCII also works for English and C, but this is good
> too. ;)
>
>
>
> > SPI device drivers| Core | Adapter driver
>
> Or in my terminology, with no core/midlayer
> expectation:
>
> SPI Master | SPI Master
> Protocol Driver | Controller Driver
>
> > ---------- msg | |
> > | EEPROM |------> |- |
> > ---------- | | |
> > ------------ msg | | ------- | msg ------
> > | ETHERNET |----> |-->|Queue|->|---->|xfer|
> > ------------ | | ------- | ------
> > --------- msg | | ^ | |
> > | FLASH |-------> |- ------|<------- Next/done
> > --------- | |
>
> And the workqueue usage you're describing (to manage
> that queue)
> is what I'd call just one of many implementation
> strategies; one
> that wouldn't be universally appropriate.
>
> You don't NEED a separate "core" to hold the queue;
> the driver
> can just as easily manage a list_head itself.
>
> - A PIO driver running with IRQs blocked wouldn't
> need a queue.
> (And that might be fine for low volume usage,
> since it might
> take all of an hour to write and debug.)
>
> - A DMA driver might build the queue out of DMA
> descriptors, so
> that the hardware would process many
> transactions back-to-back
> without needing intermediate attention from the
> CPU. (Great
> for high volume usage, but likely takes more
> than an hour.)
>
> You don't NEED to allocate a task ("workqueue") to
> handle the
> movement of requests from the queue to the hardware.
>
> - Drivers are often written so that the "next"
> transaction is
> started from an IRQ handler ... it's a lot less
> I/O latency
> than if you need the workqueue's task to
> schedule before that
> transaction can start, and better throughput
> too.
>
> That's three more implementation strategies ... ones
> that don't need
> or want to have a "workqueue" task, and can easily
> manage a list_head.
> But you want them all to not just have a workqueue,
> but not be able
> to work unless they interact with it!! Why?
>

Thank you! I have seen the light. Yes, I can see now
that the workqueue should really be in my adapter
driver not the core. The only thing about having a
work queue in the core is that it means adapter
drivers don't have to do the sleep for blocking
transfers, but I guess that's just laziness creeping
in ;).
Thinking about it, for blocking transfers the core
could call the adapters transfer routine and then
start a wait on completeion. When the message has been
sent the adapter would finish the completeion and the
call to the core would then return (I think this is
how the mmc core layer does it). How do you feel about
that sugguestion?

How would you feel about having a list head for
messages in the adapter structure? I think every
adapter driver would at least need this.

>
>
> > If you don't have a queue of some sort how do you
> > handle the fact that one or more devices will want
> to
> > send asynchronous messages through one adapter
> while
> > that adapter is still busy transferring a previous
> > message?
>
> You seem to have been replying to someone else's
> posts! The
> examples I gave _included_ queues. Queues that
> advanced using
> IRQs, and didn't need to schedule a workqueue's task
> before
> starting another transaction.
>

Sorry I must have had a blind spot :(.

>
> > OK. But you also need to see what else is in the
> cs
> > table, namely the default level of the cs's. The
> issue
> > which we have to solve is that all the cs's have
> to be
> > put into their non-active state before any
> transfer
> > can be done.
>
> If you observed the code I sent by, you'll observe
> comments about that
> issue in the declaration of both "spi_device" and
> "spi_board_info".
>
> There are other protocol tweaks to be dealt with
> over time too. As one
> person commented off-line, there are multiple
> protocols to fit into this
> API (SPI, MicroWire, SSI, SSP, and more) that differ
> in only minor ways.
> The controller driver may need to know about some of
> those tweaks in
> order to talk properly with a given chip.
>

Yes, at some time I was thinking about how you might
create a serial bus subsystem that would even
incorporate I2C :O.

>
> > If devices are added into a running SPI
> > adapter (I mean registration of devices not
> physical
> > plugging) then how do you know what their idle
> state
> > is at the beginning (when the first SPI device
> does a
> > transfer?
>
> Until someone has to hook up hardware that acts
> atypically, it's the
> normal SPI convention: chipselect is "active low".
> When someone
> needs that, I've already identified where to record
> "active high".
>
>
> > To me the only solution seems to be to pass
> > the idle state of all the devices that will be on
> that
> > device (be they hardwire, plugged or what ever)
> when
> > then adapter gets registered which is why I put it
> in
> > as part of platform data.
>
> Much like I did with "spi_board_info", but on a
> per-chip basis. It's
> possible to hook an "active low" chip to one
> chipselect while another
> uses "active high" signaling. It's just an
> inverter. :)
>
>
>
> > > I can certainly understand how, say, Philips
> might
> > > want to support
> > > evaluation boards in PC environments. It can
> be
> > > easier to debug on
> > > PCs; not everyone has JTAG tools; and so on.
> > >
> >
> > That's my thinking. Plus I was planning on writing
> a
> > parallel port bit-banging adapter as a sweetnear
> for
> > the PC Linux folk and later a SPI MMC driver so
> your
> > PC could have a MMC slot :) (even old 386's &
> 486's
> > which don't have USB and thus no card readers!).
>
> Yes, I expect an SPI bitbanger will be useful to
> some folk.
> As for MMC ... it'll be interesting to watch that
> play out;
> won't the mmc_block code need to change?
>

I don't know, I would hope not. If the mmc core is
completely generic then I think I should only have to
write a driver like mmci and not have to change the
mmc_block or mmc core layers.

>
> I attach the latest snapshot of my code. You'll
> notice two changes:
> (a) suspend/resume calls; this code seems pretty
> complete except for
> the protocol tweaking options; (b) a new method
> that'll be handy
> when doing things like hotplugging a card with an
> SPI controller
> and a few soldered-on SPI devices. (Like that USB
> prototype.)

OK. I'll have a look at this and send another reply.

Mark

>
> - Dave
>
>
> ===========================
>
> This is the start of a small SPI framework that
> started fresh, so that
> doesn't perpetuate the "i2c driver model mess".
>
> - It's still less than 2KB of ".text" (ARM,
> modules enabled). If there
> must be more code than the drivers, that's the
> right size budget. :)
>
> - The guts use board-specific SPI device tables to
> build the driver
> model tree. (Hardware probing is rarely an
> option.)
>
> - The Kconfig should be informative about the
> scope and content of SPI.
>
> - Building more drivers into this framework likely
> means updating the
> I/O "async message" model to include protocol
> tweaking (like I2C).
>
> - No userspace API. There are several
> implementations to compare.
> Implement them like any other driver; no magic
> hooks!
>
> This should suffice for writing (or adapting) real
> driver code, such
> as for SPI master controllers (including
> hotpluggable ones like a
> parport bitbanger) or protocol masters.
>
>
> --- /dev/null 1970-01-01 00:00:00.000000000 +0000
> +++ osk/include/linux/spi.h 2005-09-15
> 18:08:00.293267631 -0700
> @@ -0,0 +1,268 @@
> +/*
> + * Copyright (C) 2005 David Brownell
> + *
> + * This program is free software; you can
> redistribute it and/or modify
> + * it under the terms of the GNU General Public
> License as published by
> + * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2
> of the License, or
> + * (at your option) any later version.
> + *
> + * This program is distributed in the hope that it
> will be useful,
> + * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the
> implied warranty of
> + * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
> PURPOSE. See the
> + * GNU General Public License for more details.
> + *
> + * You should have received a copy of the GNU
> General Public License
> + * along with this program; if not, write to the
> Free Software
> + * Foundation, Inc., 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA
> 02139, USA.
> + */
> +
> +#ifndef __LINUX_SPI_H
> +#define __LINUX_SPI_H
> +
> +/*
> + * PROTOTYPE !!!
> + *
> + * The focus is on driver model support ... enough
> for SPI mastering
> + * board setups to work. The I/O model still needs
> attention, since
> + * SPI protocols seem to need to tweaking.
> + */
> +
>
+/*---------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
> +
> +/*
> + * INTERFACES between SPI master drivers and
> infrastructure
> + *
> + * There are two types of master (or slave) driver:
> "controller" drivers
> + * usually work on platform devices and touch chip
> registers; "protocol"
> + * drivers work on abstract SPI devices by asking a
> controller driver to
> + * transfer the relevant data, and they shouldn't
> much care if they use
> + * one controller or another.
> + *
> + * A "struct device_driver" for an SPI device uses
> "spi_bus_type" and needs
> + * no special API wrappers (much like
> platform_bus). These drivers are
> + * bound to devices based on their names (much like
> platform_bus), and
> + * are available in dev->driver.
> + */
> +extern struct bus_type spi_bus_type;
> +
> +struct spi_device { /* this proxies the device
> through a master */
> + struct device dev;
> + struct spi_master *master;
> + u32 max_speed_hz;
> + u8 chip_select;
> + u8 mode;
> +#define SPI_CPHA 0x01 /* clock phase */
> +#define SPI_CPOL 0x02 /* clock polarity */
> +#define SPI_MODE_0 (0|0)
> +#define SPI_MODE_1 (0|SPI_CPHA)
> +#define SPI_MODE_2 (SPI_CPOL|0)
> +#define SPI_MODE_3 (SPI_CPOL|SPI_CPHA)
> +
> + // MAYBE ADD hooks for protocol options that
> affect how
> + // the controller talks to its chips:
> + // - chipselect polarity (default active low)
> + // - spi wordsize (default 8 bits unsigned)
> + // - bit order (default is wordwise msb-first)
> + // - memory packing (default: 12 bit samples into
> 16 bits, msb)
> + // - priority
> + // - delays
> + // - ...
> +
> +};
> +
> +static inline struct spi_device
> *to_spi_device(struct device *dev)
> +{
> + return container_of(dev, struct spi_device, dev);
> +}
> +
> +
> +struct spi_message;
> +
> +struct spi_master {
> + struct class_device cdev;
> +
> + /* other than zero (== assign one dynamically),
> bus_num is fully
> + * board-specific. usually that simplifies to
> being SOC-specific.
> + * for example: one SOC has three SPI
> controllers, numbered 1..3,
> + * and one board's schematics might show it using
> SPI-2. software
> + * would normally use bus_num=2 for that
> controller.
> + */
> + u16 bus_num;
> +
> + /* chipselects will be integral to many
> controllers, while others
> + * might use board-specific GPIOs.
> + */
> + u16 num_chipselect;
> +
> + /* setup mode and clock, etc */
> + int (*setup)(struct spi_device *spi);
> +
> + /* bidirectional bulk transfers
> + * + transfer() may not sleep
> + * + to a given spi_device, message queueing is
> pure fifo
> + * + if there are multiple spi_device children,
> the i/o queue
> + * arbitration algorithm is unspecified (round
> robin, fifo,
> + * priority, reservations, preemption, etc)
> + * + the master's main job is to process its
> message queue,
> + * selecting a chip then transferring data
> + * + for now there's no remove-from-queue
> operation, or
> + * any other request management
> + */
> + int (*transfer)(struct spi_device *spi,
> + struct spi_message *mesg);
> +};
> +
> +/* the controller driver manages memory for the
> spi_master classdev,
> + * normally contained inside its associated private
> state.
> + */
> +extern int spi_register_master(struct device *host,
> struct spi_master *spi);
> +extern void spi_unregister_master(struct spi_master
> *spi);
> +
> +

+/*---------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
> +
> +/*
> + * I/O INTERFACE between SPI controller and
> protocol drivers
> + *
> + * The interface is a queue of spi_messages, each
> transferring data
> + * between the controller and memory buffers. SPI
> protocol drivers just
> + * provide spi_messages to hardware controller
> drivers. SPI controller
> + * drivers process that queue, issuing completion
> callbacks as appropriate.
> + *
> + * The spi_messages themselves consist of a series
> of read+write transfer
> + * segments. Those segments always read the same
> number of bits as they
> + * write; but one or the other is easily ignored by
> passing a null buffer
> + * pointer. (This is unlike most types of I/O API,
> because SPI hardware
> + * is full duplex.)
> + *
> + * NOTE: Allocation of spi_transfer and
> spi_message memory is entirely
> + * up to the protocol driver, which guarantees the
> integrity of both (as
> + * well as the data buffers) for as long as the
> message is queued.
> + */
> +
> +struct spi_transfer {
> + /* it's ok if tx_buf == rx_buf (right?)
> + * for MicroWire, one buffer must be null
> + * buffers must work with dma_*map_single() calls
> + */
> + void *tx_buf, *rx_buf;
> + unsigned len;
> +};
> +
> +/* spi messages will often be stack-allocated */
> +struct spi_message {
> + struct spi_transfer *transfers;
> + unsigned n_transfer;
> +
> + struct spi_device *dev;
> +
> + /* Optionally leave this chipselect active
> afterward */
> + unsigned csrel_disable:1;
> +
> + /* completion is reported this way */
> + void (*complete)(void *context);
> + void *context;
> + unsigned actual_length;
> + int status;
> +
> + /* for optional controller driver use */
> + struct list_head queue;
> +};
> +
> +/**
> + * spi_setup -- setup SPI mode and clock rate
> + * @spi: the device whose settings are being
> modified
> + *
> + * SPI protocol drivers may need to update the
> transfer mode if the
> + * device doesn't work with the mode 0 default.
> They may likewise need
> + * to update clock rates. This function changes
> those settings,
> + * and must be called from a context that can
> sleep.
> + */
> +static inline int
> +spi_setup(struct spi_device *spi)
> +{
> + return spi->master->setup(spi);
> +}
> +
> +
> +/* synchronous SPI transfers; these may sleep
> uninterruptibly */
> +extern int spi_sync(struct spi_device *spi, struct
> spi_message *message);
> +extern int spi_w8r8(struct spi_device *spi, u8
> cmd);
> +extern int spi_w8r16(struct spi_device *spi, u8
> cmd);
> +
> +
> +/**
> + * spi_async -- asynchronous SPI transfer
> + * @spi: device with which data will be exchanged
> + * @message: describes the data transfers,
> including completion callback
> + *
> + * This call may be used in_irq in other contexts
> which can't sleep,
> + * as well as from task contexts which can sleep.
> + *
> + * The completion callback is invoked in a context
> which can't sleep.
> + * Before that invocation, the value of
> message->status is undefined.
> + * When the callback is issue, message->status
> holds either zero (to
> + * indicate complete success) or a negative error
> code.
> + */
> +static inline int
> +spi_async(struct spi_device *spi, struct
> spi_message *message)
> +{
> + message->dev = spi;
> + return spi->master->transfer(spi, message);
> +}
> +

+/*---------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
> +
> +/*
> + * INTERFACE between board init code and SPI
> infrastructure.
> + *
> + * No SPI driver ever sees these SPI device table
> segments, but
> + * it's how the SPI core (or adapters that get
> hotplugged) grows
> + * the driver model tree.
> + */
> +
> +/* board-specific information about each SPI device
> */
> +struct spi_board_info {
> + /* the device name and module name are coupled,
> like platform_bus.
> + *
> + * platform_data has things like IRQ assignments
> (just pass the int
> + * that goes to request_irq), related GPIOs, and
> so on.
> + */
> + char modalias[KOBJ_NAME_LEN];
> + void *platform_data;
> +
> + /* slower signaling on noisy or low voltage boards
> */
> + u32 max_speed_hz;
> +
> + /* bus_num is board specific and matches the
> bus_num of some
> + * spi_master that will probably be registered
> later.
> + *
> + * chip_select reflects how this chip is wired to
> that master;
> + * it's less than num_chipselect.
> + */
> + u16 bus_num;
> + u16 chip_select;
> +
> + /* ... may need additional spi_device chip config
> data here.
> + * avoid stuff protocol drivers can set; but
> include stuff
> + * needed to behave without being bound to a
> driver:
> + * - chipselect polarity
> + * - quirks like clock rate mattering when not
> selected
> + */
> +};
> +
> +extern int
> +spi_register_board_info(struct spi_board_info const
> *info, unsigned n);
> +
> +extern struct spi_device *
> +spi_new_device(struct spi_master *, struct
> spi_board_info *);
> +
> +static inline void
> +spi_unregister_device(struct spi_device *spi)
> +{
> + if (spi)
> + device_unregister(&spi->dev);
> +}
> +
> +
> +#endif /* __LINUX_SPI_H */
> --- /dev/null 1970-01-01 00:00:00.000000000 +0000
> +++ osk/drivers/spi/spi.c 2005-09-15
> 17:22:46.104517401 -0700
> @@ -0,0 +1,482 @@
> +/* spi.c -- prototype of SPI init/core code
> + *
> + * Copyright (C) 2005 David Brownell
> + *
> + * This program is free software; you can
> redistribute it and/or modify
> + * it under the terms of the GNU General Public
> License as published by
> + * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2
> of the License, or
> + * (at your option) any later version.
> + *
> + * This program is distributed in the hope that it
> will be useful,
> + * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the
> implied warranty of
> + * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
> PURPOSE. See the
> + * GNU General Public License for more details.
> + *
> + * You should have received a copy of the GNU
> General Public License
> + * along with this program; if not, write to the
> Free Software
> + * Foundation, Inc., 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA
> 02139, USA.
> + */
> +
> +#include <linux/autoconf.h>
> +#include <linux/kernel.h>
> +#include <linux/device.h>
> +#include <linux/init.h>
> +#include <linux/spi.h>
> +
> +
> +/* SPI bustype and spi_master class are registered
> during early boot,
> + * usually after board init code provided the SPI
> device tables, and
> + * are available when driver init code needs them.
> + *
> + * Drivers for SPI devices are like those for
> platform bus devices:
> + * (a) no bus-specific API wrappers (== needless
> bloat here)
> + * (b) matched to devices using device names
> + * (c) should support "native" suspend and resume
> methods
> + */
> +static void spidev_release(struct device *dev)
> +{
> + const struct spi_device *spi = to_spi_device(dev);
> +
> + class_device_put(&spi->master->cdev);
> + kfree(dev);
> +}
> +
> +// no, we probably don't need to list speed and
> mode in sysfs...
> +
> +static ssize_t
> +modalias_show(struct device *dev, struct
> device_attribute *a, char *buf)
> +{
> + const char *modalias = strchr(dev->bus_id, '-') +
> 1;
> +
> + return snprintf(buf, BUS_ID_SIZE + 1, "%s\n",
> modalias);
> +}
> +
> +#ifdef DEBUG
> +
> +static ssize_t
> +maxspeed_show(struct device *dev, struct
> device_attribute *a, char *buf)
> +{
> + const struct spi_device *spi = to_spi_device(dev);
> +
> + return sprintf(buf, "%u\n", spi->max_speed_hz);
> +}
> +
> +static ssize_t
> +mode_show(struct device *dev, struct
> device_attribute *a, char *buf)
> +{
> + struct spi_device *spi = to_spi_device(dev);
> +
> + return sprintf(buf, "%u\n", spi->mode);
> +}
> +
> +#endif /* DEBUG */
> +
> +static struct device_attribute spi_dev_attrs[] = {
> + __ATTR_RO(modalias),
> +#ifdef DEBUG
> + __ATTR_RO(maxspeed),
> + __ATTR_RO(mode),
> +#endif /* DEBUG */
> + __ATTR_NULL,
> +};
> +
> +static int spi_match_device(struct device *dev,
> struct device_driver *drv)
> +{
> + const char *modalias = strchr(dev->bus_id, '-') +
> 1;
> +
> + return strncmp(modalias, drv->name, BUS_ID_SIZE)
> == 0;
> +}
> +
> +static int spi_hotplug(struct device *dev, char
> **envp, int num_envp,
> + char *buffer, int buffer_size)
> +{
> + const char *modalias = strchr(dev->bus_id, '-') +
> 1;
> +
> + envp[0] = buffer;
> + snprintf(buffer, buffer_size, "MODALIAS=%s",
> modalias);
> + envp[1] = NULL;
> + return 0;
> +}
> +
> +/* suspend/resume in "struct device_driver" don't
> really need that
> + * strange third parameter, so we just make it a
> constant and expect
> + * drivers to ignore it.
> + */
> +static int spi_suspend(struct device *dev,
> pm_message_t message)
> +{
> + if (dev->driver && dev->driver->suspend)
> + return dev->driver->suspend(dev, message,
> SUSPEND_POWER_DOWN);
> + else
> + return 0;
> +}
> +
> +static int spi_resume(struct device *dev)
> +{
> + if (dev->driver && dev->driver->resume)
> + return dev->driver->resume(dev, RESUME_POWER_ON);
> + else
> + return 0;
> +}
> +
> +struct bus_type spi_bus_type = {
> + .name = "spi",
> + .dev_attrs = spi_dev_attrs,
> + .match = spi_match_device,
> + .hotplug = spi_hotplug,
> + .suspend = spi_suspend,
> + .resume = spi_resume,
> +};
> +EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(spi_bus_type);
> +
> +static struct class spi_master_class = {
> + .name = "spi_master",
> + .owner = THIS_MODULE,
> +};
> +
> +

+/*-------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
> +
> +/* SPI devices should normally not be created by
> SPI device drivers; that
> + * would make them board-specific. Similarly with
> SPI master drivers.
> + * Device registration normally goes into like
> arch/.../mach.../board-YYY.c
> + * with other information about mainboard devices.
> + */
> +
> +struct boardinfo {
> + struct list_head list;
> + unsigned n_board_info;
> + struct spi_board_info board_info[0];
> +};
> +
> +static LIST_HEAD(board_list);
> +static DECLARE_MUTEX(board_lock);
> +
> +#define kzalloc(n, flags) kcalloc(1,(n),(flags))
> +
> +static int __init_or_module
> +check_child(struct device *dev, void *data)
> +{
> + const struct spi_device *spi =
> to_spi_device(dev);
> + const struct spi_board_info *chip = data;
> +
> + return (spi->chip_select == chip->chip_select);
> +}
> +
> +
> +/* On typical mainboards, this is purely internal;
> and it's not needed
> + * after board init creates the hard-wired devices.
> Some development
> + * platforms may not be able to use
> spi_register_board_info though, and
> + * this is exported so that for example a USB or
> parport based adapter
> + * driver could add devices.
> + */
> +struct spi_device *__init_or_module
> +spi_new_device(struct spi_master *master, struct
> spi_board_info *chip)
> +{
> + struct spi_device *proxy;
> + struct device *dev = master->cdev.dev;
> + int status;
> +
> + /* NOTE: caller did any chip->bus_num checks
> necessary */
> +
> + /* only one child per chipselect, ever */
> + if (device_for_each_child(dev, chip, check_child))
> + return NULL;
> +
> + if (!class_device_get(&master->cdev))
> + return NULL;
> +
> + proxy = kzalloc(sizeof *proxy, GFP_KERNEL);
> + if (!proxy) {
> + dev_err(dev, "can't alloc dev for cs%d\n",
> + chip->chip_select);
> + goto fail;
> + }
> + proxy->master = master;
> + proxy->chip_select = chip->chip_select;
> + proxy->max_speed_hz = chip->max_speed_hz;
> +
> + snprintf(proxy->dev.bus_id, sizeof
> proxy->dev.bus_id,
> + "%s.%u-%s", master->cdev.class_id,
> + chip->chip_select, chip->modalias);
> + proxy->dev.parent = dev;
> + proxy->dev.bus = &spi_bus_type;
> + proxy->dev.platform_data = chip->platform_data;
> + proxy->dev.release = spidev_release;
> +
> + /* drivers may modify this default i/o setup */
> + status = master->setup(proxy);
> + if (status < 0) {
> + dev_dbg(dev, "can't %s %s, status %d\n",
> + "setup", proxy->dev.bus_id, status);
> + goto fail;
> + }
> +
> + status = device_register(&proxy->dev);
> + if (status < 0) {
> + dev_dbg(dev, "can't %s %s, status %d\n",
> + "add", proxy->dev.bus_id, status);
> +fail:
> + class_device_put(&master->cdev);
> + kfree(proxy);
> + return NULL;
> + }
> + dev_dbg(dev, "registered child %s\n",
> proxy->dev.bus_id);
> + return proxy;
> +}
> +EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(spi_new_device);
> +
> +/*
> + * Board-specific early init code calls this
> (probably during arch_initcall)
> + * with segments of the SPI device table. Any
> device nodes are created later,
> + * after the relevant parent SPI controller
> (bus_num) is defined. We keep
> + * this table of devices forever, so that reloading
> a controller driver will
> + * not make Linux forget about these hard-wired
> devices.
> + *
> + * Other code can also call this, e.g. a particular
> add-on board might provide
> + * SPI devices through its expansion connector, so
> code initializing that board
> + * would naturally declare its SPI devices.
> + *
> + * The board info passed can safely be __initdata
> ... but be careful of
> + * any embedded pointers (platform_data, etc),
> they're copied as-is.
> + */
> +int __init_or_module // would be __init except for
> SPI_EXAMPLE
> +spi_register_board_info(struct spi_board_info const
> *info, unsigned n)
> +{
> + struct boardinfo *bi;
> +
> + bi = kmalloc (sizeof (*bi) + n * sizeof (*info),
> GFP_KERNEL);
> + if (!bi)
> + return -ENOMEM;
> + bi->n_board_info = n;
> + memcpy(bi->board_info, info, n * sizeof (*info));
> +
> + down(&board_lock);
> + list_add_tail(&bi->list, &board_list);
> + up(&board_lock);
> + return 0;
> +}
> +EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(spi_register_board_info);
> +
> +static void __init_or_module
> +scan_boardinfo(struct spi_master *master)
> +{
> + struct boardinfo *bi;
> + struct device *dev = master->cdev.dev;
> +
> + down(&board_lock);
> + list_for_each_entry(bi, &board_list, list) {
> + struct spi_board_info *chip = bi->board_info;
> + unsigned n;
> +
> + for (n = bi->n_board_info; n > 0; n--, chip++) {
> + if (chip->bus_num != master->bus_num)
> + continue;
> + if (chip->chip_select >= master->num_chipselect)
> {
> + dev_dbg(dev, "cs%d > max %d\n",
> + chip->chip_select,
> + master->num_chipselect);
> + continue;
> + }
> + (void) spi_new_device(master, chip);
> + }
> + }
> + up(&board_lock);
> +}
> +

+/*-------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
> +
> +/**
> + * spi_register_master - register SPI master
> controller
> + * @dev: the controller
> + * @master: the master, with all uninitialized
> fields zeroed
> + *
> + * This call is used only by SPI master controller
> drivers, which are the
> + * only ones directly touching chip registers.
> + *
> + * SPI master controllers connect to their drivers
> using some non-SPI bus,
> + * such as the platform bus. The final stage of
> probe() in that code
> + * includes calling spi_register_master(), with
> memory managed by that
> + * controller, to hook up to this SPI bus glue.
> + *
> + * SPI controllers use board specific (often SOC
> specific) bus numbers,
> + * and board-specific addressing for SPI devices
> combines those numbers
> + * with chip select numbers. Since SPI does not
> directly support dynamic
> + * device identification, boards need configuration
> tables tellin which
> + * chip is at which address.
> + *
> + * This must be called from context that can sleep.
> It returns zero
> + * on success, else a negative error code.
> + */
> +int __init_or_module
> +spi_register_master(struct device *dev, struct
> spi_master *master)
> +{
> + static atomic_t dyn_bus_id = ATOMIC_INIT(0);
> + int status = -ENODEV;
> +
> + if (list_empty(&board_list)) {
> + dev_dbg(dev, "spi board info is missing\n");
> + goto done;
> + }
> +
> + /* convention: dynamically assigned bus IDs count
> down from the max */
> + if (master->bus_num == 0) {
> + master->bus_num = atomic_dec_return(&dyn_bus_id);
> + dev_dbg(dev, "spi%d, dynamic bus number\n",
> master->bus_num);
> + }
> +
> + /* ELSE: verify that the ID isn't in use already
> */
> +
> + master->cdev.class = &spi_master_class;
> + master->cdev.dev = get_device(dev);
> + class_set_devdata(&master->cdev, master);
> + snprintf(master->cdev.class_id, sizeof
> master->cdev.class_id,
> + "spi%u", master->bus_num);
> +
> + /* register the device, then userspace will see it
> */
> + status = class_device_register(&master->cdev);
> + if (status < 0) {
> + put_device(dev);
> + goto done;
> + }
> + dev_dbg(dev, "registered master %s\n",
> master->cdev.class_id);
> +
> + scan_boardinfo(master);
> + status = 0;
> +done:
> + return status;
> +}
> +EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(spi_register_master);
> +
> +
> +/**
> + * spi_unregister_master - unregister SPI master
> controller
> + * @master: the master being unregistered
> + *
> + * This call is used only by SPI master controller
> drivers, which are the
> + * only ones directly touching chip registers.
> + *
> + * This must be called from context that can sleep.
> + */
> +void spi_unregister_master(struct spi_master
> *master)
> +{
> +/* REVISIT when do children get deleted? */
> + class_device_unregister(&master->cdev);
> +
> + put_device(master->cdev.dev);
> + master->cdev.dev = NULL;
> +
> +}
> +EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(spi_unregister_master);
> +
> +

+/*-------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
> +
> +static void spi_sync_complete(void *done)
> +{
> + complete(done);
> +}
> +
> +/**
> + * spi_sync - blocking/synchronous SPI data
> transfers
> + * @spi: device with which data will be exchanged
> + * @message: describes the data transfers
> + *
> + * This call may only be used from a context that
> may sleep.
> + * The sleep is non-interruptible, and has no
> timeout.
> + *
> + * The return value is a negative error code if the
> message could not be
> + * submitted, else zero. When the value is zero,
> then message->status is
> + * also defined: it's the completion code for the
> transfer, either zero
> + * or a negative error code from the controller
> driver.
> + */
> +int spi_sync(struct spi_device *spi, struct
> spi_message *message)
> +{
> + DECLARE_COMPLETION(done);
> + int status;
> +
> + message->complete = spi_sync_complete;
> + message->context = &done;
> + status = spi_async(spi, message);
> + if (status == 0)
> + wait_for_completion(&done);
> + message->context = NULL;
> + return status;
> +}
> +EXPORT_SYMBOL(spi_sync);
> +
> +/**
> + * spi_w8r8 - SPI synchronous 8 bit write followed
> by 8 bit read
> + * @spi: device with which data will be exchanged
> + * @cmd: command to be written before data is read
> back
> + *
> + * This returns the (unsigned) eight bit number
> returned by the
> + * device, or else a negative error code.
> + */
> +int spi_w8r8(struct spi_device *spi, u8 cmd)
> +{
> + int status;
> + struct spi_message message;
> + struct spi_transfer x[2];
> + u8 result;
> +
> + x[0].tx_buf = &cmd;
> + x[0].rx_buf = NULL;
> + x[0].len = 1;
> +
> + x[1].tx_buf = NULL;
> + x[1].rx_buf = &result;
> + x[1].len = 1;
> +
> + /* do the i/o */
> + message.transfers = &x[0];
> + message.n_transfer = ARRAY_SIZE(x);
> + status = spi_sync(spi, &message);
> +
> + /* return negative errno or unsigned value */
> + return (status < 0) ? status : result;
> +}
> +EXPORT_SYMBOL(spi_w8r8);
> +
> +/**
> + * spi_w8r16 - SPI synchronous 8 bit write followed
> by 16 bit read
> + * @spi: device with which data will be exchanged
> + * @cmd: command to be written before data is read
> back
> + *
> + * This returns the (unsigned) sixteen bit number
> returned by the
> + * device, or else a negative error code.
> + */
> +int spi_w8r16(struct spi_device *spi, u8 cmd)
> +{
> + int status;
> + struct spi_message message;
> + struct spi_transfer x[2];
> + u16 result;
> +
> + x[0].tx_buf = &cmd;
> + x[0].rx_buf = NULL;
> + x[0].len = 1;
> +
> + x[1].tx_buf = NULL;
> + x[1].rx_buf = &result;
> + x[1].len = 2;
> +
> + /* do the i/o */
> + message.transfers = &x[0];
> + message.n_transfer = ARRAY_SIZE(x);
> + status = spi_sync(spi, &message);
> +
> + /* return negative errno or unsigned value */
> + return (status < 0) ? status : result;
> +}
> +EXPORT_SYMBOL(spi_w8r16);
> +

+/*-------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
> +
> +static int __init spi_init(void)
> +{
> + bus_register(&spi_bus_type);
> + class_register(&spi_master_class);
> + return 0;
> +}
> +postcore_initcall(spi_init);
> +
> --- /dev/null 1970-01-01 00:00:00.000000000 +0000
> +++ osk/drivers/spi/Kconfig 2005-09-15
> 18:08:50.311703596 -0700
> @@ -0,0 +1,319 @@
> +#
> +# This is what Linux SPI might look support after
> adding drivers for
> +# some embedded SPI-capable hardware that's used
> with Linux.
> +#
> +# NOTE: over half of the SPI protocol masters
> mentioned actually exist,
> +# and sometimes even on 2.6. Few of the SPI master
> controller drivers
> +# exist. None of those drivers use the 2.6 driver
> model, and they all
> +# have different I/O models too.
> +#
> +
> +#
> +# SPI device configuration
> +#
> +menu "SPI support"
> +
> +config SPI
> + bool "SPI support"
> + depends on SPI_ARCH_HAS_MASTER ||
> SPI_ARCH_HAS_SLAVE
> + help
> + The "Serial Peripheral Interface" is a low level
> synchronous
> + protocol used to talk with sensors, eeprom and
> flash memory,
> + codecs and various other controller chips,
> analog to digital
> + (and d-to-a) converters, and more. MMC and SD
> cards can be
> + accessed using SPI protocol; and for DataFlash
> cards used in
> + MMC sockets, SPI must be used.
> +
> + Chips that support SPI can have data transfer
> rates up to several
> + tens of Mbit/sec, and the controllers often
> support DMA. Chips
> + are addressed with a controller and a
> chipselect. Most SPI
> + devices don't support dynamic device discovery;
> some are even
> + write-only or read-only.
> +
> + SPI is one of a family of similar protocols
> using a four wire
> + interface (select, clock, data in, data out)
> including Microwire
> + (half duplex), SSP, SSI, and PSP. This driver
> framework should
> + work with most such devices and controllers.
> +
> +config SPI_DEBUG
> + boolean "Debug support for SPI drivers"
> + depends on SPI && DEBUG_KERNEL
> + help
> + Say "yes" to enable debug messaging (like
> dev_dbg and pr_debug),
> + sysfs, and debugfs support in SPI controller and
> protocol drivers.
> +
> +# someday this stuff should be set using
> arch/CPU/PLATFORM/Kconfig
> +config SPI_ARCH_HAS_MASTER
> + boolean
> + default y if ARCH_OMAP
> + default y if ARCH_PXA
> + default y if ARCH_AT91
> + default y if X86 # DEVEL HACK
> +
> +config SPI_ARCH_HAS_SLAVE
> + boolean
> + default y if ARCH_OMAP
> + default y if ARCH_PXA
> + default y if ARCH_AT91
> + default y if X86 # DEVEL HACK
> +
> +#
> +# MASTER side ... talking to discrete SPI slave
> chips including microcontrollers
> +#
> +comment "No SPI master hardware is available."
> + depends on SPI && !SPI_ARCH_HAS_MASTER
> +
> +menuconfig SPI_MASTER
> + boolean "SPI Master support"
> + depends on SPI && SPI_ARCH_HAS_MASTER
> + help
> + If your system has an master-capable SPI
> controller (which
> + provides the clock and chipselect), you can
> enable that
> + controller and the protocol drivers for the SPI
> slave chips
> + that are connected.
> +
> +if SPI_MASTER
> +
> +comment "SPI Master Controller Drivers"
> +
> +config SPI_EXAMPLE
> + tristate "SPI Platform Example"
> + help
> + This just builds some sample code uses the core
> APIs to build
> + some SPI devices and plug in dummy controller
> drivers.
> +
> +# Atmel AT91rm9200 (and some other AT91 family
> chips)
> +config SPI_AT91
> + tristate "AT91 as SPI master"
> + depends on ARCH_AT91
> + help
> + This implements SPI master mode using an SPI
> controller.
> +
> +# FIXME bitbangers need arch-specific ways to
> access the
> +# right GPIO pins, probably using platform data and
> maybe
> +# using platform-specific minidrivers.
> +config SPI_BITBANG
> + tristate "Bitbanging SPI master"
> + help
> + You can implement SPI using GPIO pins, as this
> driver
> + eventually should do.
> +
> +# Motorola Coldfire (m68k)
> +config SPI_COLDFIRE
> + tristate "Coldfire QSPI as SPI master"
> + depends on COLDFIRE
> + help
> + This implements SPI master mode using the QSPI
> controller.
> +
> +# Motorola MPC (PPC)
> +config SPI_MPC
> + tristate "MPC SPI master"
> + depends on PPC && MPC
> + help
> + This implements SPI master mode using the MPC
> SPI controller.
> +
> +# TI OMAP (ARM)
> +config SPI_OMAP
> + tristate "OMAP SPI controller as master"
> + depends on ARCH_OMAP
> + help
> + This implements SPI master mode using the
> dedicated SPI
> + controller.
> +
> +config SPI_OMAP_MCBSP
> + tristate "OMAP MCBSP as SPI master"
> + depends on ARCH_OMAP
> + help
> + This implements master mode SPI using a McBSP
> controller.
> +
> +config SPI_OMAP_UWIRE
> + tristate "OMAP MicroWire as SPI master"
> + depends on ARCH_OMAP
> + select OMAP_UWIRE
> + help
> + This implements master mode SPI using the
> MicroWire controller.
> +
> +config SPI_OMAP_MMC
> + tristate "OMAP MMC as SPI master"
> + depends on ARCH_OMAP
> + help
> + This implements master mode SPI using an MMC
> controller.
> +
> +
> +# Intel PXA (ARM)
> +config SPI_PXA_SSP
> + tristate "PXA SSP controller as SPI master"
> + depends on ARCH_PXA
> + help
> + This implements SPI master mode using an SSP
> controller.
> +
> +config SPI_PXA_NSSP
> + tristate "PXA NSSP (or ASSP) controller as SPI
> master"
> + depends on ARCH_PXA
> + help
> + This implements SPI master mode using the NSSP
> controller, which
> + is available with PXA 255 and PXA 26x
> processors.
> +
> +config SPI_PXA_MMC
> + tristate "PXA MMC as SPI master"
> + depends on ARCH_PXA
> + help
> + This implements master mode SPI using an MMC
> controller.
> +
> +
> +#
> +# Add new SPI master controllers in alphabetical
> order above this line
> +#
> +
> +
> +#
> +# There are lots of SPI device types, with sensors
> and memory
> +# being probably the most widely used ones.
> +#
> +comment "SPI Protocol Masters"
> +
> +config SPI_ADS7846
> + tristate "ADS 7846 touchscreen and sensors"
> + help
> + This chip has touchscreen, voltage, and
> temperature sensors.
> + The driver packages the touchscreen as an input
> device,
> + and publishes the sensor values in sysfs.
> +
> +config SPI_DATAFLASH
> + tristate "DataFlash -- MTD support"
> + depends on MTD
> + help
> + This driver provides an MTD interface to Atmel's
> DataFlash.
> + It probes the device to see what size chip is
> present.
> + Some MCUs can boot directly from DataFlash.
> +
> +config SPI_EEPROM
> + tristate "EEPROM -- sysfs support"
> + depends on SYSFS
> + help
> + This provides a read/write "eeprom" file in
> sysfs for the
> + specified device. Platform data identifies the
> EEPROM type.
> +
> +config SPI_ETHERNET
> + tristate "Ethernet Master"
> + depends on NET
> + help
> + Uses SPI to exchange Ethernet packets with some
> SPI
> + protocol slave. No Ethernet adapter hardware is
> used.
> +
> +config SPI_FLASH
> + tristate "FLASH -- MTD support"
> + depends on MTD
> + help
> + This provides an MTD interface to SPI flash
> chips like the
> + AT25 or M25 series. Platform data identifies
> the FLASH type.
> +
> +config SPI_M41T94
> + tristate "M41T94 RTC/WDT support"
> + help
> + This supports the ST M41T94 chips, providing the
> conventional
> + miscdev files for the real-time clock and
> watchdog timer.
> +
> +config SPI_MCP320x
> + tristate "MPC 320x ADC support"
> + help
> + These are multi-channel 12-bit A/D converters
> with sample-and-hold.
> +
> +config SPI_TC77
> + tristate "TC77 temperature sensor"
> + depends on SENSORS
> + help
> + This is a 12-bit (plus sign) temperature sensor.
> +
> +config SPI_TSC2101
> + tristate "TSC 2101 touchscreen, sensors, and
> audio"
> + help
> + This chip has touchscreen, voltage, and
> temperature sensors
> + along with audio i/O for microphone, headphone,
> and speaker.
> + The driver packages the touchscreen as an input
> device,
> + publishes the sensor values in sysfs, and
> packages the audio
> + through the ALSA driver stack.
> +
> +# USB: n9604_udc, cy7c67200_hcd, ...
> +
> +#
> +# Add new SPI protocol masters in alphabetical
> order above this line
> +#
> +
> +endif # "SPI Master Implementations"
> +
> +
> +#
> +# SLAVE side ... widely implemented on
> microcontrollers,
> +# but Linux-capable hardware often supports this
> too
> +#
> +comment "No SPI slave hardware is available."
> + depends on SPI && !SPI_ARCH_HAS_SLAVE
> +
> +menuconfig SPI_SLAVE
> + boolean "SPI Slave support"
> + depends on SPI && SPI_ARCH_HAS_SLAVE
> + help
> + If your system has a slave-capable SPI
> controller (driven
> + by a master when it provides chipselect and
> clock), you can
> + enable drivers for that controller and for the
> SPI protocol
> + slave functions you're implementing.
> +
> +if SPI_SLAVE
> +
> +comment "SPI Slave Controller Drivers"
> +
> +config SPI_AT91_SLAVE
> + tristate "AT91 as SPI slave"
> + depends on ARCH_AT91
> + help
> + This implements SPI slave mode using an SPI
> controller.
> +
> +config SPI_OMAP_SLAVE
> + tristate "OMAP SPI controller as slave"
> + depends on ARCH_OMAP
> + help
> + This implements SPI slave mode using the
> dedicated SPI
> + controller.
> +
> +config SPI_OMAP_MCBSP_SLAVE
> + tristate "OMAP MCBSP as SPI slave"
> + depends on ARCH_OMAP
> + help
> + This implements slave mode SPI using a McBSP
> controller.
> +
> +config SPI_PXA_SSP_SLAVE
> + tristate "PXA SSP controller as SPI slave"
> + depends on ARCH_PXA
> + help
> + This implements SPI slave mode using an SSP
> controller.
> +
> +config SPI_PXA_NSSP_SLAVE
> + tristate "PXA NSSP (or ASSP) controller as SPI
> slave"
> + depends on ARCH_PXA
> + help
> + This implements SPI slave mode using the NSSP
> controller, which
> + is available with PXA 255 and PXA 26x
> processors.
> +
> +#
> +# Add new SPI slave controllers in alphabetical
> order above this line
> +#
> +
> +
> +comment "SPI Protocol Slaves"
> +
> +config SPI_ETHERNET_SLAVE
> + tristate "Ethernet Slave"
> + depends on NET
> + help
> + Uses SPI to exchange Ethernet packets with some
> SPI
> + protocol master.
> +
> +#
> +# Add new SPI protocol slaves in alphabetical order
> above this line
> +#
> +
> +endif # "SPI Slave Implementations"
> +
> +endmenu # "SPI support"
> +
> --- osk.orig/arch/arm/Kconfig 2005-09-09
> 16:53:17.000000000 -0700
> +++ osk/arch/arm/Kconfig 2005-09-09
> 16:53:47.000000000 -0700
> @@ -746,6 +746,8 @@ source "drivers/char/Kconfig"
>
> source "drivers/i2c/Kconfig"
>
> +source "drivers/spi/Kconfig"
> +
> source "drivers/hwmon/Kconfig"
>
> #source "drivers/l3/Kconfig"
> --- osk.orig/drivers/Kconfig 2005-09-09
> 16:53:17.000000000 -0700
> +++ osk/drivers/Kconfig 2005-09-09
> 16:53:47.000000000 -0700
> @@ -42,6 +42,8 @@ source "drivers/char/Kconfig"
>
> source "drivers/i2c/Kconfig"
>
> +source "drivers/spi/Kconfig"
> +
> source "drivers/w1/Kconfig"
>
> source "drivers/hwmon/Kconfig"
> --- osk.orig/drivers/Makefile 2005-09-09
> 16:53:17.000000000 -0700
> +++ osk/drivers/Makefile 2005-09-09
> 16:53:47.000000000 -0700
> @@ -29,6 +29,7 @@ obj-$(CONFIG_PARPORT) += parport/
> obj-y += base/ block/ misc/ net/
> obj-$(CONFIG_I2C) += i2c/
> obj-y += media/ ssi/
> +obj-$(CONFIG_SPI) += spi/
> obj-$(CONFIG_NUBUS) += nubus/
> obj-$(CONFIG_ATM) += atm/
> obj-$(CONFIG_PPC_PMAC) += macintosh/
> --- /dev/null 1970-01-01 00:00:00.000000000 +0000
> +++ osk/drivers/spi/Makefile 2005-09-09
> 16:53:47.000000000 -0700
> @@ -0,0 +1,34 @@
> +#
> +# Makefile for kernel SPI drivers.
> +#
> +
> +ifeq ($(CONFIG_SPI_DEBUG),y)
> +EXTRA_CFLAGS += -DDEBUG
> +endif
> +
> +# small core, mostly translating board-specific
> +# config declarations into driver model code
> +obj-$(CONFIG_SPI_MASTER) += spi.o
> +
> +# STUBBED IMPLEMENTATION
> +obj-$(CONFIG_SPI_EXAMPLE) += spi_plat_example.o
> +
> +# SPI master controller drivers (bus)
> +#obj-$(CONFIG_SPI_BITBANG) += spi_bitbang.o
> +#obj-$(CONFIG_SPI_OMAP) += omap_spi.o
> +#obj-$(CONFIG_SPI_OMAP_MMC) += omap_spi_mmc.o
> +#obj-$(CONFIG_SPI_PXA_SSP) += pxa_ssp.o
> +#obj-$(CONFIG_SPI_PXA_MMC) += pxa_spi_mmc.o
> +
> +# SPI protocol drivers (device/link on bus)
> +# obj-$(CONFIG_SPI_DATAFLASH) += dataflash.o
> +# obj-$(CONFIG_SPI_EEPROM) += at25c.o
> +# obj-$(CONFIG_SPI_ETHERNET) += spi_ether.o
> +obj-$(CONFIG_SPI_ADS7846) += ads7846.o
> +
> +# SPI slave controller drivers (upstream link)
> +#obj-$(CONFIG_SPI_OMAP_SLAVE) += omap_spi_slave.o
> +#obj-$(CONFIG_SPI_PXA_SSP_SLAVE) +=
> pxa_ssp_slave.o
> +
> +# SPI slave drivers (protocol for that link)
> +# obj-$(CONFIG_SPI_ETHERNET_SLAVE) +=
> spi_ether_slave.o
> -
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