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Subject[PATCH] [20/48] Suspend2 for 2.6.12: 520-version-specific-x86_64.patch
diff -ruNp 550-documentation.patch-old/Documentation/kernel-parameters.txt 550-documentation.patch-new/Documentation/kernel-parameters.txt
--- 550-documentation.patch-old/Documentation/kernel-parameters.txt 2005-06-20 11:46:40.000000000 +1000
+++ 550-documentation.patch-new/Documentation/kernel-parameters.txt 2005-07-04 23:14:19.000000000 +1000
@@ -910,6 +910,8 @@ running once the system is up.

noresume [SWSUSP] Disables resume and restore original swap space.

+ noresume2 [SWSUSP2] Disables resuming and restores original swap signature.
no-scroll [VGA] Disables scrollback.
This is required for the Braillex ib80-piezo Braille
reader made by F.H. Papenmeier (Germany).
@@ -1146,7 +1148,12 @@ running once the system is up.

reserve= [KNL,BUGS] Force the kernel to ignore some iomem area

- resume= [SWSUSP] Specify the partition device for software suspension
+ resume= [SWSUSP] Specify the partition device for software suspension.
+ resume2= [SWSUSP2] Specify the storage device for software suspend.
+ Format: <writer>:<writer-parameters>.
+ See Documentation/power/swsusp2.txt for details of the formats
+ for available image writers.

rhash_entries= [KNL,NET]
Set number of hash buckets for route cache
diff -ruNp 550-documentation.patch-old/Documentation/power/internals.txt 550-documentation.patch-new/Documentation/power/internals.txt
--- 550-documentation.patch-old/Documentation/power/internals.txt 1970-01-01 10:00:00.000000000 +1000
+++ 550-documentation.patch-new/Documentation/power/internals.txt 2005-07-04 23:14:19.000000000 +1000
@@ -0,0 +1,364 @@
+ Software Suspend 2.0 Internal Documentation.
+ Version 1
+1. Introduction.
+ Software Suspend 2.0 is an addition to the Linux Kernel, designed to
+ allow the user to quickly shutdown and quickly boot a computer, without
+ needing to close documents or programs. It is equivalent to the
+ hibernate facility in some laptops. This implementation, however,
+ requires no special BIOS or hardware support.
+ The code in these files is based upon the original implementation
+ prepared by Gabor Kuti and additional work by Pavel Machek and a
+ host of others. This code has been substantially reworked by Nigel
+ Cunningham, again with the help and testing of many others, not the
+ least of whom is Michael Frank, At its heart, however, the operation is
+ essentially the same as Gabor's version.
+2. Overview of operation.
+ The basic sequence of operations is as follows:
+ a. Quiesce all other activity.
+ b. Ensure enough memory and storage space are available, and attempt
+ to free memory/storage if necessary.
+ c. Allocate the required memory and storage space.
+ d. Write the image.
+ e. Power down.
+ There are a number of complicating factors which mean that things are
+ not as simple as the above would imply, however...
+ o The activity of each process must be stopped at a point where it will
+ not be holding locks necessary for saving the image, or unexpectedly
+ restart operations due to something like a timeout and thereby make
+ our image inconsistent.
+ o It is desirous that we sync outstanding I/O to disk before calculating
+ image statistics. This reduces corruption if one should suspend but
+ then not resume, and also makes later parts of the operation safer (see
+ below).
+ o We need to get as close as we can to an atomic copy of the data.
+ Inconsistencies in the image will result inconsistent memory contents at
+ resume time, and thus in instability of the system and/or file system
+ corruption. This would appear to imply a maximum image size of one half of
+ the amount of RAM, but we have a solution... (again, below).
+ o In 2.6, we must play nicely with the other suspend-to-disk
+ implementations.
+3. Detailed description of internals.
+ a. Quiescing activity.
+ Safely quiescing the system is achieved in a number of steps. First, we
+ wait for existing activity to complete, while holding new activity until
+ post-resume. Second, we sync unwritten buffers. Third, we send a
+ 'pseudo-signal' to all processes that have not yet entered the
+ 'refrigerator' but should be frozen, causing them to be refrigerated.
+ Waiting for existing activity to complete is achieved by using hooks at
+ the beginning and end of critical paths in the kernel code. When a process
+ enters a section where it cannot be safely refrigerated, the process flag
+ PF_FRIDGE_WAIT is set from the SWSUSP_ACTIVITY_STARTING macro. In the same
+ routine, at completion of the critical region, a SWSUSP_ACTIVITY_END macro
+ resets the flag. The _STARTING and _ENDING macros also atomically adjust
+ the global counter swsusp_num_active. While the counter is non-zero,
+ Software Suspend's freezer will wait.
+ These macros serve two other additional purposes. Local variables are used
+ to ensure that processes can safely pass through multiple _STARTING and
+ _ENDING macros, and checks are made to ensure that the freezer is not
+ waiting for activity to finish. If a process wants to start on a critical
+ path when Suspend is waiting for activity to finish, it will be held at the
+ start of the critical path and refrigerated earlier than would normally be
+ the case. It will be allowed to continue operation after the Suspend cycle
+ is finished or aborted.
+ A process in a critical path may also have a section where it releases
+ locks and can be safely stopped until post-resume. For these cases, the
+ SWSUSP_ACTIVITY_PAUSING and _RESTARTING macros may be used. They function
+ in a similar manner to the _STARTING and _ENDING macros.
+ Finally, we remember that some threads may be necessary for syncing data to
+ storage. These threads have PF_SYNCTHREAD set, and may use the special macro
+ SWSUSP_ACTIVITY_SYNCTHREAD_PAUSING to indicate that Suspend can safely
+ continue, while not themselves entering the refrigerator.
+ Once activity is stopped, Suspend will initiate a fsync of all devices.
+ This aims to increase the integrity of the disk state, just in case
+ something should go wrong.
+ During the initial stage, Suspend indicates its desire that processes be
+ stopped by setting the FREEZE_NEW_ACTIVITY bit of swsusp_state. Once the
+ sync is complete, SYNCTHREAD processes no longer need to run. The
+ FREEZE_UNREFRIGERATED bit is now set, causing them to be refrigerated as
+ well, should they attempt to start new activity. (There should be nothing
+ for them to do, but just-in-case).
+ Suspend can now put remaining processes in the refrigerator without fear
+ of deadlocking or leaving dirty data unsynced. The refrigerator is a
+ procedure where processes wait until the cycle is complete. While in there,
+ we can be sure that they will not perform activity that will make our
+ image inconsistent. Processes enter the refrigerator either by being
+ caught at one of the previously mentioned hooks, or by receiving a 'pseudo-
+ signal' from Suspend at this stage. I call it a pseudo signal because
+ signal_wake_up is called for the process when it actually hasn't been
+ signalled. A special hook in the signal handler then calls the refrigerator.
+ The refrigerator, in turn, recalculates the signal pending status to
+ ensure no ill effects result.
+ Not all processes are refrigerated. The Suspend thread itself, of course,
+ is one such thread. Others are flagged by setting PF_NOFREEZE, usually
+ because they are needed during suspend.
+ In 2.4, the dosexec thread (Win4Lin) is treated specially. It does not
+ handle us even pretending to send it a signal. This is worked-around by
+ us adjusting the can_schedule() macro in schedule.c to stop the task from
+ being scheduled during suspend. Ugly, but it works. The 2.6 version of
+ Win4Lin has been made compatible.
+ b. Ensure enough memory & storage are available.
+ c. Allocate the required memory and storage space.
+ These steps are merged together in the prepare_image function, found in
+ prepare_image.c. The functions are merged because of the cyclical nature
+ of the problem of calculating how much memory and storage is needed. Since
+ the data structures containing the information about the image must
+ themselves take memory and use storage, the amount of memory and storage
+ required changes as we prepare the image. Since the changes are not large,
+ only one or two iterations will be required to achieve a solution.
+ d. Write the image.
+ We previously mentioned the need to create an atomic copy of the data, and
+ the half-of-memory limitation that is implied in this. This limitation is
+ circumvented by dividing the memory to be saved into two parts, called
+ pagesets.
+ Pageset2 contains the page cache - the pages on the active and inactive
+ lists. These pages are saved first and reloaded last. While saving these
+ pages, the swapwriter plugin carefully ensures that the work of writing
+ the pages doesn't make the image inconsistent. Pages added to the LRU
+ lists are immediately shot down, and careful accounting for available
+ memory aids debugging. No atomic copy of these pages needs to be made.
+ Writing the image requires memory, of course, and at this point we have
+ also not yet suspended the drivers. To avoid the possibility of remaining
+ activity corrupting the image, we allocate a special memory pool. Calls
+ to __alloc_pages and __free_pages_ok are then diverted to use our memory
+ pool. Pages in the memory pool are saved as part of pageset1 regardless of
+ whether or not they are used.
+ Once pageset2 has been saved, we suspend the drivers and save the CPU
+ context before making an atomic copy of pageset1, resuming the drivers
+ and saving the atomic copy. After saving the two pagesets, we just need to
+ save our metadata before powering down.
+ Having saved pageset2 pages, we can safely overwrite their contents with
+ the atomic copy of pageset1. This is how we manage to overcome the half of
+ memory limitation. Pageset2 is normally far larger than pageset1, and
+ pageset1 is normally much smaller than half of the memory, with the result
+ that pageset2 pages can be safely overwritten with the atomic copy of
+ pageset1. This is where we need to be careful about syncing, however.
+ Pageset2 will probably contain filesystem meta data. If this is overwritten
+ with pageset1 and then a sync occurs, the filesystem will be corrupted -
+ at least until resume time and another sync of the restored data. Since
+ there is a possibility that the user might not resume or (may it never be!)
+ that suspend might oops, we do our utmost to avoid syncing filesystems after
+ copying pageset1.
+ e. Power down.
+ Powering down uses standard kernel routines. Prior to this, however, we
+ suspend drivers again, ensuring that write caches are flushed.
+4. The method of writing the image.
+ Software Suspend 2.0rc3 and later contain an internal API which is
+ designed to simplify the implementation of new methods of transforming
+ the image to be written and writing the image itself. Prior to rc3,
+ compression support was inlined in the image writing code, and the data
+ structures and code for managing swap were intertwined with the rest of
+ the code. A number of people had expressed interest in implementing
+ image encryption, and alternative methods of storing the image. This
+ internal API makes that possible by implementing 'plugins'.
+ A plugin is a single file which encapsulates the functionality needed
+ to transform a pageset of data (encryption or compression, for example),
+ or to write the pageset to a device. The former type of plugin is called
+ a 'page-transformer', the later a 'writer'.
+ Plugins are linked together in pipeline fashion. There may be zero or more
+ page transformers in a pipeline, and there is always exactly one writer.
+ The pipeline follows this pattern:
+ ---------------------------------
+ | Software Suspend Core |
+ ---------------------------------
+ |
+ |
+ ---------------------------------
+ | Page transformer 1 |
+ ---------------------------------
+ |
+ |
+ ---------------------------------
+ | Page transformer 2 |
+ ---------------------------------
+ |
+ |
+ ---------------------------------
+ | Writer |
+ ---------------------------------
+ During the writing of an image, the core code feeds pages one at a time
+ to the first plugin. This plugin performs whatever transformations it
+ implements on the incoming data, completely consuming the incoming data and
+ feeding output in a similar manner to the next plugin. A plugin may buffer
+ its output.
+ During reading, the pipeline works in the reverse direction. The core code
+ calls the first plugin with the address of a buffer which should be filled.
+ (Note that the buffer size is always PAGE_SIZE at this time). This plugin
+ will in turn request data from the next plugin and so on down until the
+ writer is made to read from the stored image.
+ Part of definition of the structure of a plugin thus looks like this:
+ /* Writing the image proper */
+ int (*write_init) (int stream_number);
+ int (*write_chunk) (char * buffer_start);
+ int (*write_cleanup) (void);
+ /* Reading the image proper */
+ int (*read_init) (int stream_number);
+ int (*read_chunk) (char * buffer_start, int sync);
+ int (*read_cleanup) (void);
+ It should be noted that the _cleanup routines may be called before the
+ full stream of data has been read or written. While writing the image,
+ the user may (depending upon settings) choose to abort suspending, and
+ if we are in the midst of writing the last portion of the image, a portion
+ of the second pageset may be reread.
+ In addition to the above routines for writing the data, all plugins have a
+ number of other routines:
+ TYPE indicates whether the plugin is a page transformer or a writer.
+ #define WRITER_PLUGIN 2
+ NAME is the name of the plugin, used in generic messages.
+ PLUGIN_LIST is used to link the plugin into the list of all plugins.
+ MEMORY_NEEDED returns the number of pages of memory required by the plugin
+ to do its work.
+ STORAGE_NEEDED returns the number of pages in the suspend header required
+ to store the plugin's configuration data.
+ PRINT_DEBUG_INFO fills a buffer with information to be displayed about the
+ operation or settings of the plugin.
+ SAVE_CONFIG_INFO returns a buffer of PAGE_SIZE or smaller (the size is the
+ return code), containing the plugin's configuration info. This information
+ will be written in the image header and restored at resume time. Since this
+ buffer is allocated after the atomic copy of the kernel is made, you don't
+ need to worry about the buffer being freed.
+ LOAD_CONFIG_INFO gives the plugin a pointer to the the configuration info
+ which was saved during suspending. Once again, the plugin doesn't need to
+ worry about freeing the buffer. The kernel will be overwritten with the
+ original kernel, so no memory leak will occur.
+ OPS contains the operations specific to transformers and writers. These are
+ described below.
+ The complete definition of struct swsusp_plugin_ops is:
+ struct swsusp_plugin_ops {
+ /* Functions common to transformers and writers */
+ int type;
+ char * name;
+ struct list_head plugin_list;
+ unsigned long (*memory_needed) (void);
+ unsigned long (*storage_needed) (void);
+ int (*print_debug_info) (char * buffer, int size);
+ int (*save_config_info) (char * buffer);
+ void (*load_config_info) (char * buffer, int len);
+ /* Writing the image proper */
+ int (*write_init) (int stream_number);
+ int (*write_chunk) (char * buffer_start);
+ int (*write_cleanup) (void);
+ /* Reading the image proper */
+ int (*read_init) (int stream_number);
+ int (*read_chunk) (char * buffer_start, int sync);
+ int (*read_cleanup) (void);
+ union {
+ struct swsusp_transformer_ops transformer;
+ struct swsusp_writer_ops writer;
+ } ops;
+ };
+ The operations specific to transformers are few in number:
+ struct swsusp_transformer_ops {
+ int (*expected_compression) (void);
+ struct list_head transformer_list;
+ };
+ Expected compression returns the expected ratio between the amount of
+ data sent to this plugin and the amount of data it passes to the next
+ plugin. The value is used by the core code to calculate the amount of
+ space required to write the image. If the ratio is not achieved, the
+ writer will complain when it runs out of space with data still to
+ write, and the core code will abort the suspend.
+ transformer_list links together page transformers, in the order in
+ which they register, which is in turn determined by order in the
+ Makefile.
+ There are many more operations specific to a writer:
+ struct swsusp_writer_ops {
+ long (*storage_available) (void);
+ unsigned long (*storage_allocated) (void);
+ int (*release_storage) (void);
+ long (*allocate_header_space) (unsigned long space_requested);
+ int (*allocate_storage) (unsigned long space_requested);
+ int (*write_header_init) (void);
+ int (*write_header_chunk) (char * buffer_start, int buffer_size);
+ int (*write_header_cleanup) (void);
+ int (*read_header_init) (void);
+ int (*read_header_chunk) (char * buffer_start, int buffer_size);
+ int (*read_header_cleanup) (void);
+ int (*prepare_save) (void);
+ int (*post_load) (void);
+ int (*parse_image_location) (char * buffer);
+ int (*image_exists) (void);
+ int (*invalidate_image) (void);
+ int (*wait_on_io) (int flush_all);
+ struct list_head writer_list;
+ };
diff -ruNp 550-documentation.patch-old/Documentation/power/suspend2.txt 550-documentation.patch-new/Documentation/power/suspend2.txt
--- 550-documentation.patch-old/Documentation/power/suspend2.txt 1970-01-01 10:00:00.000000000 +1000
+++ 550-documentation.patch-new/Documentation/power/suspend2.txt 2005-07-04 23:14:19.000000000 +1000
@@ -0,0 +1,631 @@
+ --- Suspend2, version 2.1.9 ---
+1. What is it?
+2. Why would you want it?
+3. What do you need to use it?
+4. How do you use it?
+5. What do all those entries in /proc/software_suspend do?
+6. How do you get support?
+7. I think I've found a bug. What should I do?
+8. When will XXX be supported?
+9. How does it work?
+10. Who wrote Suspend2?
+1. What is it?
+ Imagine you're sitting at your computer, working away. For some reason, you
+ need to turn off your computer for a while - perhaps it's time to go home
+ for the day. When you come back to your computer next, you're going to want
+ to carry on where you left off. Now imagine that you could push a button and
+ have your computer store the contents of its memory to disk and power down.
+ Then, when you next start up your computer, it loads that image back into
+ memory and you can carry on from where you were, just as if you'd never
+ turned the computer off. Far less time to start up, no reopening
+ applications and finding what directory you put that file in yesterday.
+ That's what Suspend2 does.
+2. Why would you want it?
+ Why wouldn't you want it?
+ Being able to save the state of your system and quickly restore it improves
+ your productivity - you get a useful system in far less time than through
+ the normal boot process.
+3. What do you need to use it?
+ a. Kernel Support.
+ i) The Suspend2 patch.
+ Suspend2 is part of the Linux Kernel. This version is not part of Linus's
+ 2.6 tree at the moment, so you will need to download the kernel source and
+ apply the latest patch. Having done that, enable the appropriate options in
+ make [menu|x]config (under General Setup), compile and install your kernel.
+ Suspend2 works with SMP, Highmem, preemption, x86-32, PPC and mac.
+ x86-64 support is coming.
+ Suspend2 patches are available from
+ ii) Compression and encryption support.
+ As of, compression and encryption support are implemented via the
+ cryptoapi. You will therefore want to select any Cryptoapi transforms that
+ you want to use on your image from the Cryptoapi menu while configuring
+ your kernel.
+ You can also tell Suspend to write it's image to an encrypted and/or
+ compressed filesystem/swap partition. In that case, you don't need to do
+ anything special for Suspend2 when it comes to kernel configuration.
+ iii) Configuring other options.
+ While you're configuring your kernel, try to configure as much as possible
+ to build as modules. We recommend this because there are a number of drivers
+ that are still in the process of implementing proper power management
+ support. In those cases, the best way to work around their current lack is
+ to build them as modules and remove the modules while suspending. You might
+ also bug the driver authors to get their support up to speed, or even help!
+ b. Storage.
+ i) Swap.
+ Suspend2 can store the suspend image in your swap partition, a swap file or
+ a combination thereof. Whichever combination you choose, you will probably
+ want to create enough swap space to store the largest image you could have,
+ plus the space you'd normally use for swap. A good rule of thumb would be
+ to calculate the amount of swap you'd want without using Suspend2, and then
+ add the amount of memory you have. This swapspace can be arranged in any way
+ you'd like. It can be in one partition or file, or spread over a number. The
+ only requirement is that they be active when you start a suspend cycle.
+ There is one exception to this requirement. Suspend2 has the ability to turn
+ on one swap file or partition at the start of suspending and turn it back off
+ at the end. If you want to ensure you have enough memory to store a image
+ when your memory is fully used, you might want to make one swap partition or
+ file for 'normal' use, and another for Suspend2 to activate & deactivate
+ automatically. (Further details below).
+ ii) Normal files.
+ As of, Suspend2 includes a 'filewriter'. The filewriter can store
+ your image in a simple file. Since Linux has the idea of everything being
+ a file, this is more powerful than it initially sounds. If, for example,
+ you were to set up a network block device file, you could suspend to a
+ network server. This has been tested and works to a point, but nbd itself
+ isn't stateless enough for our purposes.
+ Take extra care when setting up the filewriter. If you just type commands
+ without thinking and then try to suspend, you could cause irreversible
+ corruption on your filesystems! Make sure you have backups. Also, because
+ the filewriter is comparatively new, it's not as well tested as the
+ swapwriter. Be aware that there may be bugs that could cause damage to your
+ data even if you are careful! You have been warned!
+ Most people will only want to suspend to a local file. To achieve that, do
+ something along the lines of:
+ echo Suspend2 > /suspend-file
+ dd if=/dev/zero bs=1M count=512 >> suspend-file
+ This will create a 512MB file called /suspend-file. To get Suspend2 to use
+ it:
+ echo /suspend-file > /proc/software_suspend/filewriter_target
+ Then
+ cat /proc/software_suspend/resume2
+ Put the results of this into your bootloader's configuration (see also step
+ C, below:
+ # cat /proc/software_suspend/resume2
+ file:/dev/hda2:0x1e001
+ In this example, we would edit the append= line of our lilo.conf|menu.lst
+ so that it included:
+ resume2=file:/dev/hda2:0x1e001
+ For those who are thinking 'Could I make the file sparse?', the answer is
+ 'No!'. At the moment, there is no way for Suspend2 to fill in the holes in
+ a sparse file while suspending. In the longer term (post merge!), I'd like
+ to change things so that the file could be dynamically resized as needed.
+ Right now, however, that's not possible.
+ c. Bootloader configuration.
+ Using Suspend2 also requires that you add an extra parameter to
+ your lilo.conf or equivalent. Here's an example for a swap partition:
+ append="resume2=swap:/dev/hda1"
+ This would tell Suspend2 that /dev/hda1 is a swap partition you
+ have. Suspend2 will use the swap signature of this partition as a
+ pointer to your data when you suspend. This means that (in this example)
+ /dev/hda1 doesn't need to be _the_ swap partition where all of your data
+ is actually stored. It just needs to be a swap partition that has a
+ valid signature.
+ You don't need to have a swap partition for this purpose. Suspend2
+ can also use a swap file, but usage is a little more complex. Having made
+ your swap file, turn it on and do
+ cat /proc/software_suspend/header_locations
+ (this assumes you've already compiled your kernel with Suspend2
+ support and booted it). The results of the cat command will tell you
+ what you need to put in lilo.conf:
+ For swap partitions like /dev/hda1, simply use resume2=/dev/hda1.
+ For swapfile `swapfile`, use resume2=swap:/dev/hda2:0x242d@4096.
+ If the swapfile changes for any reason (it is moved to a different
+ location, it is deleted and recreated, or the filesystem is
+ defragmented) then you will have to check
+ /proc/software_suspend/header_locations for a new resume_block value.
+ Once you've compiled and installed the kernel, adjusted your lilo.conf
+ and rerun lilo, you should only need to reboot for the most basic part
+ of Suspend2 to be ready.
+ If you only compile in the swapwriter, or only compile in the filewriter,
+ you don't need to add the "swap:" part of the resume2= parameters above.
+ resume2=/dev/hda2:0x242d@4096 will work just as well.
+ d. The hibernate script.
+ Since the driver model in 2.6 kernels is still being developed, you may need
+ to do more, however. Users of Suspend2 usually start the process via a script
+ which prepares for the suspend, tells the kernel to do its stuff and then
+ restore things afterwards. This script might involve:
+ - Switching to a text console and back if X doesn't like the video card
+ status on resume.
+ - Un/reloading PCMCIA support since it doesn't play well with suspend.
+ Note that you might not be able to unload some drivers if there are
+ processes using them. You might have to kill off processes that hold
+ devices open. Hint: if your X server accesses an USB mouse, doing a
+ 'chvt' to a text console releases the device and you can unload the
+ module.
+ Check out the latest script (available on
+4. How do you use it?
+ Once your script is properly set up, you should just be able to start it
+ and everything should go like clockwork. Of course things aren't always
+ that easy out of the box.
+ Check out (in the kernel source tree) include/linux/suspend2.h for
+ settings you can use to get detailed information about what suspend is doing.
+ The kernel parameters suspend_act, suspend_dbg and suspend_lvl allow you to
+ set the action and debugging parameters prior to starting a suspend and/or
+ at the lilo prompt before resuming. There is also a nice little program that
+ should be available from which makes it easier to turn these
+ debugging settings on and off. Note that to get any debugging output, you
+ need to enable CONFIG_PM_DEBUG when compiling the kernel.
+ A neat feature of Suspend2 is that you can press Escape at any time
+ during suspending, and the process will be aborted.
+ Due to the way suspend works, this means you'll have your system back and
+ perfectly usable almost instantly. The only exception is when it's at
+ the very end of writing the image. Then it will need to reload a small
+ (usually 4-50MBs, depending upon the image characteristics) portion first.
+ If you run into problems with resuming, adding the "noresume2" option to
+ the kernel command line will let you skip the resume step and recover your
+ system.
+5. What do all those entries in /proc/software_suspend do?
+ /proc/software_suspend is the directory which contains files you can use to
+ tune and configure Suspend2 to your liking. The exact contents of
+ the directory will depend upon the version of Suspend2 you're
+ running and the options you selected at compile time. In the following
+ descriptions, names in brackets refer to compile time options.
+ (Note that they're all dependant upon you having selected CONFIG_SUSPEND2
+ in the first place!)
+ Since the values of these settings can open potential security risks, they
+ are usually accessible only to the root user. You can, however, enable a
+ compile time option which makes all of these files world-accessible. This
+ should only be done if you trust everyone with shell access to this
+ computer!
+ - all_settings:
+ This file provides a convenient way to save and restore all of the other
+ settings in one hit. The contents include binary data, so you'll want to
+ redirect the output to a file:
+ cat /proc/software_suspend/all_settings > /etc/hibernate/all_settings.conf
+ cat /etc/hibernate/all_settings.conf > /proc/software_suspend/all_settings
+ - debug_info:
+ This file returns information about your configuration that may be helpful
+ in diagnosing problems with suspending.
+ - debug_sections (CONFIG_PM_DEBUG):
+ This value, together with the console log level, controls what debugging
+ information is displayed. The console log level determines the level of
+ detail, and this value determines what detail is displayed. This value is
+ a bit vector, and the meaning of the bits can be found in the kernel tree
+ in include/linux/suspend2.h. It can be overridden using the kernel's
+ command line option suspend_dbg.
+ - default_console_level (CONFIG_PM_DEBUG):
+ This determines the value of the console log level at the start of a
+ suspend cycle. If debugging is compiled in, the console log level can be
+ changed during a cycle by pressing the digit keys. Meanings are:
+ 0: Nice display.
+ 1: Nice display plus numerical progress.
+ 2: Errors only.
+ 3: Low level debugging info.
+ 4: Medium level debugging info.
+ 5: High level debugging info.
+ 6: Verbose debugging info.
+ This value can be overridden using the kernel command line option
+ suspend_lvl.
+ - disable_*
+ This option can be used to temporarily disable various parts of suspend.
+ Note that these flags can be set by restoring all_settings: If the saved
+ settings don't include any information about how a part of suspend should
+ be configured, that section will be disabled.
+ - do_resume:
+ When anything is written to this file suspend will attempt to read and
+ restore an image. If there is no image, it will return almost immediately.
+ If an image exists, the echo > will never return. Instead, the original
+ kernel context will be restored and the original echo > do_suspend will
+ return.
+ - do_suspend:
+ When anything is written to this file, the kernel side of Suspend2 will
+ begin to attempt to write an image to disk and power down. You'll normally
+ want to run the hibernate script instead, to get modules unloaded first.
+ - enable_escape:
+ Setting this to "1" will enable you abort a suspend by
+ pressing escape, "0" (default) disables this feature. Note that enabling
+ this option means that you cannot initiate a suspend and then walk away
+ from your computer, expecting it to be secure. With feature disabled,
+ you can validly have this expectation once Suspend begins to write the
+ image to disk. (Prior to this point, it is possible that Suspend might
+ about because of failure to freeze all processes or because constraints
+ on its ability to save the image are not met).
+ - expected_compression:
+ These values allow you to set an expected compression ratio, which Software
+ Suspend will use in calculating whether it meets constraints on the image
+ size. If this expected compression ratio is not attained, the suspend will
+ abort, so it is wise to allow some spare. You can see what compression
+ ratio is achieved in the logs after suspending.
+ - filewriter_target:
+ Read this value to get the current setting. Write to it to point Suspend
+ at a new storage location for the filewriter. See above for details of how
+ to set up the filewriter.
+ - header_locations:
+ This option tells you the resume2= options to use for swap devices you
+ currently have activated. It is particularly useful when you only want to
+ use a swap file to store your image. See above for further details.
+ - image_exists:
+ Can be used in a script to determine whether a valid image exists at the
+ location currently pointed to by resume2=. Echoing anything to this entry
+ removes any current image.
+ - image_size_limit:
+ The maximum size of suspend image written to disk, measured in megabytes
+ (1024*1024).
+ - interface_version:
+ The value returned by this file can be used by scripts and configuration
+ tools to determine what entries should be looked for. The value is
+ incremented whenever an entry in /proc/software_suspend is obsoleted or
+ added.
+ - last_result:
+ The result of the last suspend, as defined in
+ include/linux/suspend-debug.h with the values SUSPEND_ABORTED to
+ SUSPEND_KEPT_IMAGE. This is a bitmask.
+ - log_everything (CONFIG_PM_DEBUG):
+ Setting this option results in all messages printed being logged. Normally,
+ only a subset are logged, so as to not slow the process and not clutter the
+ logs. Useful for debugging. It can be toggled during a cycle by pressing
+ 'L'.
+ - pause_between_steps (CONFIG_PM_DEBUG):
+ This option is used during debugging, to make Suspend2 pause between
+ each step of the process. It is ignored when the nice display is on.
+ - powerdown_method:
+ Used to select a method by which Suspend2 should powerdown after writing the
+ image. Currently:
+ 3: Attempt to enter Suspend-to-ram.
+ 4: Attempt to enter ACPI S4 mode.
+ 5: Normal power down.
+ Note that these options are highly dependant upon your hardware & software.
+ - progressbar_granularity_limit:
+ This option can be used to limit the granularity of the progress bar
+ displayed with a bootsplash screen. The value is the maximum number of
+ steps. That is, 10 will make the progress bar jump in 10% increments.
+ - reboot:
+ This option causes Suspend2 to reboot rather than powering down
+ at the end of saving an image. It can be toggled during a cycle by pressing
+ 'R'.
+ - resume_commandline:
+ This entry can be read after resuming to see the commandline that was used
+ when resuming began. You might use this to set up two bootloader entries
+ that are the same apart from the fact that one includes a extra append=
+ argument "at_work=1". You could then grep resume_commandline in your
+ post-resume scripts and configure networking (for example) differently
+ depending upon whether you're at home or work. resume_commandline can be
+ set to arbitrary text if you wish to remove sensitive contents.
+ - swapfile:
+ This entry is used to specify the swapfile or partition that
+ Suspend2 will attempt to swapon/swapoff automatically. Thus, if
+ I normally use /dev/hda1 for swap, and want to use /dev/hda2 for specifically
+ for my suspend image, I would
+ echo /dev/hda2 > /proc/software_suspend/swapfile
+ /dev/hda2 would then be automatically swapon'd and swapoff'd. Note that the
+ swapon and swapoff occur while other processes are frozen (including kswapd)
+ so this swap file will not be used up when attempting to free memory. The
+ parition/file is also given the highest priority, so other swapfiles/partitions
+ will only be used to save the image when this one is filled.
+ The value of this file is used by header_locations along with any currently
+ activated swapfiles/partitions.
+ - toggle_process_nofreeze
+ This entry can be used to toggle the NOFREEZE flag on a process, to allow it
+ to run during Suspending. It should be used with extreme caution. There are
+ strict limitations on what a process running during suspend can do. This is
+ really only intended for use by Suspend's helpers (userui in particular).
+ - userui_program
+ This entry is used to tell Suspend what userspace program to use for
+ providing a user interface while suspending. The program uses a netlink
+ socket to pass messages back and forward to the kernel, allowing all of the
+ functions formerly implemented in the kernel user interface components.
+ - version:
+ The version of suspend you have compiled into the currently running kernel.
+6. How do you get support?
+ Glad you asked. Suspend2 is being actively maintained and supported
+ by Nigel (the guy doing most of the kernel coding at the moment), Bernard
+ (who maintains the hibernate script and userspace user interface components)
+ and its users.
+ Resources availble include HowTos, FAQs and a Wiki, all available via
+ You can find the mailing lists there.
+7. I think I've found a bug. What should I do?
+ By far and a way, the most common problems people have with suspend2
+ related to drivers not having adequate power management support. In this
+ case, it is not a bug with suspend2, but we can still help you. As we
+ mentioned above, such issues can usually be worked around by building the
+ functionality as modules and unloading them while suspending. Please visit
+ the Wiki for up-to-date lists of known issues and work arounds.
+ If this information doesn't help, try running:
+ hibernate --bug-report
+ ..and sending the output to the users mailing list.
+ Good information on how to provide us with useful information from an
+ oops is found in the file REPORTING-BUGS, in the top level directory
+ of the kernel tree. If you get an oops, please especially note the
+ information about running what is printed on the screen through ksymoops.
+ The raw information is useless.
+8. When will XXX be supported?
+ Suspend2 currently lacks support for x86-64. It is work in progress, but
+ hasn't been made a great priority because debugging is difficult (Nigel
+ doesn't have access to the hardware). 64GB Highmem and discontig-mem are
+ also not supported at the moment.
+ Patches for the other items (and anything that's been missed) are welcome.
+ Please send to the list.
+9. How does it work?
+ Suspend2 does its work in a number of steps.
+ a. Freezing system activity.
+ The first main stage in suspending is to stop all other activity. This is
+ achieved in stages. Processes are considered in fours groups, which we will
+ describe in reverse order for clarity's sake: Threads with the PF_NOFREEZE
+ flag, kernel threads without this flag, userspace processes with the
+ PF_SYNCTHREAD flag and all other processes. The first set (PF_NOFREEZE) are
+ untouched by the refrigerator code. They are allowed to run during suspending
+ and resuming, and are used to support user interaction, storage access or the
+ like. Other kernel threads (those unneeded while suspending) are frozen last.
+ This leaves us with userspace processes that need to be frozen. When a
+ process enters one of the *_sync system calls, we set a PF_SYNCTHREAD flag on
+ that process for the duration of that call. Processes that have this flag are
+ frozen after processes without it, so that we can seek to ensure that dirty
+ data is synced to disk as quickly as possible in a situation where other
+ processes may be submitting writes at the same time. Freezing the processes
+ that are submitting data stops new I/O from being submitted. Syncthreads can
+ then cleanly finish their work. So the order is:
+ - Userspace processes without PF_SYNCTHREAD or PF_NOFREEZE;
+ - Userspace processes with PF_SYNCTHREAD (they won't have NOFREEZE);
+ - Kernel processes without PF_NOFREEZE.
+ b. Eating memory.
+ For a successful suspend, you need to have enough disk space to store the
+ image and enough memory for the various limitations of Suspend2's
+ algorithm. You can also specify a maximum image size. In order to attain
+ to those constraints, Suspend2 may 'eat' memory. If, after freezing
+ processes, the constraints aren't met, Suspend2 will thaw all the
+ other processes and begin to eat memory until its calculations indicate
+ the constraints are met. It will then freeze processes again and recheck
+ its calculations.
+ c. Allocation of storage.
+ Next, Suspend2 allocates the storage that will be used to save
+ the image.
+ The core of Suspend2 knows nothing about how or where pages are stored. We
+ therefore request the active writer (remember you might have compiled in
+ more than one!) to allocate enough storage for our expect image size. If
+ this request cannot be fulfilled, we eat more memory and try again. If it
+ is fulfiled, we seek to allocate additional storage, just in case our
+ expected compression ratio (if any) isn't achieved. This time, however, we
+ just continue if we can't allocate enough storage.
+ If these calls to our writer change the characteristics of the image such
+ that we haven't allocated enough memory, we also loop. (The writer may well
+ need to allocate space for its storage information).
+ d. Write the first part of the image.
+ Suspend2 stores the image in two sets of pages called 'pagesets'.
+ Pageset 2 contains pages on the active and inactive lists; essentially
+ the page cache. Pageset 1 contains all other pages, including the kernel.
+ We use two pagesets for one important reason: We need to make an atomic copy
+ of the kernel to ensure consistency of the image. Without a second pageset,
+ that would limit us to an image that was at most half the amount of memory
+ available. Using two pagesets allows us to store a full image. Since pageset
+ 2 pages won't be needed in saving pageset 1, we first save pageset 2 pages.
+ We can then make our atomic copy of the remaining pages using both pageset 2
+ pages and any other pages that are free. While saving both pagesets, we are
+ careful not to corrupt the image. Among other things, we use lowlevel block
+ I/O routines that don't change the pagecache contents.
+ The next step, then, is writing pageset 2.
+ e. Suspending drivers and storing processor context.
+ Having written pageset2, Suspend2 calls the power management functions to
+ notify drivers of the suspend, and saves the processor state in preparation
+ for the atomic copy of memory we are about to make.
+ f. Atomic copy.
+ At this stage, everything else but the Suspend2 code is halted. Processes
+ are frozen or idling, drivers are quiesced and have stored (ideally and where
+ necessary) their configuration in memory we are about to atomically copy.
+ In our lowlevel architecture specific code, we have saved the CPU state.
+ We can therefore now do our atomic copy before resuming drivers etc.
+ g. Save the atomic copy (pageset 1).
+ Suspend can then write the atomic copy of the remaining pages. Since we
+ have copied the pages into other locations, we can continue to use the
+ normal block I/O routines without fear of corruption our image.
+ f. Save the suspend header.
+ Nearly there! We save our settings and other parameters needed for
+ reloading pageset 1 in a 'suspend header'. We also tell our writer to
+ serialise its data at this stage, so that it can reread the image at resume
+ time. Note that the writer can write this data in any format - in the case
+ of the swapwriter, for example, it splits header pages in 4092 byte blocks,
+ using the last four bytes to link pages of data together. This is completely
+ transparent to the core.
+ g. Set the image header.
+ Finally, we edit the header at our resume2= location. The signature is
+ changed by the writer to reflect the fact that an image exists, and to point
+ to the start of that data if necessary (swapwriter).
+ h. Power down.
+ Or reboot if we're debugging and the appropriate option is selected.
+ Whew!
+ Reloading the image.
+ --------------------
+ Reloading the image is essentially the reverse of all the above. We load
+ our copy of pageset 1, being careful to choose locations that aren't going
+ to be overwritten as we copy it back (We start very early in the boot
+ process, so there are no other processes to quiesce here). We then copy
+ pageset 1 back to its original location in memory and restore the process
+ context. We are now running with the original kernel. Next, we reload the
+ pageset 2 pages, free the memory and swap used by Suspend2, restore
+ the pageset header and restart processes. Sounds easy in comparison to
+ suspending, doesn't it!
+ There is of course more to Suspend2 than this, but this explanation
+ should be a good start. If there's interest, I'll write further
+ documentation on range pages and the low level I/O.
+10. Who wrote Suspend2?
+ (Answer based on the writings of Florent Chabaud, credits in files and
+ Nigel's limited knowledge; apologies to anyone missed out!)
+ The main developers of Suspend2 have been...
+ Gabor Kuti
+ Pavel Machek
+ Florent Chabaud
+ Bernard Blackham
+ Nigel Cunningham
+ They have been aided in their efforts by a host of hundreds, if not thousands
+ of testers and people who have submitted bug fixes & suggestions. Of special
+ note are the efforts of Michael Frank, who had his computers repetitively
+ suspend and resume for literally tens of thousands of cycles and developed
+ scripts to stress the system and test Suspend2 far beyond the point
+ most of us (Nigel included!) would consider testing. His efforts have
+ contributed as much to Suspend2 as any of the names above.
diff -ruNp 550-documentation.patch-old/Documentation/power/todo.txt 550-documentation.patch-new/Documentation/power/todo.txt
--- 550-documentation.patch-old/Documentation/power/todo.txt 1970-01-01 10:00:00.000000000 +1000
+++ 550-documentation.patch-new/Documentation/power/todo.txt 2005-07-05 23:44:36.000000000 +1000
@@ -0,0 +1,12 @@
+Suspend2 todo list
+ known issues:
+ ----------------
+- NFS support missing
+- DRI support for 2.4 & 2.6
+- USB support under 2.4 and 2.6
+- Incomplete support in other drivers
+- No support for discontig memory
+- Currently requires PSE extension (/proc/cpuinfo)
+- Highmem >4GB not supported
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